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Environment friendly dyeing processes for cotton ppt
 

Environment friendly dyeing processes for cotton ppt

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    Environment friendly dyeing processes for cotton ppt Environment friendly dyeing processes for cotton ppt Presentation Transcript

    • ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY DYEING PROCESSES FOR COTTON R.B.CHAVAN DEPARTMENT OF TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY HAUZ-KHAS, NEW DELHI 110016
    • PLANATE EARTH
      • KALPANA CHAWLA
      • IT IS THE ONLY PLANATE WHERE LIFE EXISTS
      • FROM THE SPACE EARTH LOOKS BEAUTIFUL
      • OUR ENDEVOUR SHOULD BE TO ENHANCE THE BEAUTY OF THIS PLANATE
      • ALL EFFORTS SHOULD BE MADE TO PROTECT IT FROM DESTRUCTION
    • DESTRUCTIVE FORCES
      • ONE TIME DESTRUCTION
      • NUCLEAR THREAT
      • RED BUTTON SHOULD BE IN THE HANDS OF BALANCED PERSONS
      • SLOW DEATH
      • ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
      • OZONE DEPLETION
      • ULTRA VIOLET PROTECTION
      • VEHICULAR AIR POLLUTION
      • NUCLEAR AND BIOLOGICAL WASTE
      • ASIAN BROWN CLOUD (INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION OF WOOD, COW DUNG CAKES ETC.
      • INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES
    • INDIAN EXPERIENCE
      • AIR POLLUTION : VEHICLE
      • BAN ON 15 YEAR OLD PUBLIC TRANSPOT VEHICLES
      • USE OF CNG
      • CLEAN AIR IN DELHI
      • GANGA RIVER PROJECT: CLEAN WATER
      • FOREST PROTECTION
    • CUMULATIVE EFFECT
      • INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES
      • LARGE SCALE
      • SMALL SCALE
      • COTTAGE SCALE
      • TRADITIONAL
      • CUMULATIVE EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
      • ATTEMPTS TO MINIMIZE POLLUTION
      • USE OF NEWER TECHNOLOGIES
    • WORD FIBRE CONSUMPTION
      • CONSUMPTION (1000 TONNE)
      48500 20500 (42%) 2200 2400 23400 (49%) 2000 42600 17300 (41%) 2000 2500 20700 (49%) 1995 39300 14900 (39%) 2000 2700 18700 (49%) 1990 TOTAL SYNTHETIC WOOL REGENERATED COTTON YEAR
      • DYE CONSUMPTION (TONNE)
      178 000 109 000 60 000 REACTIVE 354 000 290 000 300 000 TOTAL 13 000 18 000 28 000 AZOIC 12 000 12 000 12 000 INDIGO 22 000 21 000 36 000 VAT 68 000 60 000 74 000 DIRECT 70 000 70 000 90 000 SULPHUR 2004 b 1992 1988 a DYE CLASS
    • REASONS FOR LACK OF GROWTH EXCEPT REACTIVE DYES
      • VAT DYES
      • HIGH PRICE AND LIMITED SUPPLY
      • ENVIRONMENT
      • VAT: HYDROSULPHITE, ORGANIC HALOGEN,RESIDUAL METAL CATALYST
      • SULPHUR : SODIUM SULPHIDE,
      • AZOIC : CARCINOGENIC AMINE
    • CURRENT RESEARCH
      • MAJOR AREAS
      • ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • LOW COLOUR IN EFFLUENT
      • LESS CHEMICAL USAGE
      • INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY VIA SHORTER AND RELIABLE PROCESSING
      • HIGHER FASTNESS REQUIREMENTS
    • Chemicals in effluent streams
      • Chemicals in effluent streams
      • Vat Residual dyestuff (5 - 20 %)
      • Reducing agents
      • Oxidising agents
      • Detergents
      • Salt
      • Reactive Residual dyestuff (20 - 50 %)
      • Salt
      • Alkali
      • Detergent
    • Chemicals in effluent streams
      • Direct Residual dyestuff (5 - 20 %)
      • Salt
      • Dye fixing agents
      • Sulphur Residual dyestuff (30 - 40 %)
      • Sodium sulphide
      • Alkali
      • Salt
    • Chemicals in effluent streams
      • Acid Residual dyestuff (1 - 20 %)
      •   Organic acid
      • Metal complex Residual dyestuff (2 - 5 %)
      • Organic acid
      • Leveling agent
      •  
      • Chrome Organic acid
      • Heavy metal
      • Disperse Residual dyestuff (10 - 20 %)
      • Acid
      • Dispersing agents
      • Leveling agents
      • Reducing agents
      • Alkali
      •  
      •  
    • COLOUR IN EFFLUENT
      • END OF PIPE TECHNOLOGY
      • REMOVAL OF COLOUR FROM EFFLUENT – EXPENSIVE APPROACH
      • CONVENTIONAL REACTIVE DYES 60-70% EXHAUSTION
      • SUBSTANTIAL COLOUR IN EFFLUENT
      • ADSOPTION OF HYDROLYZED DYE ON BIOMASS IS NOT EFFICIENT
    • ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR LOW COLOUR IN EFFLUENT
      • DYEING AT LOW LIQUOR RATIO
      • CAREFUL FOLLOW UP OF DYESTUFF MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATION FOR DYEING CONDITIONS FOR OPTIMUM DYE FIXATION
      • RIGHT FIRST TIME APPROACH TO AVOID
      • SHADING ADDITIONS
      • STRIPPING AND REDYEING OF OFF SHADES
      • USE OF HIGH FIXATION BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES
    • BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES
      • HOMO BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES
      • ORIGINALLY PROMOTED BY ICI (NOW ZENECA) AS PROCION SUPRA DYES FOR PRINTING AND THEN PROCION H-E DYES FOR DYEING (HOMO BIFUNCTIONAL MONO CHLORO TRIAZYNYL)
      • HETRO BICUNTIONAL REACTIVE DYES
      • CHARACTERIZED BY THE PRESENCE OF TWO REACTIVE GROUPS OF DIFFERENT REACTIVITIES
      • CAN BE APPLIED OVER A TEMPERATURE RANGE OF 60-80 0 c
      • BETTER SHADE REPRODUCIBILITY EVEN WITH TEMPERATURE VARIATION
      • AVAILABLE FROM MAJOR DYESTUFF MANUFACTURERES
    • BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES
    • LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES
      • SALT REQUIREMENT
      • CONVENTIONAL REACTIVE DYES 60-80 g/l
      • LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES 20 g/l
      • FEATURES ( CIBACRON LS)
      • BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES
      • TWO CHROMOPHORES CONTRIBUTE HIGH AFFINITY AND HIGH COLOUR STRENGTH
      • HIGH FIXATION
      • STABLE DYE-FIBRE BOND
    • EFFECT OF SALT ON ENVIRONMENT
      • EFFLUENT TREATMENT REMOVES ONLY SMALL QUANTITY OF SALT
      • MAJOR QUANTITY OF SALT REMAINS IN WATER
      • RIVERS AND LAKES GET POLLUTED WITH EFFLUENT CONTAINING HIGH SALT CONCENTRATION
      • FRESH WATER ORGANISMS CAN SUFFER TOXIC EFFECTS
      • IN REGIONS WITH SCARCE FRESH WATER RESOURCES SUCH WASTE WATER HAS TO BE USED FOR LAND IRRIGATION
      • REDUCTION IN LAND FERTILITY AND ULTIMATELY HAVE TO BE ABONDONED
    • APPROACHES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS OF SALT LOAD
      • DYEING AT LOWEST POSSIBLE LIQUOR RATIO
      • USING DYE CLASSES OTHER THAN REACTIVE SUCH AS VAT REQUIRING LOW SALT CONCENTRATION FOR DYEING
      • USING REACTIVE DYES GIVING HIGH EXHAUSTION AND FIXATION AT LOW SALT CONCENTRATION
    • GENERAL STRUCTURE OF LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES CHROMOPH-ORE CHROMOPHORE BRID-GE REACT-IVE GROUP REACT-IVE GROUP
    • ADVANTAGES OF HIGH DYE FIXATION Conventional dyes 60 % fixation Cibacron LS (bireactive) 80 % fixation 200 gm into the waste water 800 gm on the fibre 1 kg dye + 33% % - 50% % 1 kg dye 600 gm on the fibre 400 gm into the waste water
    • ECOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES
      • Property Benefit
      • High fixation rate Low dye concentration in effluent
      • Low electrolyte concentration Low salt effluent and cost/time saving
      • Good wash off Less water and energy Low BOD values
      • Halogen-free chromophores No AOX in effluent
      • Free from carcinogenic amines No health risk to dyes No risk of ban
      • High repeatability of dyeing Less shading and stripping
    • ECO FRIENDLY REDUCING AGENTS FOR VAT DYES
      • SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE IS UNIVERSALLY USED
      • DURING DYEING CONVERSION TO SULPHITE AND SULPHATE
      • SULPHITE IS TOXIC TO FISH AND BACTERIA
      • SULPHATE IS NON-TOXIC TO FISH AND BACTERIA IT MAY CAUSE CORROSION OF CONCRETE PIPES
    • ALTERNATE REDUCING SYSTEMS
      • HYDROXY ACETONE
      • CAN TOTALLY REPLACE HYDROSULPHITE
      • BIO-COMPATIBLE
      • GIVE 20% HIGHER COLOUR YIELD WITH INDIGO
      • EXPENSIVE
      • NOT READILY AVAILABLE
      • YET TO USE ON COMMERCIAL SCALE
    • ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION
      • DIRECT REDUCTION OF DYE BY CONTACT BETWEEN DYE DISPERSION AND ELECTRODE
      • ADDITION OF SMALL QUANTITY OF HYDROSULPHITE IS ESSENTIAL TO MAINTAIN DYE IN REDUCED STATE
      • METHOD PRODUCES LIGHTER SHAED COMPARED TPO HYDRO SULPHITE
    • IRON COMPLEXES
      • USE OF Fe(OH) 2 AS REDUCING AGENT
      • COPPERAS METHOD KNOWN FOR LONG FOR DYEING OF INDIGO
      • USE OF FeSO4 AND Ca(OH)2
      • Fe(OH)2 HAS VERY LOW WATER SOLUBILITY
      • PRECIPITATES IN DYEBATHNON REPRODUCIBLE RESULTS
      • NOT SUITABLE FOR VAT DYES OTHER THAN INDIGO
      • USE OF GLUCONIC ACID IS SUGGESTED IN GERMAN LITERATURE FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF Fe(OH)2
      • GLUCONIC ACID IS EXPENSIVE
    • STUDY AT IIT DELHI R.B.chavan, J.N.chakraborty
      • USE OF CITRIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID AND TRIETHANOL AMINE TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF Fe(OH)2
      • REDUCTION POTENTIAL HIGHER THAN HYDRO SYLPHITE
      • POSSIBLE TO REDUCE VAT DYES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
      • DYEING AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
      • COLOUR YIELD AND FASTNESS PROPERTIES COMPARABLE TO HYDROSULPHITE
      • TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF HYDROSULPHITE
      • ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY AND ENERGY SAVING SYSTEM
    • SULPHUR DYES
      • Na2S IS COMMONLY USED REDUCING AGENT
      • NO ODOUR NUISANCE ABOVE pH 9
      • LIBERATION OF H2S UNDER ACID CONDITIONS
      • FOUL SMELL OF ROTTEN EGGS
      • TOXIC WHEN INHALED
      • ODOUR THRESHOLD LIMIT 10 ppm
      • TOXIC TO FISH
    • OXIDATION
      • USE OF HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS LIKE BROMATE, IODATE PRODUCE ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS RESPONSIBLE FOR ADSORBABLE ORGANIC HALOGEN (AOX)
      • AOX IS TOXIC TO AQUATIC LIFE
      • DICHROMATE IS MORE RISKY, HEALTH HAZARDS
      • SAFE OXIDIZING AGENT IS H 2 O 2
    • Na 2 S REPLACEMENT
      • β – MERCAPTOETHANOL MARKETED BY BASF AS MOLESCAL SF
      • LOWER COLOUR YIELD COMPARED TO Na2S
      • INCOMPLETE DISSOLUTION OF SOME SULPHUR DYES
      • SUITABLE FOR LIMITED RANGE OF SULPHUR DYES
      • COSTLY
      • GLUCOSE
      • CAN BE USED AS REDUCING AGENT FOR SULPHUR DYES
      • GIVES REDUCTION POTENTIAL SUITABLE FOR REDUCTION OF SULPHUR DYES UNDER ALKALINE CONDITIONS AT ABOVE 60 0 c
      • CENTURY MILL (MUMBAI) HAS SUCCESSFULLY REPLACED Na2S WITH GLUCOSE ON INDUSTRIAL SCALE
      • HYDROL, VISCOUS LIQUID AVAILABLE COMMERCIALLY AT LOW COST
    • HYDROL/GLUCOSE
      • HYDROL IS COST EFFECTIVE ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY SUBSTITURE OF Na2S
      • ELIMINATION OF FOUL SMELL OF NA2S
      • 3500 kg OF COTTON IS BEING DYED WITH SULPHUR BLACK EVERY DAY USING HYDROL AT CENTURY MILL
      • NO CAPITAL EXPENDITURE INVOLVED IN THIS SUBSTITUTION
    • CONCLUSION
      • USE OF BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES FOR LOW COLOUR IN EFFLUENT
      • USE OF LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES FOR REDUCTION OF SALT IN EFFLUENT
      • REPLACEMENT OF Na2S WITH GLUCOSE IN SULPHUR DYEING
      • REPLACEMENT OF HYDROSULPHITE IN VAT DYEING BY
      • IRON COMPLEXES
      • ELECTROCHEMCAL REDUCTION METHOD