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Environment friendly finishes cii prentation

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  • 1. DEVELOPMENTS IN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FINISHES FOR COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS R.B.Chavan Dept. of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz-Khas, New Delhi 110016
  • 2. PRESENT CONCEPT
      • POLLUTERS MUST PAY
        • CRADLE TO GRAVE
        • WOMB TO TOMB
        • NOT ONLY FINAL PRODUCT BE ECO FRIENDLY
        • RAW MATERIALS, PRODUCTION PROCESSES, PACKAGING, ECO FRENDLY EVEN AFTER DIPOSAL
        • MEET EMS 14000 AND SAS 1800 STANDARDS
        • ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTS INDENTIFIED BY ECO LABLES
    • GREEN MINDED CONSUMER PREFER ECO PRODUCTS EVEN AT HIGH COST
  • 3. COTTON DOMINATES
        • READILY AVAILABLE
        • AFFORDABLE PRICE
        • HYDROPHILIC
        • COMFORTABLE IN TROPICAL CLIMATE
        • BEING NATURAL ECO FRIENDLY
  • 4. CONVENTIONAL COTTON
      • CONVENTIONAL COTTON IS NOT ECO FRIENDLY
      • USE OF FERTILIZERS, PESTICIDES AND VARIOUS CROPS RELATED CHEMICALS DURING COTTON CULTIVATION.
      • PRESENCE OF THESE CHEMICALS AS RESIDUE ON COTTON BOLLS
      • WASHED AWAY DURING PREPARATORY PROCESSES
      • WATER POLLUTION
  • 5. ECO FRIENDLY COTTON
        • COTTON CULTIVATED WITHOUT USING FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS (ORGANIC FARMING)
        • RESIDUE OF THESE CHEMICALS REMOVED DURING FIRST TWO SEASONS OF CULTIVATION
        • COTTON FROM THIRD SEASON ONWARDS IS ECO FRIENDLY
        • INDENTIFIED BY LOGOS
        • ORGANIC COTTON
        • GREEN COTTON
        • NATURAL COTTON
  • 6. NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON
        • CULTIVATION SINCE ANCIENT TIME
        • PISTA GREEN, BROWN ARE POPULAR COLOURS
        • NOT POPULAR ON COMMERCIAL SCALE
        • LOW STAPLE LENGTH
        • INFERIOR STRENGTH
        • POOR SPINABILITY
        • REVIVAL OF NATURALLY COLOUR COTTON CULTIVATION
        • NO CHEMICAL PROCESSING REQUIRED
        • ELIMINATE POLLUTION CAUSED DURING CHEMICAL PROCESSING
  • 7. ECO FRIENDLY FUNCTIONAL FINISHES
      • FINISHING TEATMENTS HELP TO MAKE CONSUMER SALEABLE PRODUCT
      • VALUE ADDITION
      • IMPART DESIR A BLE PROPERTIES
  • 8. IMPORTANT FINISHES FOR COTTON
        • EASY CARE/DURABLE PRESS/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING
        • SOFTENING
        • ENZYME/BIO FINISHING
        • WATER PROOF BREATHABLE FINISHING
        • SOIL RELEASE AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES
        • ANTI MICROBIAL FINISHES
        • UV PROTECTION
        • EMERGING FINISHES
  • 9. EASY CARE/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING
        • CREASING/WRINKLE FORMATION DURING USE AND ON WASHING OF COTTON GARMENTS
        • AFTER WASH MAINTENANCE EXPENSIVE
        • TREATMENT WITH CROSS LINKING AGENT
        • TRADITIONALLY KNOWN AS RESIN FINSHING
        • IMPART CREASE RESISTANT PROPERTY
        • LOSS IN STRENGTH
  • 10. PROCESS ROUTE
    • FABRIC FINISHING
        • PRE CURE
        • POST CURE
    • GARMENT FINSIHING
      • DIP OR TUMBLE PROCESSES
  • 11. CHEMICALS USED
      • CROSS LINKING AGENT
      • LOW FORMALDEHYDE DMDHEU
      • EXTRNAL OR BUILT IN CATALYST SYSTEM AND BUFFER
    • CATALYST
    • MOST COMMON MgCl 2 , CITRIC ACID
    • WETTING AGENT
    • HIGH DENSITY PE EMULSION
    • IMPART HAND
    • IMPROVE TEAR STRENGTH, ABRASION RESISTANCE
    • AMINO OR REACTIVE SILICONE
    • IMPART SOFT HAND
    • IMPROVE WRINKLE RECOVERY
    • SILICONE ELASTOMER
    • IMPART SPRINGINESS
    • IMPROVE STRENGTH
    • ACRYLATES
    • IMPROVE SOIL RELEASE
  • 12. TYPICAL APPLICATION RECIPE
    • CROSS LINKING AGENT 40-120 g/l
    • MgCl 2 10-25 g/l
    • CITRIC ACID 0.3 g/l
    • SOFTENER (COMBINATION) 40 g/l
    • WETTING AGENT 1 g/l
    • pH 4-4.5
  • 13. QUALITY CONTROL
      • PHYSICAL TESTS
      • DRY AND WET CRA
      • SMOOTH APPEARANCE RATING
      • %RESIN ADD-ON
      • TENSILE STRENGTH
      • ABRASION RESISTANCE
      • DIMENSIONAL STABILITY
  • 14. CHEMICAL TEST
        • Cuen TEST (1N CUPRIETHYLENE DIAMINE
        • HYDROXIDE)
        • PULL FIBRES FROM YARN OF THE FINISHED
        • GARMENT (FROM THE BACKSIDE)
        • ·      PUT ON MICROSCOPIC SLIDE
        • ·      PUT 1- 2 DROPS OF Cuen SOLUTION
        •       PUT COVER SLIDE
        • ·     OBSERVE AFTER 15 min UNDER MICROSCOPE
        • ·     RATING 3- 4 IS ACEPTABLE
        • ·  RATING < 3 FAILS, LOW CROSSLINKS
        • RATING > 4 FAILS, HEAVY STRENGTH LOSS
  • 15. SWELLING RATING MEANING
    • NONE 5 FULLYCROSS LINKED
    • SLIGHT OR NONE 4 GOOD CROSS LINKED
    • MODERATE 3 MODERATE CROSS LINKED
    • MODERATE TO 2 PRTIALLY CROSS HEAVY LINKED
    • HEAVY, RAPID 1 LOW CROSS LINKED
    • RAPID AND 0 NO CROSS LINKED
    • DISSOLVES
  • 16. ECO FRIENDLY CROSS LINKING AGENTS
      • MOST POPULAR CROSS LINKING AGENTS
      • LOW FORMALDEHYDE (DMDHEU) OR ETHERIFIED (DMeDHEU)
      • EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE
      • RELEASE OF FORMALDEHYDE DURING
      • DRYING AND CURING,
      • GARMENT STORAGE AND USE
      • WORLD WIDE CONCERN BECAUSE OF
      • IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH
      • ENVIRONMENT
      • KNOWN TO BE CARCINOGENIC AND DERMATITIS EFFECTS
      • ACCEPTABLE FORMALDEHYDE LEVEL 20 ppm
  • 17. POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS (PCAs)  
      • WELCH IN 1998 REPORTED THE USE OF BTCA FOR CROSS LINKING OF COTTON
      • CATALYST SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE
      • GOOD CRA
      • GOOD STRENGTH RETENTION
      • DURABLE TO WASHING
      • EXCEEDINGLY HIGH COST PREVENTED COMMERCIALIZATION 
  • 18. OTHER CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
      • CITRIC ACID
      • MALEIC ACID
      • SUCCINIC ACID
    • ORDER OF DURABILITY -
    •   BTCA>CA>MALEIC ACID>SUCCINIC ACID
  • 19. DEMERITS OF PCA FINISH
      • PHOSPHATE CATALYSTS NON ECO FRIENDLY
      •     MOST EFFECTIVE IS SODIUM HYPO PHOSPHITE
      •      EXPENSIVE
      •      REDUCING AGENT
      •      AFFECT SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES
      • CONSUME LARGE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN FROM WATER
      •   INFLUENCE AQUATIC LIFE
      • RECENT ATTEMPTS TO USE TRI SODIUM CITRATE OR COMBINATION OF SODIUM OXALATE AND SODIUM FORMATE
      • SAFE TO SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES
      • SAFE TO AQUATIC LIFE
  • 20. SUMMARY OF PCA FINISH
      • HIGH COST
      • NON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CATALYST
      • YELLOWING
      • THESE PROBLEMS ARE UNDER INVESTIGATION
      • SOME HAVE BEEN SATISFACTORILY SOLVED
      • IN NEAR FUTURE PCA WOULD REPLACE CONVENTIONAL DMDHEU BASED CROSS LINKING AGENTS
      • RECENT APPROACH IS TO USE
      • COMBINATION OF HOMO POLYMER OF PMA AND TER POLYMER OF MALEIC ACID, ACRYLIC ACID AND VINYL ALCOHOL
      • FINISH EQUIVALENT TO DMDHEU
  • 21. SOFTENERS
      • SILICONE SOFTENERS
    •  
    • CLASSIFICATION
    • NON REACTIVE
    • REACTIVE
    • ORGANO FUNCTIONAL
    • PRESENTLY MOST POPULAR ORGANO FUNCTIONAL SILICONE
  • 22. ECO FRIENDLINESS OF SILICONE SOFTENERS
      • SILICONE SOFTENERS ARE ECOLOGYCALLY INERT
      • NO EFFECT ON AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
      • DO NOT INHIBIT BIOLOGICAL PROCESS DURING WASTE WATER TREATMENT
      • NO ADVERSE EFFET ON SEED GERMINATION OR PLANT SURVIVAL
      • DO NOT BIO CONCENTRATE IN AQUATIC LIFE
      • NO ADVERSE EFFECT ON AQUATIC LIFE AND ANIMAL LIFE
      • NO SIGNIFICANT BOD
      • NO THREAT TO INSECT POPULATION AND BIRDS
  • 23. WATER RESISTANT BREATHABLE FINISH
      • IMPERMEABLE TO WATER DROPLET
      • ALLOW THE ESCAPE OF WATER VAPOUR
      • POSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE BECAUSE OF SIZE DIFFERENCE
      •   LIQUID WATER MOLECULAR SIZE 100 MICRONS DIAMETER
      •   WATER VAPOUR MOLECULAR SIZE 0.0004 MICRONS
      •   SIZE DIFFERENCE FACTOR 2,50,000
      •   SUCH GARMENTS DESIGNED FOR
      •   SPORTS WEAR
      •   SKI WEAR
      •   TRACK SUITS
      •   RAIN WEAR
      •   MOUNTENEERING CLOTHING
  • 24. CLASSIFICATION OF BREATHABLE FABRICS
    • HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS
      • USED AS OUTER COVER GARMENT AS WIND CHEATER
      • LAMINATED FABRICS
      • LAMINATION OF MICRO POROUS BREATHABLE BARRIER FILM LIKE PTFE
      • SUCH PTFE MEMBRANES ARE USED IN GORETEX TWO AND THREE LAYER LAMINATES OF POLYESTER FABRIC
      • CLAIM OF 9 BILLION MICRO PORES PER SQUARE INCH WITH A MAXIMUM PORE SIZE OF 0.2 MICRON
      • COATED FABRICS
      • PU COATING MOST POPULAR
  • 25. BIO FINISHING
      • APPLICATION OF CELLULASE ENZYMES FOR FINISHING OF CELLULOSIC FABRICS AND GARMENTS
      • CONCEPT DEVELOPED IN 1980’S
      • PRESENT MAJOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION
      • WASH DOWN OR WORN OUT LOOK (STONE WASH) ON INDIGO DYED DENIM
      • PROCESS KNOWN AS BIOSTONING
  • 26. CELLULASE ENZYME TYPES
    • 1.  ACID STABLE (pH 4.5-5.5)
    • 2.  NEUTRAL (pH 6.5-7)
    • 3.  ALKALI STABLE (pH 9-10)
    •  
    • TEMPERATURE RANGE 40-60 o C
    •  
  • 27. ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH
      • CLOTHING AND TEXTILE MATERIALS ARE CARRRIERS OF ORGANISMS SUCH AS
      • PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
      • ODOUR GENERATING BACTERIA
      • FUNGI
      • GROWING CONCERN ALL OVER THE WORLD ON THE DANGERS OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION
      • RECENT OUT BREAK OF DISEASES LIKE AIDS, HEPATITIS B HAVE INCREASED THE AWARENESS OF THESE HEALTH HAZARDS AND NEED FOR PROTECTION
      • NECESSARY TO IMPART ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH TO FABRIC OR GARMENT
  • 28. SURGICAL APPARELS
      • A SURGICAL PATIENT IS AT GREAT RISK AS THE BACTERIAL AND VIRAL DESEASES ARE SPREAD THROUGH AIR AND BLOOD
      • ANTI MICROBIAL FINISHED FABRIC PREVENT THE GROWTH DISEASE CAUSING MICROBES
      • ANTI MICROBIAL TREATMENT TO SURGICAL APPARELS IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE PROTECTION OF PATIENT, DOCTOR AND NURSE
  • 29. UNDER GARMENTS AND BABY CLOTHING
      • ANTI MICROBIAL UNDER GARMENTS ARE USEFUL TO PREVENT SKIN RELATED DISEASES, URINARY TRACK INFECTION
      • SINCE INTERNAL INTAKE OF ANTI BIOTIC FOR INFANT IS NOT DESIRABLE PROTECTIVE ACTION MAY BE ACHIEVED THROUGH ANTI BACTERIAL CLOTHING
  • 30. FINISHING TECHNIQUES
    • PAD-DRY-CURE
      • APPLICATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT ALONG WITH CROSS LINKING AGENT SUCH AS
      • VARIOUS TRADE PRODUCTS
      • CHITOSAN AND CITRIC ACID
      • POLY(HEXAMETHYLENE HYDROCHLORIDE) PHMB
      • METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TULSI LEAVES
  • 31. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES
    • NEXTEC PROCESS
    • ·      PATENTED BY NEXTEC APPLICATIONS Inc., USA
    • ·      NOVEL PROCESS
    • ·      INDIVIDUAL FIBRES WITHIN FABRIC ARE ENCAPSULATED OR WRAPPED WITH ULTRA THIN FILM OF POLYMER
    • ·      CAN BE USED TO IMPART BREATHABLE WATER RESISTANT FINISH TO FABRIC WITHOUT AFFECTING THE FABRIC HANDLE
    • ·      ALSO POSSIBLE TO IMPART
    • ·      WRINKLE RESISTANCE,
    • ·      SOIL RELEASE, STAIN RESISTANCE,
    • ·      UV PROTECTION
    • ·      FLAME RESISTANCE
    • ·      MICROBIAL BARRIER
  • 32. NEXTEC PROCESS
    • THIS UNIQUE FIBRE ENCAPSULATION PROCESS ACHIEVED USING
    • S ILICONE BASED POLYMERS
    • POLYURETHANE
    • POLYACRYLIC POLYMERS
    • THE PROCESS WOULD OPEN UP MANY
    • OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROVIDING MULTI FUNCTIONAL FINISHES TO COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS
  • 33. UV PROTECTION
    • INCREASED HEALTH PROBLEMS ON EXPOSURE OF SKIN TO UV RADIATIONS DUE DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER
    • ·     UV PROTECTION CAN BE IMPARTED BYTREATMENT OF FABRICS OR GARMENTS WITH SELECTED UV ABSORBERS
  • 34. USE OF GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • BY THE NEXT DECADE GENETIC MANIPULATION OF COTTON GENE MAY USHER NEW COTTON VARIETIES WITH IPROVED PROPERTIES TO PRODUCE INNOVATIVE EFFECTS THROUGH FINSHING
  • 35. CONCLUSIONS
    • DESIRABLE PROPERTIES CAN BE IMPARTED TO COTTON BY APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES
    •       IMPROVE QUALITY OF COTTON
    •       GIVE VALUE ADDITION
    •       MANY INNOVATIVE IDEAS ARE BEING EXPLORED IN THE FIELD OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES
    •      IN THE NEXT DECADE QUITE A FEW NEW CONCEPTS MAY BE INTRODUCE D FOR IMARTING DESIRABLE PROPERTIES TO COTTON FABRIC AND GARMENTS.