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Dyeing of pet wool blends
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Dyeing of pet wool blends

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  • 1. Minimisation of damage to wool
    • The advantages of high temperature dyeing above 110 0 C are
      • Fast deep shades
      • Shorter leveling time
      • Better levelling
      • Less staining of wool
    • Disadvantages
      • Wool degradation –reduction in strength, elongation, abrasion resistance, yellowing
  • 2.
    • Therefore, to protect the wool component during high temperature dyeing,
      • Most common agent HCHO (5% owf) allows dyeing at
        • 105 0 C for 4 hrs
        • 110 0 C for 3 hrs
        • 115 0 C for2 hrs
        • 120 0 C for 1 hr
      • pH: 3.5-4.5
  • 3. Recommended dyeing times
    • 100 0 C for 120-150 min with carrier, no formaldehyde
    • 106 0 C ,90 –120 min with carrier and without formaldahyde
    • 110 -115 0 C, 60 –90 min, reduced amount of carrier, formaldehyde necessary
    • 120 0 C, 20-30 min (not >40 min), carrier optional, formaldehyde necessary
    • High temperature dyeing is recommended for deep shades –yellowing is not so critical
  • 4. Precautions for formaldehyde use
      • Shades of some dyes are affected -careful dye selection
      • HCHO vapours are potentially hazardous -restricted use by health and safety considerations
    • Therefore, agents which will release HCHO during dyeing (in-situ release) are preferred. E.g DMEU -HCHO release above 0 0 C
  • 5. Dyeing methods:
    • One bath dyeing method with disperse and acid or metal complex dyes
    • Dye selection:
      • Disperse dye –low energy ->minimum staining of wool –easily removed by after wash
      • Acid or metal complex –not so critical
  • 6. General dyeing recipe
    • X% disperse dye
    • Y% acid/metal complex dye
    • Z% carrier
    • 1 –2% dispersing agent
    • 5 -10% glauber’s salt
    • pH :4.5 –5.5 with acetic acid
  • 7. Dyeing procedure
    • Set bath with auxuliaries
    • Preheat 10 –20 min at 50 -70 0 C
    • Add disperse and dissolved acid dye
    • Treat for 10 min
    • Raise temperature to boil or 103-106 0 C 30-45 min
    • Dye for 1½-2hrs depending on depth of shade
    • Cool, cold and hot rinse –shading 80 -100 0 C
  • 8. One-bath dyeing
    • Improve dye exhaustion
    • Minimise wool staining
    • Wool protecting agent is necessary
    • Recipe:
      • X% disperse dye
      • Y% acid / metal complex dye
      • 3-5% HCHO (30%)
      • 1-2% dispersing agent , pH : 5 -6 with HAC’
  • 9.
    • Pretreat with auxiliary at 50-60 0 C
    • Add disperse and acid dyes
    • Treat for 10 min
    • Raise temperature to 110 0 C/120 0 C in 45 min
    • Dye for 30 –60 min
  • 10. After treatment
    • Staining of wool with disperse dyes cannot be avoided even if the process is carried out with most siutable dyes under the most favourable conditions
    • Disperse staining on wool –poor fastness –must be removed completely
    • One-bath method –reduction clear is not possible
    • After wash: 1-2 gpl non-ionic detergent, pH 5-6 with HAC’, 20-30 min at 60 0 C, good rinse
    • With deep shades, repeat the above process
  • 11. Two bath process
    • Used for deep shades -particularly navy and black
    • Dye polyester component with
      • X % disperse dye
      • Y% carrier
      • 1 –2% dispersing agent
      • pH 5-6 with HAC’
      • Maximum temperature :103 -106 0 C or boil
      • Cold rinse
  • 12. Reduction clearing:
      • 3 gpl hydrose
      • 0.5- 1 ml/l ammonia(25%)
      • 0.5-1 gpl non-ionic emulsifying agent
      • For 30 min at 45 -50 0 C
    • Good rinse, acidify with HAC’
    • Dyeing of wool component
  • 13. Thermosol dyeing
    • Not common
    • Can be used for coloration of PET component only
    • Wool component is dyed seperately ( detail sin page 256-257)
    • Dry heat treatment:
      • 190 -200 0 C for 45 –60 secs
      • Not harmful to wool except slight yellowing
      • Less wool staining
  • 14. Correction of faulty dyeings
    • Faulty shades can be levelled or partially stripped with
        • X gpl carrier
        • 2-4% levelling agent for wool
        • 1 –2% emulsifying agent
        • pH 5-6% with HAC’
      • Treatment at boil for 1 –2 hrs or 103 -106 0 C for 1 –1 ½ hrs
      • If only shade on wool is to be corrected, carrier is not necessary