DEVELOPMENTS IN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FINISHES FOR COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS R.B.Chavan Dept. of Textile Technology, Indi...
PRESENT CONCEPT <ul><ul><li>POLLUTERS MUST PAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CRADLE TO GRAVE  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
COTTON DOMINATES <ul><ul><ul><li>READILY AVAILABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFFORDABLE PRICE </li></ul></ul></u...
CONVENTIONAL COTTON <ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL COTTON IS NOT ECO  FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE OF FERTILIZERS, PE...
ECO FRIENDLY COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON CULTIVATED WITHOUT USING FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS (ORGANIC FA...
NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>CULTIVATION SINCE ANCIENT TIME </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PISTA GREEN, ...
ECO FRIENDLY FUNCTIONAL  FINISHES <ul><ul><li>FINISHING TEATMENTS HELP TO  MAKE CONSUMER SALEABLE PRODUCT </li></ul></ul><...
IMPORTANT FINISHES FOR COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>EASY CARE/DURABLE PRESS/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
EASY CARE/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING <ul><ul><ul><li>CREASING/WRINKLE FORMATION DURING USE AND ON WASHING OF COTTON GARMENTS <...
PROCESS ROUTE <ul><li>FABRIC FINISHING </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRE CURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POST CURE </...
CHEMICALS USED <ul><ul><li>CROSS LINKING AGENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYDE DMDHEU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
TYPICAL APPLICATION RECIPE <ul><li>CROSS LINKING AGENT 40-120 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>MgCl 2   10-25 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>C...
QUALITY CONTROL <ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL  TESTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRY AND WET CRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMOOTH A...
CHEMICAL TEST <ul><ul><ul><li>Cuen TEST (1N CUPRIETHYLENE DIAMINE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROXIDE) </li></ul...
SWELLING RATING MEANING <ul><li>NONE 5 FULLYCROSS  LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>SLIGHT OR NONE 4 GOOD CROSS  LINKED </li></ul>...
ECO FRIENDLY CROSS LINKING AGENTS <ul><ul><li>MOST POPULAR CROSS LINKING AGENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYD...
POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS (PCAs)   <ul><ul><li>WELCH IN 1998 REPORTED THE USE  OF  BTCA FOR CROSS LINKING OF COTTON </li></ul><...
OTHER CARBOXYLIC ACIDS <ul><ul><li>CITRIC ACID   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MALEIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUCCINI...
DEMERITS OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>PHOSPHATE CATALYSTS  NON ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>    MOST EFFECTIVE IS ...
SUMMARY OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>HIGH COST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CATALYST </li></ul></ul><u...
SOFTENERS <ul><ul><li>SILICONE SOFTENERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON R...
ECO FRIENDLINESS OF SILICONE SOFTENERS <ul><ul><li>SILICONE SOFTENERS ARE  ECOLOGYCALLY INERT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N...
WATER RESISTANT BREATHABLE FINISH <ul><ul><li>IMPERMEABLE TO WATER DROPLET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALLOW THE ESCAPE OF ...
CLASSIFICATION OF BREATHABLE FABRICS <ul><li>HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USED AS OUTER COVER GARMENT ...
BIO FINISHING <ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF CELLULASE  ENZYMES FOR FINISHING OF  CELLULOSIC FABRICS AND GARMENTS </li></ul></...
CELLULASE  ENZYME TYPES <ul><li>1.  ACID STABLE  (pH 4.5-5.5) </li></ul><ul><li>2.  NEUTRAL  (pH 6.5-7) </li></ul><ul><li>...
ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH <ul><ul><li>CLOTHING AND TEXTILE MATERIALS ARE CARRRIERS OF ORGANISMS SUCH AS   </li></ul></ul><ul><...
SURGICAL APPARELS <ul><ul><li>A SURGICAL PATIENT IS AT GREAT RISK AS THE BACTERIAL AND VIRAL DESEASES ARE SPREAD THROUGH A...
UNDER GARMENTS AND BABY  CLOTHING <ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL UNDER GARMENTS ARE USEFUL TO PREVENT SKIN RELATED DISEASES, U...
FINISHING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>PAD-DRY-CURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT ALONG WITH CROSS LINKIN...
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>NEXTEC PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>·       PATENTED BY NEXTEC APPLICATIONS Inc., USA </li></ul...
NEXTEC PROCESS <ul><li>THIS UNIQUE FIBRE ENCAPSULATION PROCESS ACHIEVED USING </li></ul><ul><li>S ILICONE BASED POLYMERS <...
UV PROTECTION <ul><li>INCREASED HEALTH PROBLEMS ON  EXPOSURE OF SKIN TO UV  RADIATIONS DUE DEPLETION OF  OZONE LAYER </li>...
USE OF  GENETIC ENGINEERING <ul><li>BY THE NEXT DECADE GENETIC MANIPULATION OF COTTON GENE MAY USHER NEW COTTON VARIETIES ...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>DESIRABLE PROPERTIES CAN BE IMPARTED TO COTTON BY APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES </li></ul><ul><li...
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Environment friendly finishes cii prentation

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Environment friendly finishes cii prentation

  1. 1. DEVELOPMENTS IN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FINISHES FOR COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS R.B.Chavan Dept. of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz-Khas, New Delhi 110016
  2. 2. PRESENT CONCEPT <ul><ul><li>POLLUTERS MUST PAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CRADLE TO GRAVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WOMB TO TOMB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT ONLY FINAL PRODUCT BE ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAW MATERIALS, PRODUCTION PROCESSES, PACKAGING, ECO FRENDLY EVEN AFTER DIPOSAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MEET EMS 14000 AND SAS 1800 STANDARDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTS INDENTIFIED BY ECO LABLES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GREEN MINDED CONSUMER PREFER ECO PRODUCTS EVEN AT HIGH COST </li></ul>
  3. 3. COTTON DOMINATES <ul><ul><ul><li>READILY AVAILABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFFORDABLE PRICE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROPHILIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMFORTABLE IN TROPICAL CLIMATE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BEING NATURAL ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CONVENTIONAL COTTON <ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL COTTON IS NOT ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE OF FERTILIZERS, PESTICIDES AND VARIOUS CROPS RELATED CHEMICALS DURING COTTON CULTIVATION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENCE OF THESE CHEMICALS AS RESIDUE ON COTTON BOLLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WASHED AWAY DURING PREPARATORY PROCESSES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WATER POLLUTION </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. ECO FRIENDLY COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON CULTIVATED WITHOUT USING FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS (ORGANIC FARMING) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RESIDUE OF THESE CHEMICALS REMOVED DURING FIRST TWO SEASONS OF CULTIVATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON FROM THIRD SEASON ONWARDS IS ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDENTIFIED BY LOGOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIC COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GREEN COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>CULTIVATION SINCE ANCIENT TIME </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PISTA GREEN, BROWN ARE POPULAR COLOURS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT POPULAR ON COMMERCIAL SCALE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOW STAPLE LENGTH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFERIOR STRENGTH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POOR SPINABILITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REVIVAL OF NATURALLY COLOUR COTTON CULTIVATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO CHEMICAL PROCESSING REQUIRED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELIMINATE POLLUTION CAUSED DURING CHEMICAL PROCESSING </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ECO FRIENDLY FUNCTIONAL FINISHES <ul><ul><li>FINISHING TEATMENTS HELP TO MAKE CONSUMER SALEABLE PRODUCT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VALUE ADDITION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPART DESIR A BLE PROPERTIES </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. IMPORTANT FINISHES FOR COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>EASY CARE/DURABLE PRESS/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOFTENING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ENZYME/BIO FINISHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WATER PROOF BREATHABLE FINISHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOIL RELEASE AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL FINISHES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UV PROTECTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EMERGING FINISHES </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. EASY CARE/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING <ul><ul><ul><li>CREASING/WRINKLE FORMATION DURING USE AND ON WASHING OF COTTON GARMENTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFTER WASH MAINTENANCE EXPENSIVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TREATMENT WITH CROSS LINKING AGENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRADITIONALLY KNOWN AS RESIN FINSHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMPART CREASE RESISTANT PROPERTY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOSS IN STRENGTH </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. PROCESS ROUTE <ul><li>FABRIC FINISHING </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRE CURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POST CURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GARMENT FINSIHING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIP OR TUMBLE PROCESSES </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. CHEMICALS USED <ul><ul><li>CROSS LINKING AGENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYDE DMDHEU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXTRNAL OR BUILT IN CATALYST SYSTEM AND BUFFER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CATALYST </li></ul><ul><li>MOST COMMON MgCl 2 , CITRIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>WETTING AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH DENSITY PE EMULSION </li></ul><ul><li>IMPART HAND </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE TEAR STRENGTH, ABRASION RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li> AMINO OR REACTIVE SILICONE </li></ul><ul><li>IMPART SOFT HAND </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE WRINKLE RECOVERY </li></ul><ul><li> SILICONE ELASTOMER </li></ul><ul><li>IMPART SPRINGINESS </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li> ACRYLATES </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE SOIL RELEASE </li></ul>
  12. 12. TYPICAL APPLICATION RECIPE <ul><li>CROSS LINKING AGENT 40-120 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>MgCl 2 10-25 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>CITRIC ACID 0.3 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>SOFTENER (COMBINATION) 40 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>WETTING AGENT 1 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>pH 4-4.5 </li></ul>
  13. 13. QUALITY CONTROL <ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL TESTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRY AND WET CRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMOOTH APPEARANCE RATING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>%RESIN ADD-ON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TENSILE STRENGTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABRASION RESISTANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMENSIONAL STABILITY </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. CHEMICAL TEST <ul><ul><ul><li>Cuen TEST (1N CUPRIETHYLENE DIAMINE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROXIDE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PULL FIBRES FROM YARN OF THE FINISHED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GARMENT (FROM THE BACKSIDE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·      PUT ON MICROSCOPIC SLIDE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·      PUT 1- 2 DROPS OF Cuen SOLUTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>      PUT COVER SLIDE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·     OBSERVE AFTER 15 min UNDER MICROSCOPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·     RATING 3- 4 IS ACEPTABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·  RATING < 3 FAILS, LOW CROSSLINKS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RATING > 4 FAILS, HEAVY STRENGTH LOSS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. SWELLING RATING MEANING <ul><li>NONE 5 FULLYCROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>SLIGHT OR NONE 4 GOOD CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATE 3 MODERATE CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATE TO 2 PRTIALLY CROSS HEAVY LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>HEAVY, RAPID 1 LOW CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>RAPID AND 0 NO CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>DISSOLVES </li></ul>
  16. 16. ECO FRIENDLY CROSS LINKING AGENTS <ul><ul><li>MOST POPULAR CROSS LINKING AGENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYDE (DMDHEU) OR ETHERIFIED (DMeDHEU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RELEASE OF FORMALDEHYDE DURING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRYING AND CURING, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GARMENT STORAGE AND USE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WORLD WIDE CONCERN BECAUSE OF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KNOWN TO BE CARCINOGENIC AND DERMATITIS EFFECTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCEPTABLE FORMALDEHYDE LEVEL 20 ppm </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS (PCAs)   <ul><ul><li>WELCH IN 1998 REPORTED THE USE OF BTCA FOR CROSS LINKING OF COTTON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CATALYST SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOOD CRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOOD STRENGTH RETENTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DURABLE TO WASHING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXCEEDINGLY HIGH COST PREVENTED COMMERCIALIZATION  </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. OTHER CARBOXYLIC ACIDS <ul><ul><li>CITRIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MALEIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUCCINIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ORDER OF DURABILITY - </li></ul><ul><li>  BTCA>CA>MALEIC ACID>SUCCINIC ACID </li></ul>
  19. 19. DEMERITS OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>PHOSPHATE CATALYSTS NON ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>    MOST EFFECTIVE IS SODIUM HYPO PHOSPHITE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     EXPENSIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     REDUCING AGENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     AFFECT SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONSUME LARGE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN FROM WATER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  INFLUENCE AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECENT ATTEMPTS TO USE TRI SODIUM CITRATE OR COMBINATION OF SODIUM OXALATE AND SODIUM FORMATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAFE TO SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAFE TO AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. SUMMARY OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>HIGH COST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CATALYST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YELLOWING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THESE PROBLEMS ARE UNDER INVESTIGATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOME HAVE BEEN SATISFACTORILY SOLVED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN NEAR FUTURE PCA WOULD REPLACE CONVENTIONAL DMDHEU BASED CROSS LINKING AGENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECENT APPROACH IS TO USE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMBINATION OF HOMO POLYMER OF PMA AND TER POLYMER OF MALEIC ACID, ACRYLIC ACID AND VINYL ALCOHOL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FINISH EQUIVALENT TO DMDHEU </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. SOFTENERS <ul><ul><li>SILICONE SOFTENERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><li>NON REACTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>REACTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>ORGANO FUNCTIONAL </li></ul><ul><li>PRESENTLY MOST POPULAR ORGANO FUNCTIONAL SILICONE </li></ul>
  22. 22. ECO FRIENDLINESS OF SILICONE SOFTENERS <ul><ul><li>SILICONE SOFTENERS ARE ECOLOGYCALLY INERT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO EFFECT ON AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC BACTERIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT INHIBIT BIOLOGICAL PROCESS DURING WASTE WATER TREATMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO ADVERSE EFFET ON SEED GERMINATION OR PLANT SURVIVAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT BIO CONCENTRATE IN AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO ADVERSE EFFECT ON AQUATIC LIFE AND ANIMAL LIFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO SIGNIFICANT BOD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO THREAT TO INSECT POPULATION AND BIRDS </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. WATER RESISTANT BREATHABLE FINISH <ul><ul><li>IMPERMEABLE TO WATER DROPLET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALLOW THE ESCAPE OF WATER VAPOUR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE BECAUSE OF SIZE DIFFERENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  LIQUID WATER MOLECULAR SIZE 100 MICRONS DIAMETER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  WATER VAPOUR MOLECULAR SIZE 0.0004 MICRONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  SIZE DIFFERENCE FACTOR 2,50,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  SUCH GARMENTS DESIGNED FOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  SPORTS WEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  SKI WEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  TRACK SUITS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  RAIN WEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  MOUNTENEERING CLOTHING </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. CLASSIFICATION OF BREATHABLE FABRICS <ul><li>HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USED AS OUTER COVER GARMENT AS WIND CHEATER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAMINATED FABRICS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAMINATION OF MICRO POROUS BREATHABLE BARRIER FILM LIKE PTFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUCH PTFE MEMBRANES ARE USED IN GORETEX TWO AND THREE LAYER LAMINATES OF POLYESTER FABRIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CLAIM OF 9 BILLION MICRO PORES PER SQUARE INCH WITH A MAXIMUM PORE SIZE OF 0.2 MICRON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COATED FABRICS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PU COATING MOST POPULAR </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. BIO FINISHING <ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF CELLULASE ENZYMES FOR FINISHING OF CELLULOSIC FABRICS AND GARMENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONCEPT DEVELOPED IN 1980’S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENT MAJOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WASH DOWN OR WORN OUT LOOK (STONE WASH) ON INDIGO DYED DENIM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROCESS KNOWN AS BIOSTONING </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. CELLULASE ENZYME TYPES <ul><li>1.  ACID STABLE (pH 4.5-5.5) </li></ul><ul><li>2.  NEUTRAL (pH 6.5-7) </li></ul><ul><li>3.  ALKALI STABLE (pH 9-10) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERATURE RANGE 40-60 o C </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  27. 27. ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH <ul><ul><li>CLOTHING AND TEXTILE MATERIALS ARE CARRRIERS OF ORGANISMS SUCH AS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PATHOGENIC BACTERIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ODOUR GENERATING BACTERIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FUNGI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GROWING CONCERN ALL OVER THE WORLD ON THE DANGERS OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECENT OUT BREAK OF DISEASES LIKE AIDS, HEPATITIS B HAVE INCREASED THE AWARENESS OF THESE HEALTH HAZARDS AND NEED FOR PROTECTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NECESSARY TO IMPART ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH TO FABRIC OR GARMENT </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. SURGICAL APPARELS <ul><ul><li>A SURGICAL PATIENT IS AT GREAT RISK AS THE BACTERIAL AND VIRAL DESEASES ARE SPREAD THROUGH AIR AND BLOOD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL FINISHED FABRIC PREVENT THE GROWTH DISEASE CAUSING MICROBES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL TREATMENT TO SURGICAL APPARELS IS ESSENTIAL FOR THE PROTECTION OF PATIENT, DOCTOR AND NURSE </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. UNDER GARMENTS AND BABY CLOTHING <ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL UNDER GARMENTS ARE USEFUL TO PREVENT SKIN RELATED DISEASES, URINARY TRACK INFECTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SINCE INTERNAL INTAKE OF ANTI BIOTIC FOR INFANT IS NOT DESIRABLE PROTECTIVE ACTION MAY BE ACHIEVED THROUGH ANTI BACTERIAL CLOTHING </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. FINISHING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>PAD-DRY-CURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT ALONG WITH CROSS LINKING AGENT SUCH AS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARIOUS TRADE PRODUCTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHITOSAN AND CITRIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POLY(HEXAMETHYLENE HYDROCHLORIDE) PHMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TULSI LEAVES </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>NEXTEC PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>·      PATENTED BY NEXTEC APPLICATIONS Inc., USA </li></ul><ul><li>·      NOVEL PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>·      INDIVIDUAL FIBRES WITHIN FABRIC ARE ENCAPSULATED OR WRAPPED WITH ULTRA THIN FILM OF POLYMER </li></ul><ul><li>·      CAN BE USED TO IMPART BREATHABLE WATER RESISTANT FINISH TO FABRIC WITHOUT AFFECTING THE FABRIC HANDLE </li></ul><ul><li>·      ALSO POSSIBLE TO IMPART </li></ul><ul><li>·      WRINKLE RESISTANCE, </li></ul><ul><li>·      SOIL RELEASE, STAIN RESISTANCE, </li></ul><ul><li>·      UV PROTECTION </li></ul><ul><li>·      FLAME RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>·      MICROBIAL BARRIER </li></ul>
  32. 32. NEXTEC PROCESS <ul><li>THIS UNIQUE FIBRE ENCAPSULATION PROCESS ACHIEVED USING </li></ul><ul><li>S ILICONE BASED POLYMERS </li></ul><ul><li>POLYURETHANE </li></ul><ul><li>POLYACRYLIC POLYMERS </li></ul><ul><li>THE PROCESS WOULD OPEN UP MANY </li></ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROVIDING MULTI FUNCTIONAL FINISHES TO COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS </li></ul>
  33. 33. UV PROTECTION <ul><li>INCREASED HEALTH PROBLEMS ON EXPOSURE OF SKIN TO UV RADIATIONS DUE DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>·     UV PROTECTION CAN BE IMPARTED BYTREATMENT OF FABRICS OR GARMENTS WITH SELECTED UV ABSORBERS </li></ul>
  34. 34. USE OF GENETIC ENGINEERING <ul><li>BY THE NEXT DECADE GENETIC MANIPULATION OF COTTON GENE MAY USHER NEW COTTON VARIETIES WITH IPROVED PROPERTIES TO PRODUCE INNOVATIVE EFFECTS THROUGH FINSHING </li></ul>
  35. 35. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>DESIRABLE PROPERTIES CAN BE IMPARTED TO COTTON BY APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES </li></ul><ul><li>      IMPROVE QUALITY OF COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>      GIVE VALUE ADDITION </li></ul><ul><li>      MANY INNOVATIVE IDEAS ARE BEING EXPLORED IN THE FIELD OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES </li></ul><ul><li>     IN THE NEXT DECADE QUITE A FEW NEW CONCEPTS MAY BE INTRODUCE D FOR IMARTING DESIRABLE PROPERTIES TO COTTON FABRIC AND GARMENTS. </li></ul>

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