Fibre  to garments overview
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Fibre to garments overview Presentation Transcript

  • 1. AN OVERVIEW OF PROCESSES INVOLVED IN THE CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO GARMENTS Prof. R. B. CHAVAN Former Professor, I I T Delhi, Consultant, Mahatma Gandhi Inst. of Rural Ind. Wardha E-mail rbchavan@hotmail.com
  • 2. CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE FIBRES
      • Natural Synthetic Regenerated
      • Vegetable Animal
      • Polyester Viscose Rayon
      • Cotton Silk Nylon
      • Jute Wool Acrylic
  • 3. Natural fibres
    • Cellulosic fibres
    • Seed hairs: Cotton, Kapok
    • Bast fibres: Flax, Ramie, Hemp, Jute, Sunn, Kenaf
    • Leaf fibres: Abaca, Pineapple, Sisal (Agave), Palm
    • Fruit: Coir
    • Mineral: Asbestos
  • 4. Natural Protein fibres
    • Animal hair fibres
    • Wool (Sheep)
    • Speciality hair fibres: Alpaca, Camel, Cashmere, Mohair (Angora Goat),
    • Fur fibres: Mink, Muskrat, Rabbit
    • Animal Secretion
    • Silk fibre: Mulberry, Tussar, Moga, Erie
    • Spider silk
  • 5. Regenerated natural fibres
    • Rayon
    • Cuprammonium
    • Viscose: Regular, high tenacity, high wet modulus, hollow fibres, polynosic, lyocell
    • Acetate: Secondary acetate, Tri acetate
    • Regenerated Protein: Casein, Zein, Peanut, Soyabean
    • Miscellaneous: alginate
  • 6. Synthetic fibres
    • Condensation polymers
    • Polyamide
    • Nylon 6, 66, 11
    • Aramide : Quiana, Kevlar, Nomex
    • Polyester
    • Aromatic: Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
    • Aliphatic Poly lactic acid (PLA)
    • Addition polymers
    • Acrylic, modacrylic
    • Olehene fibres: Polyethylene, polypropelene
    • Saran
    • Vinal
    • Vinyon
  • 7.
    • Fibre Yarn Fabric
    • Garment or other ready made forms.
    STEPS INVOLVED IN CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO GARMENT MAJOR STEPS
  • 8. TYPES OF YARN
    • STAPLE YARN
    • FILAMENT YARN
    STAPLE YARN COTTON WOOL JUTE ACRYLIC CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO YARN FILAMENT YARN SILK SYNTHETIC DIRECT YARN PRODUCTION FROM RAW MATERIALS
  • 9. CONVERSION OF FIBRE TO STAPLE YARN EXAMPLE COTTON PRE-SPINNING PROCESSES SPINNING PROCESS PRE-SPINNING PROCESSES GINNING BALE FORMATION TRANSPORTATION TO TEXTILE MILLS OPENING LAP MAKING CARDING SLIVER MAKING ROVING MAKING PRINCIPLE STRETCHING OF FIBRES ARRANGING THE FIBRES PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER
  • 10. PR-SPINNING MACHINES GINNING BALE MAKING OPENER LAP MAKING CARDING DRAWING FRAME SPEED FRAME SPINNING MACHINES SMALL SCALE SPINNING CHARKHA LARGE SCALE SPINNING RING SPINNING MACHINE
  • 11. WEAVING CONVERSION OF YARN TO FABRIC INTERLACEMENT OF YARN IN SPECIFIC WAY IN TWO DIRECTION (WIDTH WISE AND LENGTHWISE) LENGTH DIRECTION WARP WIDTH DIRECTION WEFT
  • 12. WEAVING MACHINES LOOMS MANUALLY OPERATED LOOMS ELECTRICALY OPERATED LOOMS MANUAL LOOMS KNOWN AS HANDLOOMS FRAME LOOM PIT LOOM SEMI-AUTOMATIC LOOMS ELECTRICALLY OPERATED LOOMS KNOWN AS POWER LOOMS DIFFERENT TYPES LIKE SIMPLE POWERLOOM AIR JET LOOM RAPIER LOOM WATER JET LOOM
  • 13. LOOMS FOR PRODUCING DESIGNED FABRIC DOBBY LOOM JACQUARD LOOM AVAILABLE BOTH IN MANUAL AND ELECTRICAL CATEGORY
  • 14. KNITTING INTERLACEMENT OF SINGLE YARN WARP DIRECTION: WARP KNITTING WEFT DIRECTION: WEFT KNITTING MACHINES WARP KNITTING MACHINES WEFT KNITTING MACHINES
  • 15. CHEMICAL PROCESSING VALUE ADDITION THROUGH PREPARATORY PROCESSES DYEING PRINTING FINISHING
  • 16. PREPARATORY PROCESSES DESIZING SCOURING BLEACHING MERCERIZATION Purpose To remove Natural and added impurities To improve the appearance of fabric To impart certain desirable properties To make it suitable for subsequent processes like dyeing, printing finishing CAN BE CARRIED OUT IN YARN FORM FABRIC FORM
  • 17. DYEING TO IMPART COLOUR UNIFORMLY ALONG THE LENGTH AND WIDTH OF FABRIC UNIFORMLY ON THE BACK AND FACE OF FABRIC DYEING CAN BE CARRIED OUT IN FIBRE FORM YARN FORM FABIC FORM
  • 18. MACHINES USED FOR DYEING FIBRE DYEING MACHINES YARN DYEING MACHINES HANK DYEING MACHINES CHEESE DYEING MACHINES CONE DYEING MACHINES FABRIC DYEING JIGGER DYEING MACHINES PADDING MANGLE WINCH DYEING MACHINE JET DYEING MACHINES
  • 19. PRINTING DYEING IN THE LOCALIZED FORM APPLICATION OF COLOUR IN THE FORM OF DESIGN ONE OR MORE THAN ONE COLOUR CAN BE APPLIED IN THE DESIGN KNOWN AS SINGLE COLOUR DESIGN MULTI COLOUR DESIGN
  • 20. DIFFERNCE BETWEEN DYEING AND PRINTING
    • DYEING
    • UNIFORM COLOURATION ALONG LENGTH AND WIDTH OF FABRIC
    • USUALLY SINGLE COLOUR IS POSSIBLE.
    • NO DIFFERENCE IN COLOUR BETWEEN FRONT AND BACK SIDE OF FABRIC
    • AQUEOUS DYEING MEDIUM OF LOW VISCOSITY
    • DYEING IN BATCHWISE, CONTINUOUS OR SEMI-CONTINUOUS METHOD.
    • FABRIC DYEING IN OPEN WIDTH OR ROPE FORM.
    • DYEING IN FIBRE, YARN, FABRIC, GARMENT FORM
  • 21. PRINTING
    • LOCALLIZED DYEING
    • COLOUR IS APPLIED LOCALLY IN THE FORM OF DESIGN/PATTERN
    • LOW VISCOSITY MEDIUM WOULD SPREAD THE COLOUR BY CAPILLARY ACTION, DOES NOT MAINTAIN THE SHARPNESS OF THE DESIGN.
    • AQUEOUS MEDIUM OF HIGH VISCOSITY, PREVENT THE COLOUR SPREADING.
    • FABRIC PRINTING IN OPEN WIDTH FORM ONLY
    • FABRIC PRINTING IS MOST COMMON COMPARED TO YARN AND GARMENT PRINTING, EXCEPTION T-SHIRT PRINTING
  • 22. PRINTING STUDY
    • STYLES OF PRINTING
    • DIRECT STYLE
    • PRINTING OF SINGLE OR MULTICOLOURS ON WHITE OR PALE SHADE DYED FABRIC
    • RESIST STYLE
    • PREVENTION OF COLOUR FIXATION AT THE PRINTED PORTION
    • WHITE RESIST: WHITE PRINT AGAINST COLOURED BACKGROUND
    • COLOUR RESIST: COLOUR PRINT AGAINST COLOURE BACKGROUND
    • DISCHARGE STYLE
    • DESTRUCTION OF COLOUR AT THE PRINTED PORTION
    • WHITE DISCHARGE
    • COLOUR DISCHARGE
  • 23. METHODS OF PRINTING
    • BLOCK PRINTING
    • STENCIL PRINTING
    • ROLLER PRINTING
    • SCREEN PRINTING
    • MANUAL SCREEN PRINTING
    • AUTOMATIC FLAT BED SCREEN PRINTING
    • ROTORY SCREEN PRINTING
    • TRANSFER PRINTING
    • XEROX PRINTING
    • INKJET/DIGITAL PRINTING
    • PRINT LIKE EFFECT
    • TIE-DYE AND BATIK
  • 24. FINISHING PURPOSE TO IMPROVE THE APPEARANCE OF FABRIC FEEL OF FABRIC IMPART CERTAIN DESIRABLE PROPERTIES TO FABRIC LIKE WATER REPELLENT PROPERTY FOR RAIN COATS WRINKLE FREE PROPERTY TO SHIRTING AND TRAUSER FABRIC FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTY TO CURTAINS TREATMENT CARRIED OUT MAINLY IN THE FABRIC FORM CAN BE CARRIED OUT IN THE GARMENT FORM ALSO
  • 25. TYPES OF FINISHING AGENTS
    • WATER REPELLENT FINISH
    • FLAME REATARDANT FINISH
    • WRINKLE FREE FINISHES
    • ANTISTATIC FINISH
    • SOIL REPRELLENT FINISH
    • ANTI-BACTERIAL FINSIH
  • 26.
    • WEAVING USING COLOURED YARN
    • KNITTING USING COLOURED YARN
    • APPLIQUE OR PATCH WORK
    • EMBROIDERY
    OTHER METHODS FOR PRINT LIKE EFFECTS