Organized mill sector (1997) Spinning mills (SSI and Non SSI) 1500 Composite mills 284 No. of mills closed 349 Huge growth in spindle capacity 1951: 11 milion 1997: 33 million Decline in weaving capacity 1951: 2.1 million 1997: 1.24 million
Problems High interest rates of lending poor quality, insufficient availability and high tariff of power infrastructure inadequacies labour indiscipline
upgrade competitiveness to the international standards mills can withstand competition from imports. in most of the successful textiles producing nations like South Korea and Taiwan, it is the organized sector (mill sector) that plays a pivotal role in creating a brand name for the industry. (GoI) has launched Technology Mission on Cotton (TMC) to improve productivity and quality of cotton, technology upgradation fund scheme (TUFS) (Initial period 1999-2004) Measures taken by GOI
Decentralized sector Features Ease of entry reliance on indigenous resources, family ownership, small scale operation, labour intensive technology, skills acquired outside the formal school system, unregulated and competitive markets. Problems lack of technical competence, poor quality products, low labour productivity. GOI help Involvement of local agencies in planning Marketing support
Handloom sector Handlooms are a part of Indian heritage, they exemplify the richness and diversity of culture and hence the artistry of the weavers. Purchase of yarn from mill,. weaving on Handloom No. of looms 3900000 Employment 300,000? weavers Through out urban and rural areas of the country Cloth production 20% of total cloth produced in the country Able to withstand competiton from powerloom
Wave of ethnic revivalism effective state intervention through financial assistance implementation of various developmental schemes have brought about more than ten fold increase in the production of handloom fabrics. enjoying the benefits of reservation of certain fabric varieties, subsidies on raw materials and rebates on the prices of fabrics sold. The developmental programmes is aimed towards employment generation, modernization and upgradation of technology, market support, welfare measures publicity. In all the schemes emphasis has been laid on assisting handloom weavers directly, including upgradation of their skills etc. Handloom survival
Powerloom sector Weaving on power operated looms Differentiated from organized mill sector on the basis of fragmented decentralized operation on small scale Statistics No. of looms 16,00000 Employment 70,00000 Market share 70% of total cloth production Export 60% of total value
Powerloom Features combination of traditional art and contemporary modern designs. The modernisation process undertaken by this industry has widened the scope of products such as grey, printed and dyed fabrics and cotton made-ups in a variety of sophisticated finishes and in a wide range of widths and sizes. the industry is now in a position to offer fabrics not only of cottons but also of rich blends of cotton, synthetics and other fibers. The process of economic liberalisation has enabled the industry to become globally competitive, not only in terms of price, but also in relation to quality and productivity
Powerloom Problems lower levels of technological sophistication. the growth has been stunted by technological obsolescence, fragmented structure, low productivity low-end quality products. GOI help focussing towards technology upgradation, modernisation of service centres, testing facilities clustering of facilities to achieve optimum levels of production
Cloth production share
Khadi Feature Hand spinning, hand weaving Hand Spinning equipment Charkha Most popular Charkha: Amber Charkha or New model charkha (NMC) Downsized version of Ring spinning Employment 1400000 Production 0.4% of total cloth production Enjoys GOI support through KVIC under Ministry of Agro Rural Industries Problems Technologically most deprived sector
Hosiery Sector Knitting Knitwears Concentration Wool and synthetic Ludhiana (Punjab) Cotton Titupur (Tamil Nadu) Features small-scale industry and labour intensive. Its growth accelerated during the last decade, primarily because of expansion of hosiery into global fashion knitwear, it is expected to expand into the apparel and home furnishing sectors. This sector shares about 18% of total production of cloth. The industry mainly produces T-shirts, cardigans, jerseys, pullovers, polo shirts, and outer garments for men and women. GOI help focussing towards technology upgradation expansion of capacity introduction of support systems for commercial intelligence, design and fashion inputs
Cloth production in different sectors
Chemical wet processing Involves Preparatory processing Desizing, scouring, bleaching, mercerization, silk degumming, wool scouring etc. Dyeing Printing Finishing Processing forms Fibre Yarn Fabric Garments
Sector Organized Unorganized Highly fragmented Large number of small units
Probblems Unorganized processing units Small size compared to international standards Smaller (Particularly garment processing) than in some of neighbouring countries Weakest link in textile manufacture Technology obsolescence lack process standardizations Lack of technical manpower Use of non eco friendly chemicals Release of effluents without treatment Environment pollution Large water consumption Water pollution major concern.
Garment manufacturing This sector is of recent origin and has grown predominantly on the basis of export demands. Initially it was reserved for small scale sector. However it is now open to organized sector and many big players have entered into garment manufacturing. compared to mill sector the garment manufacturing sector is growing fast. It provided employment, value addition and major earning in foreign exchange through exports
Per capita cloth availability Total cloth production (Mill, powerloom, handloom,khadi, hosiery) 4.3 billion Sq. M World average?
ITI share in exports 1999-2000
SSI and Cleaner production technologies SSI main source of Environment pollution large number of SSI practice old-age technologies unskilled labour force. Apart from this technological obsolescence No quality standards no information about ongoing environmental impacts of their production steps. lack of awareness of market orientation in global trade Every process from raw material preparation to spinning and weaving upto finishing processes are contributing cumulatively to environmental problems.
The GoI is formulating many policies and schemes for the upgradation of the industry to meet market requirements. The initiative of the government is seen mainly towards funding. there is a great need of educating unskilled labour of small and tiny units clustered in remote areas of the country.