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  • 1. DEVELOPMENTS IN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FINISHES FOR COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS R.B.Chavan Dept. of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz-Khas, New Delhi 110016
  • 2. PRESENT CONCEPT
      • POLLUTERS MUST PAY
        • CRADLE TO GRAVE
        • WOMB TO TOMB
        • NOT ONLY FINAL PRODUCT BE ECO FRIENDLY
        • RAW MATERIALS, PRODUCTION PROCESSES, PACKAGING, ECO FRENDLY EVEN AFTER DIPOSAL
        • MEET EMS 14000 AND SAS 1800 STANDARDS
        • ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTS INDENTIFIED BY ECO LABLES
    • GREEN MINDED CONSUMER PREFER ECO PRODUCTS EVEN AT HIGH COST
  • 3. COTTON DOMINATES
        • READILY AVAILABLE
        • AFFORDABLE PRICE
        • HYDROPHILIC
        • COMFORTABLE IN TROPICAL CLIMATE
        • BEING NATURAL ECO FRIENDLY
  • 4. CONVENTIONAL COTTON
      • CONVENTIONAL COTTON IS NOT ECO FRIENDLY
      • USE OF FERTILIZERS, PESTICIDES AND VARIOUS CROPS RELATED CHEMICALS DURING COTTON CULTIVATION.
      • PRESENCE OF THESE CHEMICALS AS RESIDUE ON COTTON BOLLS
      • WASHED AWAY DURING PREPARATORY PROCESSES
      • WATER POLLUTION
  • 5.
        • COTTON CULTIVATED WITHOUT USING FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS (ORGANIC FARMING)
        • RESIDUE OF THESE CHEMICALS REMOVED DURING FIRST TWO SEASONS OF CULTIVATION
        • COTTON FROM THIRD SEASON ONWARDS IS ECO FRIENDLY COTTON
        • INDENTIFIED BY LOGOS
        • ORGANIC COTTON
        • GREEN COTTON
        • NATURAL COTTON
    ECO FRIENDLY COTTON
  • 6. NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON
        • CULTIVATION SINCE ANCIENT TIME
        • PISTA GREEN, BROWN ARE POPULAR COLOURS
        • NOT POPULAR ON COMMERCIAL SCALE
        • LOW STAPLE LENGTH
        • INFERIOR STRENGTH
        • POOR SPINABILITY
        • REVIVAL OF NATURALLY COLOUR COTTON CULTIVATION
        • NOT TO BE DYED
        • ELIMINATE POLLUTION CAUSED DURING DYEING
  • 7. ECO FRIENDLY FUNCTIONAL FINISHES
      • FINISHING TEATMENTS HELP TO MAKE CONSUMER SALEABLE PRODUCT
      • VALUE ADDITION
      • IMPART DESIR A BLE PROPERTIES
  • 8. IMPORTANT FINISHES FOR COTTON
        • EASY CARE/DURABLE PRESS/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING
        • SOFTENING
        • ENZYME/BIO FINISHING
        • WATER PROOF BREATHABLE FINISHING
        • SOIL RELEASE AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES
        • ANTI MICROBIAL FINISHES
        • UV PROTECTION
        • EMERGING FINISHES
  • 9. EASY CARE/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING
        • CREASING/WRINKLE FORMATION DURING USE AND ON WASHING OF COTTON GARMENTS
        • AFTER WASH MAINTENANCE EXPENSIVE
        • TREATMENT WITH CROSS LINKING AGENT
        • TRADITIONALLY KNOWN AS RESIN FINSHING
        • IMPART CREASE RESISTANT PROPERTY
        • LOSS IN STRENGTH
  • 10.
    • FABRIC FINISHING
        • PRE CURE
        • POST CURE
    • GARMENT FINSIHING
      • DIP OR TUMBLE PROCESSES
    PROCESS ROUTE
  • 11. PRE CURE PROCESS
    • PAD  DRY  CURE
    • ·    MOST POPULAR PROCESS FOR FABRIC FINISHING
    • ·    UNIFORM DISTRUBUTION OF CHEMICALS
    • ·    BETTER PROCESS CONTROL
    • · CARRIED OUT AT MILL LEVEL
    •  
  • 12. POST CURE PROCESS
      • PAD  DRY AT MILL LEVEL
      • SENSITIZED FABRIC
      • TRANSPORT TO GARMENT UNIT
      • GARMENT MAKING
      • PRESSING TO SET CREASES AT DESIRED PLACES
      • CURE
  • 13. STEPS
        • PAD (60-70% PICK UP)
        • DRY AT 70 o C, 8-10% MOISTURE CONTENT
        • SANFORIZE (NO MOISTURE SPRAY)
        • GARMENT MAKING
        • GARMENT PRESSING
        • GARMENT CURING 150-160 o C
  • 14. PRECAUTIONS
    • PRE FINISHING STAGE
    •     GOOD ABSORBANCY (<3sec)
    •     FREE FROM SIZE
    •     HIGH TENSILE AND TEAR STRENGTH
    •    SUFFICIENT TO REMAIN ACCEPTABLE EVEN AFTER 50% LOSS ON FINISHING
    •     USE MERCERIZED COTTON
    •     ADEQUATE DYE FASTNESS
    •     FREE FROM SOFTENER BEFORE FINISHING
  • 15. PRECAUTIONS
      • TO AVOID PRE MATURED CROSS LINKING
      • CAREFUL STORAGE OF SENSITIZED
      •   FABRIC, SHIPMENT BY AIR
      • MANY STORE UNDER REFRIGERATION
      • SHOULD NOT BE STORED MORE THAN 3 MONTHS
  • 16. FINISHING IN GARMENT FORM
    • MERITS
    • PERMANENT CREASE SETING AT DESIRED PLACES
    • NO RISK OF PRE MATURED CROSS LINKING
    • GARMENT SEAM PUCKERING MINIMIZED
  • 17. POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED
    • CAREFUL SELECTION OF
        • SEWING THREAD, BUTTON, ZIPS
        • STABLE TO BATH CHEMICALS, HEAT
        • FINISHING IN GARMENT FORM OFFERS ONLY ONE CHANCE
        • ANY THING WRONG CAN NOT BE RECTIFIED
        • RESIN STRIPPING AND REPROCESSING CAUSES MORE DAMAGE
  • 18. GARMENT FINISHING METHODS
        • DIP PROCESS
        • TUMBLE PROCESS
  • 19. DIP PROCESS
        • DIP GARMENT IN FINISH BATH (INSIDE OUT, M:L :: 1:5)
        • WASHING MACHINE MAY BE USED
        • ROTATE FOR 20 min.
        • HYDROEXTRACT (70-80% PICK UP)
        • TUMBLE DRY AT 70 o c, MOISTURE CONTENT 10-12%
        • TURN THE GARMENT RIGHT SIDE OUT
        • IRO/STEAM PRESS TO SET CREASES AT DESIRED PLACES
        • CURE AT 150 o c – 160 o c for 8-10 min
        • EXTRACTED SOLUTION MAY BE REUSED
  • 20. TUMBLE METHOD
        • PLACE GARMENTS (INSIDE OUT) IN WASHING MACHINE DRUM
        • SATURATE WITH FINISH BATH BY SPRAY APPLICATION
        • ROTATE DRUM FOR 20 min
        • TAKE CARE TO AVOID EXCESSIVE DRIPPING OF CHEMICALS FROM GARMENT
        • IF DRY SPOT, RESATURATE, TUMBLE FOR ADDITIONAL TIME
        • HYDROEXTRACT
        • OTHER STEPS SAME AS EARLIER PROCESS
  • 21. IMPORTANT FEATURES
        • M:L:: 1:0.85 –1:1
        • TUMBLE ROTATION SPEED 28-30 rpm
        • TUMBLE DRYING TEMP. SHOULD NOT EXCEED 70 o c
        • MOISTURE RETENTION AFTER DRYING 10-12%,
        • IF LESS RESATURATE AND DRY
        • LOAD SIZE 50 Kg.
  • 22. CHEMICALS USED
      • CROSS LINKING AGENT
    • LOW FORMALDEHYDE DMDHEU
    • EXTRNAL OR BUILT IN CATALYST SYSTEM AND BUFFER
    • CATALYST
    • MOST COMMON MgCl 2 , CITRIC ACID
    • WETTING AGENT
    • HIGH DENSITY PE EMULSION
    • IMPART HAND
    • IMPROVE TEAR STRENGTH, ABRASION RESISTANCE
    • AMINO OR REACTIVE SILICONE
    • IMPART SOFT HAND
    • IMPROVE WRINKLE RECOVERY
    • SILICONE ELASTOMER
    • IMPART SPRINGINESS
    • IMPROVE STRENGTH
    • ACRYLATES
    • IMPROVE SOIL RELEASE
  • 23. TYPICAL APPLICATION RECIPE
    • CROSS LINKING AGENT 40-120 g/l
    • MgCl 2 10-25 g/l
    • CITRIC ACID 0.3 g/l
    • SOFTENER (COMBINATION) 40 g/l
    • WETTING AGENT 1 g/l
    • pH 4-4.5
  • 24. FINISHING STAGE
      • AFTER DRYING RESIDUAL MOISTURE CONTENT SHOULD
      • NOT BE < 10%.
      • LOW MOISTURE GIVES HIGH DRY CRA, LOSS IN STRENGTH
      • GOOD WET CRA WHEN MOISTURE AFTER DRYING IS HIGH
      • SULPHUR DYED GARMENT SHOULD BE AVOIDED, LIBERATE ACID, PREMATURE RESIN CURING, LOSS IN STRENGTH
      • 1-2% UREA ADDITION IN FINISH BATH CONTROLS FORMALDEHYDE RELEASE
      • UREA REDUCES EFFICIENCY OF FINISH BATH, TAKE 10% EXTRA RESIN
  • 25.
      • STONE WASH AND OTHER FINISHES ARE GIVEN BEFORE WRINKLE FREE FINISH
      • USE LOWER (I50 o c) FOR WHITE GARMENTS TO AVOID YELLOWING
      • POCKETS,BELT,LOOPS,LABLES, SEWINGTHREAD,BUTTONS,ZIPPERS SHOULD BE RESISTANT TO FINISH BATH CHEMICALS AND CURING HEAT
    GARMENT STAGE
  • 26. QUALITY CONTROL
      • PHYSICAL TESTS
      • DRY AND WET CRA
      • SMOOTH APPEARANCE RATING
      • %RESIN ADD-ON
      • TENSILE STRENGTH
      • ABRASION RESISTANCE
      • DIMENSIONAL STBILITY
      •  
  • 27. CHEMICAL TEST
        • Cuen TEST (1N CUPRIETHYLENE DIAMINE
        • HYDROXIDE)
        • PULL FIBRES FROM YARN OF THE FINISHED
        • GARMENT (FROM THE BACKSIDE)
        • ·      PUT ON MICROSCOPIC SLIDE
        • ·      PUT 1-2 DROPS OF Cuen SOLUTION
        •       PUT COVER SLIDE
        • ·      OBSERVE AFTER 15 min UNDER MICROSCOPE
        • ·      RATING 3-4 IS ACEPTABLE
        • ·  RATING < 3 FAILS, LOW CROSSLINKS
        • RATING > 4 FAILS, HEAVY STRENGTH LOSS
  • 28. SWELLING RATING MEANING
    • NONE 5 FULLYCROSS LINKED
    • SLIGHT OR NONE 4 GOOD CROSS LINKED
    • MODERATE 3 MODERATE CROSS LINKED
    • MODERATE TO 2 PRTIALLY CROSS LINKED
    • HEAVY
    • HEAVY, RAPID 1 LOW CROSS LINKED
    • RAPID AND 0 NO CROSS LINKED
    • DISSOLVES
  • 29. ECO FRIENDLY CROSS LINKING AGENTS
      • MOST POPULAR CROSS LINKING AGENTS
      • LOW FORMALDEHYDE (DMDHEU) OR ETHERIFIED (DMeDHEU)
      • EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE
      • RELEASE OF FORMALDEHYDE DURING
      • DRYING AND CURING,
      • GARMENT STORAGE AND USE
      • WORLD WIDE CONCERN BECAUSE OF
      • IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH
      • ENVIRONMENT
      • KNOWN TO BE CARCINOGENIC AND DERMATITIS EFFECTS
      • ACCEPTABLE FORMALDEHYDE LEVEL 20 ppm
  • 30.   CONTROL OF FORMALDEHYDE RELEASE FROM DMDHEU  
      • WASH AFTER FINISH
      • ADDITION OF FORMALDEHYDE ACCEPTOR/SCAVENGER LIKE UREA
      • MODIFICATION OF DMDHEU TO PRODUCE ZERO FORMALDEHYDE ETHERIFIED PRODUCT
      • ETHERIFIED DMDHEU IS MORE EXPENSIVE AND LESS EFFECTIVE
  • 31. POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS (PCAs)  
      • WELCH IN 1998 REPORTED THE USE OF BTCA FOR CROSS LINKING OF COTTON
      • CATALYST SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE
      • GOOD CRA
      • GOOD STRENGTH RETENTION
      • DURABLE TO WASHING
      • EXCEEDINGLY HIGH COST PREVENTED COMMERCIALIZATION 
  • 32. CITRIC ACID
      • LOW PRICED TRICABOXYLIC ACID
      • LESS EFFECTIVE, LESS DURABLE COMPARED TO BTCA
      • YELLOWING ON CURING
  • 33. MECHANISM OF PCA CROSS LINKING
      • DMDHEU FORMS ETHER BONDS WITH COTTON
      • PCA FORMS ESTER BONDS
      • ESTERIFICATION IN TWO STEPS
    • STEP 1
        • DEHYDRATION OF TWO ADJACENT COOH GROUPS
        • FORMATION OF ANHYDRIDE UNDER CURING CONDITIONS
    • STEP 2
        • ESTERIFICATION WITH CELLULOSE
        • REACTION ACCELERATED IN PRESENCE OF ALKALI METAL SALTS OF PHOSPHORUS
        • SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE MONO HYDRIDE (NaH 2 PO 2 .H 2 O) MOST SATISFACORY
        • CATALYST ACCELERATE THE RATE OF ANHYDRIDE FORMATION AND CROSS LINKING
  • 34. OTHER CARBOXYLIC ACIDS
      • PCA OTHER THAN BTCA SUITABLE
      • GIVE CRA IN THE RANGE OF 285
      • DP RATING 4.3 - 4.7
      • VARIATION IN DURABILITY TO ALKALINE WASHING
    •  
    • ORDER OF DURABILITY -
    •   BTCA>CA>MALEIC ACID>SUCCINIC ACID
  • 35. DEMERITS OF PCA FINISH
      • PHOSPHATE CATALYSTS NON ECO FRIENDLY
      •     MOST EFFECTIVE IS SODIUM HYPO PHOSPHITE
      •      EXPENSIVE
      •      REDUCING AGENT
      •      AFFECT SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES
      • CONSUME LARGE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN FROM WATER
      •   INFLUENCE AQUATIC LIFE
      • RECENT ATTEMPTS TO USE TRI SODIUM CITRATE OR COMBINATION OF SODIUM OXALATE AND SODIUM FORMATE
      • SAFE TO SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES
      • SAFE TO AQUATIC LIFE
  • 36. COST OF BTCA
      • HIGH COST OF BTCA
      •   WAYS TO REDUCE COST
      • SOPHISTICATED MANUFACTURE PROCESS
      • USE BTCA PASTE FORM WITHOUT PURIFICATION
      • FINISHING COST MAY BE REDUCED BY MIXING OTHER PCAs
      • TEA MAY BE USED TO REDUCE FINISHING COST AND IMPROVE FABRIC STRENGTH
    •  
  • 37. YELLOWING EFFECT OF CA
      • UNDER CURING CONDITIONS PRODUCTS FORMED ARE
      • TRANS ACONITIC ACID, ITACONIC ACID, CITRACONIC ACID
      • YELLOW IN COLOUR
  • 38. MINIMIZATION OF YELLOWING
      • INCORPORATE TEA, N,N BIS HYDROXYETHYL GLYCINE, BORIC ACID OR PEG
      • TEA IS MOST EFFECTIVE TO SUPPRESS YELLOWING
      •    OH IN TEA REACT WITH OH IN CA
      •    PREVENT CA TO DECOMPOSE TO UNSATURATED ACIDS UNDER CURING
      • FORMATION OF ACIDS RESPONSIBLE FOR YELLOWING PREVENTED
  • 39. POOR WASH FASTNESS OF FINISH
      • PRESENCE OF OH IN CA REDUCES THE STABILITY OF ESTER BOND WITH CELLULOSE DURING ALKALINE WASH
      • WAY OUT
      • MODIFY OH IN CA
      • INCORPORATE POLY MALEIC ACID (PMA) IN FINISH BATH
      • -COOH OF PMA REACTS WITH OH OF CA
      •   BLOCKS OH GROUP IN CA
      •   ENHANCE WASH FASTNESS OF FINISH
  • 40. SUMMARY OF PCA FINISH
      • HIGH COST
      • NON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CATALYST
      • YELLOWING
      • THESE PROBLEMS ARE UNDER INVESTIGATION
      • SOME HAVE BEEN SATISFACTORILY SOLVED
      • IN NEAR FUTURE PCA WOULD REPLACE CONVENTIONAL DMDHEU BASED CROSS LINKING AGENTS
      • RECENT APPROACH IS TO USE
      • COMBINATION OF HOMOPOLYMER OF PMA AND TER POLYMER OF MALEIC ACID, ACRYLIC ACID AND VINYL ALCOHOL
      • FINISH EQUIVALENT TO DMDHEU
  • 41. SOFTENERS
      • SILICONE SOFTENERS
    •  
    • CLASSIFICATION
      •   NON REACTIVE
      •    REACTIVE
      •    ORGANO FUNCTIONAL
    •  
    • NON REACTIVE
      • BASED ON POLY DIMETHYL SILOXANES (PDMS)
      • SOFTENING EFFECT NOT DURABLE DUE TO ABSENCE OF REACTIVE GROUPS
  • 42. SILICONE SOFTENERS
    • REACTIVE SILICONES      
      • PDMS POLYMER MODIFIED WITH SILANE H OR SILANOL FUNCTIONAL GROUP
      • BETTER DURABILITY
    •   ORGANO FUNCTIONAL SILLICONES
      • ORGANO FUNCTIONAL REACTIVE GROUPS INTRODUCED IN PDMS (AMINE, EPOXIDE, CARBOXY etc)
      • IMPROVE ORIENTATION AND SUBSTANTIVITY ON FIBRE
      • VERY SOFT FINISH (SUPER SOFT)
    •  
  • 43. ECO FRIENDLINESS
      • PDMS PRESENT IN EFFLUENT IN THE FORM OF TINY DISPERSED DROPLETS
      • ATTACH TO SUSPENDED SOLIDS
      • BEING WATER INSOLUBLE AND NON VOLATILE BECOME MINOR PART OF SLUDGE
    •  
    • IF SLUDGE IS
      • INCINERATED, SILICONE GETS CONVERTED TO SILICA, WATER AND CO 2
      • AS LAND FILL, INTRODUCE PDMS IN SOIL
      • NATURALLY GETS DEGRADED
      • THOUGH PDMS ARE HIGHLY RESISTANT TO BIO DEGRADATION
      • SOIL CONTACT BREAK DOWN TO LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT PRODUCTS
      • DECOPOSITION PRODUCTS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO BIOLOGICAL DECOMPOSITION EVENTUALLY TO NATURAL SILICA.
  • 44. EFFECTS
      • PDMS IS ECOLOGYCALLY INERT
      • NO EFFECT ON AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
      • DOES NOT INHIBIT BIOLOGICAL PROCESS DURING WASTE WATER TREATMENT
      • NO ADVERSE EFFET ON SEED GERMINATION OR PLANT SURVIVAL
      • DO NOT BIO CONCENTRATE IN AQUATIC LIFE
      • NO ADVERSE EFFECT ON AQUATIC LIFE AND ANIMAL LIFE
      • NO SIGNIFICANT BOD
      • NO THREAT TO INSECT POPULATION AND BIRDS
  • 45. WATER RESISTANT BREATHABLE FINISH  
      • IMPERMEABLE TO WATER DROPLET
      • ALLOW THE ESCAPE OF WATER VAPOUR
      • POSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE BECAUSE OF SIZE DIFFERENCE
      •   LIQUID WATER MOLECULAR SIZE 100 MICRONS DIAMETER
      •   WATER VAPOUR MOLECULAR SIZE 0.0004 MICRONS
      •   SIZE DIFFERENCE FACTOR 2,50,000
      •   SUCH GARMENTS DESIGNED FOR
      •   SPORTS WEAR
      •   SKI WEAR
      •   TRACK SUITS
      •   RAIN WEAR
      •   MOUNTENEERING CLOTHING
  • 46. CLASSIFICATION OF BREATHABLE FABRICS  
      • HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS
      •     LAMINATED FABRICS
      •     COATED FABRICS
  • 47. HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS
      • OBTAINED BY DENSLY WEAVING FINE SMOOTH MICRO FIBRE YARNS
      • WIND PROOF
      •   EXCELLENT WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY
      •   NOT WATER RESISTANT EVEN AFTER FINISHING
      •   USED FOR HIGH FASHION SKI CLOTHING WHERE WIND PROOFING AND WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY ARE IMPORTANT
      • USED AS OUTER COVER GARMENT AS WIND CHEATER
  • 48. LAMINATED FABRICS
      • ROTORY SCREEN OR SPRAY COATING OF FABRIC WITH BREATHABLE ADHESIVE
      • LAMINATION OF MICRO POROUS BREATHABLE BARRIER FILM LIKE PTFE
      • BREATHABLE FILMS ARE MADE THROUGH
      • BIAXIAL STRETCHING
      • MECHANICAL FIBRILATION
      •   CLAIM OF 9 BILLION MICRO PORES PER SQUARE INCH WITH A MAXIMUM PORE SIZE OF 0.2 MICRON
      • SUCH PTFE MEMBRANES ARE USED IN GORETEX TWO AND THREE LAYER LAMINATES OF POLYESTER FABRIC
  • 49. COATED FABRICS
    • IMPORTANT TECHNIQUES
      •       SOLVENT EXCHANGE
      •       PHASE SEPARATION
    •  
  • 50. SOLVENT EXCHANGE
      • DISSOLVE POLYMER IN WATER MISCIBLE SOLVENT
      • THIN COATING ON TO FABRIC
      •   DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO POROUS STRUCTURE BY PASSAGE THROUGH AQUEOUS POLYMER COAGULATION BATH
    •   EXAMPLE
      • POLYMER: POLYURETHANE
      • SOLVENT: DMF
    •  
  • 51. PHASE SEPARATION
      • DISSOLUTION OF COATING POLYMER IN A MIXTURE OF
      • SOLVENT AND HIGH BOILING POINT NON SOLVENT MIXTURE
      •       COAT THE POLYMER, DRY
      •       EVAPORATION OF SOLVENT DURING DRYING
      •       NON SOLVENT STILL PRESENT
      •       PRECIPITATION OF POLYMER AS MICRO POROUS LAYER
    •  
    • UCE COAT 2000 (UCB SPECIALITY CHEMICALS)
      •       POLY URETHANE COATING
      •       SOLVENT: LOW BOILING METHYL ETHYLE KETONE
      •       NON SOLVENT: HIGH BOILING PEG
      •       HIGHLY MICRO POROUS COATING ON DRYING
      •       REMOVAL OF PEG ON SUBSEQUENT WASHING.
  • 52. BIO FINISHING
      • APPLICATION OF CELLULASE ENZYMES FOR FINISHING OF CELLULOSIC FABRICS AND GARMENTS
      • CONCEPT DEVELOPED IN 1980’S
      • PRESENT MAJOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION
      • WASH DOWN OR WORN OUT LOOK (STONE WASH) ON INDIGO DYED DENIM
      • PROCESS KNOWN AS BIOSTONING
  • 53. MECHANISM
      •     CELLULASE CONSISTS OF THREE ENZYMES WORKING TOGETHER SYNERGISTICALLY
      • 1.  ENDOGLUCONASES OR ENDO CELLULASE : HYDROLYSE CELLULOSE RANDOMNLY
      • 2. CELLOBIOHYDROLASE OR EXO CELLULASE: ATTACK CHAIN ENDS AND PRODUCE CELLOBUOSE
      • 3. B-(1,4)-GLUCOSIDASE: HYDROLYZE CELLOBIOSE AND SMALL CHAIN OLIGOMERS TO GLUCOSE
  • 54. ENZYME TYPES
    • 1.  ACID STABLE (pH 4.5-5.5)
    • 2.  NEUTRAL (pH 6.5-7)
    • 3.  ALKALI STABLE (pH 9-10)
    •  
    • TEMPERATURE RANGE 40-60 o C
    •  
  • 55. BIO POLISHING
        • TREATMENT WITH CELLULASE ENZYM
        • PARTIAL SURFACE HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE
        • WEIGHT LOSS 3-5%
        • STRENGTH LOSS 2-7%
        • MERCERIZATION ENHANCES THE RATE OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS
        • MOST POPULAR FOR BIOSTONING OF INDIGO DYED GARMENTS
        • ELIMINATES OR DEVREASES QUANTITY OF PUMICE STONES THAT CAUSE DAMAGE TO MACHINE
        • AVOIDS OCCURRENCE OF PUMICE DUST IN ENVIRONMENT AND IN GARMENT CREATING HARSH HANDLE
        • NEUTRAL CELLULSES ARE PREFERRED FOR BIOSTONING.
  • 56. ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH
      • CLOTHING AND TEXTILE MATERIALS ARE CARRRIERS OF ORGANISMS SUCH AS
      • PATHOGENIC BACTERIA
      • ODOUR GENERATING BACTERIA
      • FUNGI
      • GROWING CONCERN ALL OVER THE WORLD ON THE DANGERS OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION
      • RECENT OUT BREAK OF DISEASES LIKE AIDS, HEPATITIS B HAVE INCREASED THE AWARENESS OF THESE HEALTH HAZARDS AND NEED FOR PROTECTION
      • NECESSARY TO IMPART ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH TO FABRIC OR GARMENT
  • 57. SURGICAL APPARELS
      • A SURGICAL PATIENT IS AT GREAT RISK AS THE BACTERIAL AND VIRAL DESEASES ARE SPREAD THROUGH AIR AND BLOOD
      • ANTI MICROBIAL FINISHED FABRIC PREVENT THE GROWTH DISEASE CAUSING MICROBES
      • ANTI MICROBIAL TREATMENT TO SURGICAL APPARELS IS ESSENTIAL
      • FOR THE PROTECTION OF PATIENT, DOCTOR AND NURSE
  • 58. UNDER GARMENTS AND BABY CLOTHING
      • ANTI MICROBIAL UNDER GARMENTS ARE USEFUL TO PREVENT SKIN RELATED DISEASES, URINARY TRACK INFECTION
      • SINCE INTERNAL INTAKE OF ANTI BIOTIC FOR INFANT IS NOT DESIRABLE PROTECTIVE ACTION MAY BE ACHIEVED THROUGH ANTI BACTERIAL CLOTHING
  • 59. REQUIREMENTS OF ANTI BACTERIAL FINISH
      • DURABILITY TO MULTIPLE LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING
      • NO TOXIC EFFECT ON WEARER
      • ACCEPTABLE MOISTURE TRANSFER PROPERTIES (BREATHABILITY)
      • COMPATIBILITY WITH AUXILIARIES AND OTHER FINISHING CHEMICALS
      • READY AVAILABILITY AT REASONABLE PRICE
      • SHOULD NOT AFFECT FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF DYES
  • 60. PROTECTION MECHANISM
    • CONTROLLED RELEASE
      • THE ANTI BACTERIAL AGENT IS RELEASED FROM FINISHED FABRIC AT A RATE SUFFICIENT TO KILL OR INHIBIT THE GROWTH OF BACTERIA
    • REGENERATION MODEL
      • SUBJECTING THE CONTAMINATED FABRIC TO AGENCY THAT WOULD DESTROY THE BACTERIA. e.g.
      • ADDITION OF BLEACHING AGENT DURING LAUNDERING
      •    EXPOSURE TO UV LIGHT
  • 61. PROTECTION MECHANISM
    • BARRIER OR BLOCKING
      • INSERTION OF PHYSICAL BARRIER FILM OR COATING WHICH IS IMPERVIOUS TO TRANSMISSION OF MICRO ORGANISMS THROUGH FABRIC
      • FILM OR COATING THAT HAVE DIRECT SURFACE CONTACT ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIAL GROWTH
  • 62. FINISHING TECHNIQUES
    • PAD-DRY-CURE
      • APPLICATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT ALONG WITH CROSS LINKING AGENT SUCH AS
      • VARIOUS TRADE PRODUCTS
      • CHITOSAN AND CITRIC ACID
      • POLY(HEXAMETHYLENE HYDROCHLORIDE) PHMB
      • METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TULSI LEAVES
  • 63. FINISHING TECHNIQUES
    • GRAFTING        
      • GRAFTING OF POLY-(2-METHYL-5-VINYL PYRIDINE) ONTO CELLULOSE
      • IMMERSION IN AQUEOUS KI SOLUTION
      • MATERIAL SLOWLY RELEASES IODINE TO IMPART ANTI BACTERIAL AND ANTI FUNGAL ACTIVITY
      • USED AS SURGICAL DRESSING
    •  
  • 64. FINISHING TECHNIQUES
    • BARRIER COATING
      • COATING OF DOW CORNING 5700 (3-TRI METHOXY SILYL PROPYL DIMETHYL OCTADECYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE) ORGANO SILICONE POLYMER
      • THE FINISH IS EFFECTIVE IN INHIBITING THE GROWTH OF ODOUR CAUSING BACTERIA
      • STABLE TO 40 WASHES
  • 65. SOIL AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES
      • IMPORTANT FOR LEISURE WEAR AND SPORTS WEAR WHERE SOILING IS MORE
      • IMPORTANT FOR EASY CARE FINISHED GARMENTS
      • MAJORITY OF SOIL RELEASE FINISHES ARE BASED ON
      • MAKING FIBRE SURFACE HYDROPHILIC
  • 66. SOIL AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES
      • THREE MAJOR GROUP OF FINISHES CONTAINING
      • -COOH GROUPS
      • OXYETHYLENE O/OR HYDROXYL GROUPS
    • FINISHES CONTAINING –COOH, OXYETHYLENE, -OH GROUPS MAY BE INCORPORATED IN THE EASY CARE FINISH BATH
    • IMPROVE SOIL AND OIL STAIN RELEASE DRAMATICALLY
      • FLURO CHEMICALS
    • PROVIDE GOOD SOIL, STAIN RELEASE AND WATER REPELLENCY
  • 67. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES  
    • TRADITIONAL FINISH APPLICATION
      •       PADDING
      •       LOW WET PICK UP TECHNIQUES LIKE
      •       LICK ROLL
      •       POROUS BOWL
      •       VACUUM EXTRACTION
      •       FOAM APPLICTION
    • ALTERNATE METHODS
      •       LAMINATION
      •       COATING
  • 68. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES  
    • NEXTEC PROCESS
    • ·      PATENTED BY NEXTEC APPLICATIONS Inc., USA
    • ·      NOVEL PROCESS
    • ·      INDIVIDUAL FIBRES WITHIN FABRIC ARE ENCAPSULATED OR WRAPPED WITH ULTRA THIN FILM OF POLYMER
    • ·      CAN BE USED TO IMPART BREATHABLE WATER RESISTANT FINISH TO FABRIC WITHOUT AFFECTING THE FABRIC HANDLE
    • ·      ALSO POSSIBLE TO IMPART
    • ·      WRINKLE RESISTANCE,
    • ·      SOIL RELEASE, STAIN RESISTANCE,
    • ·      UV PROTECTION
    • ·      FLAME RESISTANCE
    • ·      MICROBIAL BARRIER
  • 69. NEXTEC PROCESS
    • THIS UNIQUE FIBRE ENCAPSULATION PROCESS ACHIEVED USING
    • S ILICONE BASED POLYMERS
    • POLYURETHANE
    • POLYACRYLIC POLYMERS
    • THE PROCESS WOULD OPEN UP MANY
    • OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROVIDING MULTI FUNCTIONAL FINISHES TO COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS
    •  
  • 70. PLASMA TREATMENT
    • TREATMENT WITH IONIZED GASES PRODUCED BY ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE
    • ·      HIGHLY SURFACE SPECIFIC
    • ·      DOES NOT AFFECT BULK PROPERTIED
    • THE SURFACE PROPERTIES ENHANCED INCLUDE
    • ·      WETTABILITY
    • ·      ADHESION
    • ·      CROSS LINKING
    • ·      BIO COMPATIBILITY
    • ·      CHEMICAL AFFINITY OR INERTNESS
    •  
  • 71. MERITS
    • ·      LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION
    • ·      DRY TREATMENT
    • ·      ENVIRONMENT FRIEDNDLY
    • ·      OFFER SCOPE FOR IMPROVEMENT IN FUNCTIONAL FINISHES FOR COTTON
    •  
  • 72. USE OF BIO TECHNOLOGY
    • BY THE NEXT DECADE GENETIC MANIPULATION OF COTTON GENE MAY USHER NEW COTTON VARIETIES WITH IPROVED PROPERTIES TO PRODUCE INNOVATIVE EFFECTS THROUGH FINSHING
  • 73. UV PROTECTION
    • ·     INCREASED HEALTH PROBLEMS ON EXPOSURE OF SKIN TO UV RADIATIONS DUE DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER
    • ·     UV PROTECTION CAN BE IMPARTED BYTREATMENT OF FABRICS OR GARMENTS WITH SELECTED UV ABSORBERS
  • 74. CONCLUSIONS
    • · DESIRABLE PROPERTIES CAN BE IMPARTED TO COTTON BY APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES
    • ·      IMPROVE QUALITY OF COTTON
    • ·      GIVE VALUE ADDITION
    • ·      MANY INNOVATIVE IDEAS ARE BEING EXPLORED IN THE FIELD OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES
    • ·      IN THE NEXT DECADE QUITE A FEW NEW CONCEPTS MAY BE INTRODUCE FOR IMPARTING DESIRABLE PROPERTIES TO COTTON FABRIC AND GARMENTS.
    •