Green Designs R.B.CHAVAN Department of Textile Technology Indian Institute of Technology Hauz-khas, New Delhi 110016 E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Green Designs Designing with eco-friendly textiles
Environment awareness in India Environment control agencies Ministry of Environment and Forests Assisted by Central pollution control board State pollution control boards
Stringent environment rules and regulations on Paper Very Poorly applied in practice Result Environment pollution
Environment Effect of day to day activities and all manufacturing activities on Water Air Noise level Human being Aquatic life Plants Earth etc.
Background German Ban Ban on export of textiles dyed with dyes containing carcinogenic amines Introduced in 1992 Implemented in india April 1996
Extended list of banned chemicals Pesticides Formaldehyde Chlorine bleaching agents Heavy metals like chromium Chlorinated stain removers Pentachlorophenol
<ul><li>PRESENT CONCEPT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>POLLUTERS MUST PAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CRADLE TO GRAVE OR WOMB TO TOMB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT ONLY FINAL PRODUCT BE ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAW MATERIALS, PRODUCTION PROCESSES, PACKAGING, ECO FRIENDLY EVEN AFTER DIPOSAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MEET EMS 14000 AND SAS 8000 STANDARDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTS INDENTIFIED BY ECO LABLES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GREEN MINDED CONSUMER PREFER ECO PRODUCTS EVEN AT HIGH COST </li></ul>
<ul><li>USER AND DISPOSAL ECOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>USER ECOLOGY REFERS TO </li></ul><ul><li>AESTHETICS </li></ul><ul><li>PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS OF TEXTILES ON HUMAN BODY. </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSAL ECOLOGY REFERS TO </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSAL OF TEXTILES AFTER USE </li></ul><ul><li>RECYCLING, </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOSTING, </li></ul><ul><li>DUMPING, </li></ul><ul><li>INCINERATION </li></ul><ul><li>LEAST POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT . </li></ul>
<ul><li>PRODUCTION ECOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>COMPRISES OF </li></ul><ul><li>CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING OF NATURAL FIBRES </li></ul><ul><li>THE MANUFACTURE OF REGENERATED AND SYNTHETIC FIBRES </li></ul><ul><li>SPINNING, WEAVING, KNITTING </li></ul><ul><li>TEXTILE CHEMICAL PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>GARMENT MANUFACTURE </li></ul><ul><li>PACKING </li></ul>
<ul><li>ECO FIBRES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL COTTON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL COTTON IS NOT ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE OF FERTILIZERS, PESTICIDES AND VARIOUS CROPS RELATED CHEMICALS DURING COTTON CULTIVATION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INHALATION DURING HANDLING AND SPRAY APPLICATION- HEALTH HAZARDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENCE OF THESE CHEMICALS AS RESIDUE ON COTTON BOLLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WASHED AWAY DURING PREPARATORY PROCESSES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WATER POLLUTION </li></ul></ul>
Major Cotton Pesticides and Herbicides Birds, bees, crustaceans, & fish. Mutations. Ethephon Aquatic insects, birds, & fish Cancer, reproductive damage, tumors Dicofol Bees, birds, crustaceans, & fish. Birth defects, cancer. Cyanazine Bees, birds, crustaceans,&mollusks Brain and fetal damage, impotence, sterility. Chlorpynfos Environ. Toxicity Human Toxicity Chemical Name
Major Cotton Pesticides and Herbicides Environ. Toxicity Human Toxicity Chemical Name Bees, birds, crustaceans, fish, & mollusks. Bone marrow, kidney, liver, testicular damage. Prometryn Birds, bees, & fish. Eye damage, skin irritant. Profenofos Birds, bees, crustaceans, & fish. Birth defects, fetal damage, reproductive & immune system. Methyl Parathion Bees & fish. Birth defects, fetal damage, mutations Metam Sodium
It takes one pound of chemical fertilizers and pesticides to conventionally grow the three pounds of cotton needed to make a T-shirt and a pair of jeans.
beneath cotton's natural fiber lies a long chain of chemically-intensive, "unnatural" processes. To bring this delicate plant to harvest, it is heavily sprayed - 8 to 10 times a season - with pesticides so poisonous they gradually render fields barren. And that's just the beginning. To create finished goods, fabrics are often colored with toxic dyes and finished with formaldehyde . Need for organic cotton
Organic food now symbolizes the highest and freshest quality available. Suppliers of organic cotton are not far behind. If we are really concerned about environmental issues today, our ideas of excellent product design must include impact on the earth.
<ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON CULTIVATED WITHOUT USING FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS ORGANIC cotton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDENTIFIED BY LOGOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIC COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GREEN COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul>ECO FRIENDLY COTTON
Organic cotton certification INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION FOR ORGANIC AGRICULTURE MOVEMENT [IFOAM] has formulated standards and guidelines for organic cotton cultivation and are followed by many labelling agencies to certify organic cotton and other farm produce.
Merits of organic cotton cultivation Environmentally Friendly Technology Reduction in Cost of Cultivation Management of Insecticide Resistance
Organic cotton in India Five to seven decades ago, most of the cotton cultivated in the country was ‘eco-friendly’ with little or no use of toxic chemicals in its production. Even today, there are many pockets in India, where it is produced without the use of agrochemicals, e.g., areas growing Wagad cotton in Gujarat, Y-1 desi cotton of Khandesh region of Maharashtra, Maljari in Madhya Pradesh, part of areas growing Jayadhar and Suyodhar in Karnataka Nandicum in Andhra Pradesh and parts of cotton areas in north eastern hill region.
Vidarbha organic farmers Association(VOFA 1993 Visit of Envirnmental Protection Encouragement Agency (EPEA) Hamburg Germany to Central Cotton Research Institute, (CICR) Nagpur EPEA confirmed organic cotton in Vidarbha <ul><li>1994 Organization of 135 farmers from five districts Nagpur, Wardha, </li></ul><ul><li>Yavatmal, Amravati and Akola </li></ul><ul><li>1995 commitment of 12,00 hectares land for organic cotton cultivation </li></ul>1995 Formation of Vidarbha Organic Farmers Association 1996 Bumper crop of organic cotton
Present status of VOFA 205 Members 90 Practicing organic farmers 3500 Acres area under organic cotton farming Purchaser: Fare Trade Company Japan
Maikaal bioRe Ltd. Madhya Pradesh Maikaal bioRe Ltd, which claims to be the largest organic cotton venture in the world, in Bheelaon, Madhya Pradesh has over 1,000 farmers involved in organic cotton production The production of organic cotton started in 1991 as a private initiative of Mrigendra Jalan, Managing Director of the spinning mill, Maikaal Fibres Ltd, and <ul><li>Patrick Hohmann, Managing Director of the Swiss cotton yarn trading company, Remei AG </li></ul>
Organic cotton production in India 14-15 lakh bales of uncertified organc cotton (Cotton corporation of India) Estimated certified organic cotton 1000 Total world production 8150 15% of total world production 37% Asian countries production
NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON COTTON THAT GROWS WITH NATURAL COLOURS DURING CULTIVATION BOTH WHITE AND COLOURED COTTONS KNOWN SINCE TIME IMEMORIAL IN INDIA
NON POPULARITY OF COLOURED COTTON LOW YIELD SEED AVAILABILITY LOW FINENESS, LOW STAPLE LENGTH LOW STRENGTH POOR SPINNABILITY LOW YARN AND FABRIC QUALITY LIMITED COLOUR RANGE CONTAMINATION OF WHITE COTTON
ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION WAVE IMPETUS TO THE CULTIVATION OF NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON SHADES PISTA GREEN AND ALMOND BROWN MOST COMMON OTHER SHADES CREAM PINK MAUVE COUNTRIES INDIA USA ISRAEL CHINA PERU
IMPORTANT ASPECTS EARLIER LOW FIBRE LENGTH, POOR SPINNABILITY YARN SPINNING OF 10 TO 12s COUNT RESEARCH INPUTS IMPROVED FIBRE QUALITY POSSIBLE TO SPIN YARNS OF 30 AND 40s COUNT SUITABLE FOR WEAVING AND KNITTING IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS GREEN VARIETY TURNS BROWN IF NOT HARVESTED ON RIPENING BROWN VARIETY DARKENS WITH AGE AND EXPOSURE TO LIGHT GREEN AND BRWON DARKEN ON LAUNDERING NOT FAST TO BLEACHING
COTTON CORPORATION OF INDIA AND CENTRAL COTTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAGPUR 1996-97 INVESTMENT Rs. 80 LAKHS CULTIVATION OF COLOURED COTTON AT KHANDWA, MADHYA PRADESH DHARWAD, KARNATAKA PROJECT DID NOT SUCEED DUE TO POOR MARKET RESPONSE DEMAND OF HIGH PRICE BY FARMERS MAJOR PROBLEM CONTAMINATION OF WHITE COTTON FIELDS NECESSARY TO HAVE SEPARATE AREA FOR COLOUR COTTON CULTIVATION
MEANS TO OVERCOME TECHNICAL PROBLEMS LOW STRENGTH AND POOR SPINNABILITY BLENDING 30-50% OF WHITE COTTON WITH COLOURED COTTON CHANGE OF SHADE ON LAUNDERING ON LAUNDERING SHADE BECOMES DEEPER ALKALINE SCOURING STABILIZES THE SHADE CHANGE POOR BLEACHING FASTNESS DO NOT BLEACH
Rocklea spinning Mills in collaboration with Australian farmers introduced range of yarns from brown and green varieties of cotton Blending of coloured cotton with white cotton in diffferent proporations produce shade varieties Australia
<ul><li>NATIVE COLOUR COTTON PROJECT PERU </li></ul><ul><li>COMMENCED IN 1984 TO DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY TO SUPPORT INDIGENOUS FARMERS AND TRADITIONAL ARTISANS </li></ul><ul><li>15000 FARDMERS CULTIVATE COLOURED COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>50000 WOMEN INVOLVED IN TRADITIONAL HAND SPINNING AND HAND WEAVING </li></ul><ul><li>COLOURED COTTON IS PRODUCED WITHOUT THE USE OF SYNTHETIC FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES </li></ul>
SIX PRINCIPLE COLOUR VARIETIES CREAM Pista green MEDIUM BROWN REDDISH BROWN CHOCOLATE BROWN MAUVE Brown verities possess anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties COFFEE FILTERS MADE FROM CERTIFIED ORGANIC COLOURED COTTON FREE FROM PESTIFCIDES, BLEACHES AND SYNTHETIC COLOURS Natural coloured yarns and fabrics are certified by SKAL, Dutch certifying agency
COTTON CLOTHES in naturally occurring colors are produced in Peru
Sally Fox introduced to colored cotton while working for a cotton breeder, whose focus was developing pest-resistant strains of cotton. The peoples of Central and South America had spun these strains for centuries, but the fiber qualities were not sufficient for modern machine spinning.
Sally Fox in 1982 took on the challenge of improving an ancient agricultural art. Fox successfully bred and marketed varieties of naturally coloured cotton she calls FoxFiber ®. Today, Sally Fox designs fabrics with her cotton and continues research. Fox has received a patent and three Plant Variety Protection Certificates for her naturally colored cottons which, in addition to browns, she now grows in reds and greens. Her invention has been so popular it has sprouted two successful companies -- Vreseis, Ltd. and Natural Cotton Colours, both operating in Arizona.
CLASSIFICATION OF NATURAL DYES PLANT (VEGETABLE) INSECTS (ANIMAL) MINERAL ANNATO COCHINEAL COLOURED ROCKS, ORES
ECO LABELS Eco-labels are product labels that inform consumers about the environmental impact of a product. They encourage producers to switch to environmentally sound production process methods (PPMs) for advantage in the marketplace. Eco-labels allow producers to differentiate their products from products that are less environmentally friendly and thus to reach environmentally conscious consumers.
ECO LABEL CRITERIA ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLINESS OF THE ENTIRE LIFE CYCLE OF THE PRODUCT CRADLE TO GRAVE ASSESSMENT 1. Production of raw materials 2. Production of the end product 3. Packaging and transport of raw materials and the finished product 4. Use of the product by companies and consumers 5. Disposal of the product e.g. assessment of a T-shirt starts in the cotton field and ends in the incineration plant .
<ul><li>ECO LABEL CRITERIA </li></ul><ul><li>As little use as possible of chemical substances harmful to the environment </li></ul><ul><li>No or very few heavy metals in the product </li></ul><ul><li>Energy conservation during production and use </li></ul><ul><li>The lowest possible amounts of harmful substances in wastewater </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements which ensure that the product works well and will last long </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for recycling/reuse </li></ul>
Republic of China–Taiwan Green Mark Thailand (Thai Green Label Korea Environmental Labelling Japan Eco Mark India Eco Mark Australia/New Zealand Environmental Choice European Union Eco-label “Flower” scheme
Nordic Countries (Nordic Swan ) Austrian Eco-label Croatia (Environmental Label ) Netherland Ecolabel Foundation
COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES <ul><li>ECO FRIENDLY FIBRES </li></ul><ul><li>Organic cotton cultivation in several parts of india </li></ul><ul><li>Maikal fabrics organic cotton in mp </li></ul><ul><li>Bhai carsondas mumbai, techno textiles pvt. ltd, new delhi have taken up a project for cultivation of coloured cotton. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
ECO FRIENDLY APPARELS <ul><li>Alps Textiles, Ghaziabad: Produce vegetable dyes and fabrics dyed with vegetable dyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reymonds : Green shops in most big cities. Products are free from banned dyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Arvind Mills : Eco-friendly denim using pesticide free cotton. Trade mark-Ecologically optimized fabric (EOF) issued by Eco-Tex, Germany. Specialized environmental stores in Switzerland like Globus and Jumoli are marketing arvind Mills EOF denim. Arvind mills also have plans to introduce EOF denim in U>S and European markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Coats Viyella : Astra brand sewing threads, free from carcinogenic dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Century Mills : Cool cotton and Eco-friendly fabrics and garments. Also developed eco-friendly process for dyeing of cotton with Sulphur dyes. </li></ul>
EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA <ul><li>Regulatory Measures </li></ul><ul><li> Prohibition on the use of carcinogenic azo dyes </li></ul><ul><li>· Evolution of eco standards and logo for eco-friendly textiles . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental Efforts </li></ul><ul><li> Organization of educative seminars, workshops and camps to inculcate the eco-friendly concepts among the industry and consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>· Assistance to be provided by Textile Research Associations and Textile Committee to textile units for securing </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 9000 Quality System Certification and </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 14000 Environment Management System Certification. </li></ul><ul><li>· Technology upgradation fund (TUF), for modernization of textile industry </li></ul><ul><li>· setting of eco testing laboratories on all India basis </li></ul>