DEVELOPMENTS IN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FINISHES FOR COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS R.B.Chavan Dept. of Textile Technology, Indi...
PRESENT CONCEPT <ul><ul><li>POLLUTERS MUST PAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CRADLE TO GRAVE  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
COTTON DOMINATES <ul><ul><ul><li>READILY AVAILABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFFORDABLE PRICE </li></ul></ul></u...
CONVENTIONAL COTTON   <ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL COTTON IS NOT ECO  FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE OF FERTILIZERS, ...
<ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON CULTIVATED WITHOUT USING FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS (ORGANIC FARMING) </li></ul></u...
NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>CULTIVATION SINCE ANCIENT TIME </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PISTA GREEN, ...
ECO FRIENDLY FUNCTIONAL  FINISHES <ul><ul><li>FINISHING TEATMENTS HELP TO  MAKE CONSUMER SALEABLE PRODUCT </li></ul></ul><...
IMPORTANT FINISHES FOR COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>EASY CARE/DURABLE PRESS/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
EASY CARE/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING <ul><ul><ul><li>CREASING/WRINKLE FORMATION DURING USE AND ON WASHING OF COTTON GARMENTS <...
<ul><li>FABRIC FINISHING </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRE CURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POST CURE </li></ul></ul><...
PRE CURE PROCESS <ul><li>  PAD    DRY    CURE </li></ul><ul><li>  ·    MOST POPULAR PROCESS FOR  FABRIC FINISHING </li><...
POST CURE PROCESS <ul><ul><li>PAD    DRY  AT MILL LEVEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSITIZED FABRIC </li></ul></ul><ul><...
STEPS <ul><ul><ul><li>PAD (60-70% PICK UP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DRY AT 70 o C,  8-10% MOISTURE CONTENT </li...
PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>PRE FINISHING STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>    GOOD ABSORBANCY (<3sec) </li></ul><ul><li>    FREE FROM SIZE...
PRECAUTIONS <ul><ul><li>TO AVOID PRE MATURED CROSS  LINKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAREFUL STORAGE OF SENSITIZED  </li...
FINISHING IN GARMENT FORM <ul><li>MERITS </li></ul><ul><li>PERMANENT CREASE SETING AT DESIRED PLACES </li></ul><ul><li>NO ...
POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED <ul><li>CAREFUL SELECTION OF </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEWING THREAD, BUTTON, ZIPS </li></ul></ul>...
GARMENT FINISHING METHODS <ul><ul><ul><li>DIP PROCESS  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TUMBLE PROCESS </li></ul></ul><...
DIP PROCESS <ul><ul><ul><li>DIP GARMENT IN FINISH BATH (INSIDE OUT, M:L :: 1:5) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WASHIN...
TUMBLE METHOD <ul><ul><ul><li>PLACE GARMENTS (INSIDE OUT) IN WASHING MACHINE DRUM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SATU...
IMPORTANT FEATURES <ul><ul><ul><li>M:L:: 1:0.85 –1:1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TUMBLE ROTATION SPEED 28-30 rpm <...
CHEMICALS USED <ul><ul><li>CROSS LINKING AGENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYDE DMDHEU </li></ul><ul><li>EXTRNAL OR...
TYPICAL APPLICATION RECIPE <ul><li>CROSS LINKING AGENT 40-120 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>MgCl 2   10-25 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>C...
FINISHING STAGE <ul><ul><li>AFTER DRYING RESIDUAL MOISTURE  CONTENT SHOULD  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT BE < 10%.  </li...
<ul><ul><li>STONE WASH AND OTHER   FINISHES ARE GIVEN BEFORE  WRINKLE FREE FINISH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE LOWER (I5...
QUALITY CONTROL   <ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL  TESTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRY AND WET CRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMOOTH...
CHEMICAL TEST <ul><ul><ul><li>Cuen TEST (1N CUPRIETHYLENE DIAMINE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROXIDE) </li></ul...
SWELLING RATING MEANING <ul><li>NONE 5 FULLYCROSS  LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>SLIGHT OR NONE 4 GOOD CROSS  LINKED </li></ul>...
ECO FRIENDLY CROSS LINKING AGENTS <ul><ul><li>MOST POPULAR CROSS LINKING AGENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYD...
  CONTROL OF FORMALDEHYDE RELEASE FROM DMDHEU   <ul><ul><li>WASH AFTER FINISH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADDITION OF FORMA...
POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS (PCAs)   <ul><ul><li>WELCH IN 1998 REPORTED THE USE  OF  BTCA FOR CROSS LINKING OF COTTON </li></ul><...
CITRIC ACID  <ul><ul><li>LOW PRICED TRICABOXYLIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LESS EFFECTIVE, LESS DURABLE  COMPARED TO...
MECHANISM OF PCA CROSS LINKING <ul><ul><li>DMDHEU FORMS ETHER BONDS WITH COTTON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCA FORMS ESTER...
OTHER CARBOXYLIC ACIDS <ul><ul><li>PCA OTHER THAN BTCA SUITABLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIVE CRA IN THE RANGE OF 285 </...
DEMERITS OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>PHOSPHATE CATALYSTS  NON ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>    MOST EFFECTIVE IS ...
COST OF BTCA <ul><ul><li>HIGH COST OF BTCA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  WAYS TO REDUCE COST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOP...
YELLOWING EFFECT OF CA <ul><ul><li>UNDER CURING CONDITIONS  PRODUCTS FORMED ARE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRANS ACONITIC ...
MINIMIZATION OF YELLOWING <ul><ul><li>INCORPORATE TEA, N,N BIS HYDROXYETHYL  GLYCINE, BORIC ACID OR PEG </li></ul></ul><ul...
POOR WASH FASTNESS OF FINISH <ul><ul><li>PRESENCE OF OH IN CA REDUCES THE  STABILITY OF ESTER BOND WITH CELLULOSE DURING A...
SUMMARY OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>HIGH COST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CATALYST </li></ul></ul><u...
SOFTENERS <ul><ul><li>SILICONE SOFTENERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li> ...
SILICONE SOFTENERS <ul><li>REACTIVE SILICONES       </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDMS POLYMER MODIFIED WITH SILANE H OR SILANOL F...
ECO FRIENDLINESS <ul><ul><li>PDMS PRESENT IN EFFLUENT IN THE FORM OF TINY  DISPERSED DROPLETS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
EFFECTS <ul><ul><li>PDMS IS ECOLOGYCALLY INERT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO EFFECT ON AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC  BACTERIA </li...
WATER RESISTANT BREATHABLE FINISH   <ul><ul><li>IMPERMEABLE TO WATER DROPLET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALLOW THE ESCAPE O...
CLASSIFICATION OF BREATHABLE FABRICS   <ul><ul><li>HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>    LAMINATED FAB...
HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS <ul><ul><li>OBTAINED BY DENSLY WEAVING FINE  SMOOTH MICRO FIBRE YARNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
LAMINATED FABRICS <ul><ul><li>ROTORY SCREEN OR SPRAY COATING OF  FABRIC WITH BREATHABLE ADHESIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
COATED FABRICS <ul><li>IMPORTANT TECHNIQUES  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>       SOLVENT EXCHANGE  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   ...
SOLVENT EXCHANGE   <ul><ul><li>DISSOLVE POLYMER IN WATER MISCIBLE SOLVENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THIN COATING ON TO FA...
PHASE SEPARATION <ul><ul><li>DISSOLUTION OF COATING POLYMER IN A MIXTURE  OF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOLVENT AND HIGH B...
BIO FINISHING <ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF CELLULASE  ENZYMES FOR FINISHING OF  CELLULOSIC FABRICS AND GARMENTS </li></ul></...
MECHANISM <ul><ul><li>    CELLULASE CONSISTS OF THREE ENZYMES WORKING TOGETHER SYNERGISTICALLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
ENZYME TYPES <ul><li>1.  ACID STABLE  (pH 4.5-5.5) </li></ul><ul><li>2.  NEUTRAL  (pH 6.5-7) </li></ul><ul><li>3.  ALKALI ...
BIO POLISHING <ul><ul><ul><li>TREATMENT WITH CELLULASE ENZYM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PARTIAL SURFACE HYDROLYSI...
ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH <ul><ul><li>CLOTHING AND TEXTILE MATERIALS ARE CARRRIERS OF ORGANISMS SUCH AS   </li></ul></ul><ul><...
SURGICAL APPARELS <ul><ul><li>A SURGICAL PATIENT IS AT GREAT RISK AS THE BACTERIAL AND VIRAL DESEASES ARE SPREAD THROUGH A...
UNDER GARMENTS AND BABY CLOTHING <ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL UNDER GARMENTS ARE USEFUL TO PREVENT SKIN RELATED DISEASES, UR...
REQUIREMENTS OF ANTI BACTERIAL FINISH <ul><ul><li>DURABILITY TO MULTIPLE  LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING </li></ul></ul><ul><...
PROTECTION MECHANISM   <ul><li>CONTROLLED RELEASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE ANTI BACTERIAL AGENT IS RELEASED FROM FINISHED...
PROTECTION MECHANISM   <ul><li>BARRIER OR BLOCKING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INSERTION OF PHYSICAL BARRIER FILM OR COATING WHI...
FINISHING TECHNIQUES   <ul><li>PAD-DRY-CURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT ALONG WITH CROSS LINK...
FINISHING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>GRAFTING          </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAFTING OF POLY-(2-METHYL-5-VINYL PYRIDINE) ONTO CEL...
FINISHING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>BARRIER COATING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COATING OF DOW CORNING 5700 (3-TRI METHOXY SILYL PROPYL...
SOIL AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES   <ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT FOR LEISURE WEAR AND SPORTS WEAR WHERE SOILING IS MORE </li></ul><...
SOIL AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES <ul><ul><li>THREE MAJOR GROUP OF FINISHES CONTAINING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-COOH GROU...
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES   <ul><li>TRADITIONAL FINISH APPLICATION   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>       PADDING </li></ul></ul><ul><...
EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES   <ul><li>NEXTEC PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>·       PATENTED BY NEXTEC APPLICATIONS Inc., USA </li></...
NEXTEC PROCESS   <ul><li>THIS UNIQUE FIBRE ENCAPSULATION PROCESS ACHIEVED USING </li></ul><ul><li>S ILICONE BASED POLYMERS...
PLASMA TREATMENT <ul><li>TREATMENT WITH IONIZED GASES PRODUCED BY ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE </li></ul><ul><li>·       HIGHLY SU...
MERITS <ul><li>·       LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION </li></ul><ul><li>·       DRY TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>·       ENVIRONMEN...
USE OF BIO TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>BY THE NEXT DECADE GENETIC MANIPULATION OF COTTON GENE MAY USHER NEW COTTON VARIETIES  WITH ...
UV PROTECTION <ul><li>·     INCREASED HEALTH PROBLEMS ON  EXPOSURE OF SKIN TO UV  RADIATIONS DUE DEPLETION OF  OZONE LAYER...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>· DESIRABLE PROPERTIES CAN BE IMPARTED TO  COTTON BY APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL  FINISHES </li></ul><ul...
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  1. 1. DEVELOPMENTS IN ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY FINISHES FOR COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS R.B.Chavan Dept. of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz-Khas, New Delhi 110016
  2. 2. PRESENT CONCEPT <ul><ul><li>POLLUTERS MUST PAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CRADLE TO GRAVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WOMB TO TOMB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT ONLY FINAL PRODUCT BE ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAW MATERIALS, PRODUCTION PROCESSES, PACKAGING, ECO FRENDLY EVEN AFTER DIPOSAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MEET EMS 14000 AND SAS 1800 STANDARDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTS INDENTIFIED BY ECO LABLES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GREEN MINDED CONSUMER PREFER ECO PRODUCTS EVEN AT HIGH COST </li></ul>
  3. 3. COTTON DOMINATES <ul><ul><ul><li>READILY AVAILABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFFORDABLE PRICE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROPHILIC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COMFORTABLE IN TROPICAL CLIMATE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BEING NATURAL ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CONVENTIONAL COTTON <ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL COTTON IS NOT ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE OF FERTILIZERS, PESTICIDES AND VARIOUS CROPS RELATED CHEMICALS DURING COTTON CULTIVATION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENCE OF THESE CHEMICALS AS RESIDUE ON COTTON BOLLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WASHED AWAY DURING PREPARATORY PROCESSES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WATER POLLUTION </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON CULTIVATED WITHOUT USING FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS (ORGANIC FARMING) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RESIDUE OF THESE CHEMICALS REMOVED DURING FIRST TWO SEASONS OF CULTIVATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON FROM THIRD SEASON ONWARDS IS ECO FRIENDLY COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDENTIFIED BY LOGOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIC COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GREEN COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul>ECO FRIENDLY COTTON
  6. 6. NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>CULTIVATION SINCE ANCIENT TIME </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PISTA GREEN, BROWN ARE POPULAR COLOURS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT POPULAR ON COMMERCIAL SCALE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOW STAPLE LENGTH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFERIOR STRENGTH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POOR SPINABILITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REVIVAL OF NATURALLY COLOUR COTTON CULTIVATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT TO BE DYED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELIMINATE POLLUTION CAUSED DURING DYEING </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ECO FRIENDLY FUNCTIONAL FINISHES <ul><ul><li>FINISHING TEATMENTS HELP TO MAKE CONSUMER SALEABLE PRODUCT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VALUE ADDITION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPART DESIR A BLE PROPERTIES </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. IMPORTANT FINISHES FOR COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>EASY CARE/DURABLE PRESS/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOFTENING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ENZYME/BIO FINISHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WATER PROOF BREATHABLE FINISHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SOIL RELEASE AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL FINISHES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>UV PROTECTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EMERGING FINISHES </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. EASY CARE/WRINKLE FREE FINISHING <ul><ul><ul><li>CREASING/WRINKLE FORMATION DURING USE AND ON WASHING OF COTTON GARMENTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AFTER WASH MAINTENANCE EXPENSIVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TREATMENT WITH CROSS LINKING AGENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TRADITIONALLY KNOWN AS RESIN FINSHING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IMPART CREASE RESISTANT PROPERTY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOSS IN STRENGTH </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>FABRIC FINISHING </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRE CURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POST CURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GARMENT FINSIHING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIP OR TUMBLE PROCESSES </li></ul></ul>PROCESS ROUTE
  11. 11. PRE CURE PROCESS <ul><li> PAD  DRY  CURE </li></ul><ul><li> ·    MOST POPULAR PROCESS FOR FABRIC FINISHING </li></ul><ul><li>·    UNIFORM DISTRUBUTION OF CHEMICALS </li></ul><ul><li>·    BETTER PROCESS CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li> · CARRIED OUT AT MILL LEVEL </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. POST CURE PROCESS <ul><ul><li>PAD  DRY AT MILL LEVEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SENSITIZED FABRIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRANSPORT TO GARMENT UNIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GARMENT MAKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESSING TO SET CREASES AT DESIRED PLACES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CURE </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. STEPS <ul><ul><ul><li>PAD (60-70% PICK UP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DRY AT 70 o C, 8-10% MOISTURE CONTENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SANFORIZE (NO MOISTURE SPRAY) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GARMENT MAKING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GARMENT PRESSING </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GARMENT CURING 150-160 o C </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. PRECAUTIONS <ul><li>PRE FINISHING STAGE </li></ul><ul><li>    GOOD ABSORBANCY (<3sec) </li></ul><ul><li>    FREE FROM SIZE </li></ul><ul><li>    HIGH TENSILE AND TEAR STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>   SUFFICIENT TO REMAIN ACCEPTABLE EVEN AFTER 50% LOSS ON FINISHING </li></ul><ul><li>    USE MERCERIZED COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>    ADEQUATE DYE FASTNESS </li></ul><ul><li>    FREE FROM SOFTENER BEFORE FINISHING </li></ul>
  15. 15. PRECAUTIONS <ul><ul><li>TO AVOID PRE MATURED CROSS LINKING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAREFUL STORAGE OF SENSITIZED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  FABRIC, SHIPMENT BY AIR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANY STORE UNDER REFRIGERATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHOULD NOT BE STORED MORE THAN 3 MONTHS </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. FINISHING IN GARMENT FORM <ul><li>MERITS </li></ul><ul><li>PERMANENT CREASE SETING AT DESIRED PLACES </li></ul><ul><li>NO RISK OF PRE MATURED CROSS LINKING </li></ul><ul><li>GARMENT SEAM PUCKERING MINIMIZED </li></ul>
  17. 17. POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED <ul><li>CAREFUL SELECTION OF </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SEWING THREAD, BUTTON, ZIPS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STABLE TO BATH CHEMICALS, HEAT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FINISHING IN GARMENT FORM OFFERS ONLY ONE CHANCE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ANY THING WRONG CAN NOT BE RECTIFIED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RESIN STRIPPING AND REPROCESSING CAUSES MORE DAMAGE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. GARMENT FINISHING METHODS <ul><ul><ul><li>DIP PROCESS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TUMBLE PROCESS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. DIP PROCESS <ul><ul><ul><li>DIP GARMENT IN FINISH BATH (INSIDE OUT, M:L :: 1:5) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WASHING MACHINE MAY BE USED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROTATE FOR 20 min. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROEXTRACT (70-80% PICK UP) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TUMBLE DRY AT 70 o c, MOISTURE CONTENT 10-12% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TURN THE GARMENT RIGHT SIDE OUT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IRO/STEAM PRESS TO SET CREASES AT DESIRED PLACES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CURE AT 150 o c – 160 o c for 8-10 min </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EXTRACTED SOLUTION MAY BE REUSED </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. TUMBLE METHOD <ul><ul><ul><li>PLACE GARMENTS (INSIDE OUT) IN WASHING MACHINE DRUM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SATURATE WITH FINISH BATH BY SPRAY APPLICATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ROTATE DRUM FOR 20 min </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TAKE CARE TO AVOID EXCESSIVE DRIPPING OF CHEMICALS FROM GARMENT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IF DRY SPOT, RESATURATE, TUMBLE FOR ADDITIONAL TIME </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROEXTRACT </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>OTHER STEPS SAME AS EARLIER PROCESS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. IMPORTANT FEATURES <ul><ul><ul><li>M:L:: 1:0.85 –1:1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TUMBLE ROTATION SPEED 28-30 rpm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TUMBLE DRYING TEMP. SHOULD NOT EXCEED 70 o c </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOISTURE RETENTION AFTER DRYING 10-12%, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IF LESS RESATURATE AND DRY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOAD SIZE 50 Kg. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CHEMICALS USED <ul><ul><li>CROSS LINKING AGENT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYDE DMDHEU </li></ul><ul><li>EXTRNAL OR BUILT IN CATALYST SYSTEM AND BUFFER </li></ul><ul><li>CATALYST </li></ul><ul><li>MOST COMMON MgCl 2 , CITRIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>WETTING AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH DENSITY PE EMULSION </li></ul><ul><li>IMPART HAND </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE TEAR STRENGTH, ABRASION RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li> AMINO OR REACTIVE SILICONE </li></ul><ul><li>IMPART SOFT HAND </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE WRINKLE RECOVERY </li></ul><ul><li> SILICONE ELASTOMER </li></ul><ul><li>IMPART SPRINGINESS </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li> ACRYLATES </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE SOIL RELEASE </li></ul>
  23. 23. TYPICAL APPLICATION RECIPE <ul><li>CROSS LINKING AGENT 40-120 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>MgCl 2 10-25 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>CITRIC ACID 0.3 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>SOFTENER (COMBINATION) 40 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>WETTING AGENT 1 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>pH 4-4.5 </li></ul>
  24. 24. FINISHING STAGE <ul><ul><li>AFTER DRYING RESIDUAL MOISTURE CONTENT SHOULD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT BE < 10%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW MOISTURE GIVES HIGH DRY CRA, LOSS IN STRENGTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOOD WET CRA WHEN MOISTURE AFTER DRYING IS HIGH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SULPHUR DYED GARMENT SHOULD BE AVOIDED, LIBERATE ACID, PREMATURE RESIN CURING, LOSS IN STRENGTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1-2% UREA ADDITION IN FINISH BATH CONTROLS FORMALDEHYDE RELEASE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UREA REDUCES EFFICIENCY OF FINISH BATH, TAKE 10% EXTRA RESIN </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>STONE WASH AND OTHER FINISHES ARE GIVEN BEFORE WRINKLE FREE FINISH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE LOWER (I50 o c) FOR WHITE GARMENTS TO AVOID YELLOWING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POCKETS,BELT,LOOPS,LABLES, SEWINGTHREAD,BUTTONS,ZIPPERS SHOULD BE RESISTANT TO FINISH BATH CHEMICALS AND CURING HEAT </li></ul></ul>GARMENT STAGE
  26. 26. QUALITY CONTROL <ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL TESTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRY AND WET CRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SMOOTH APPEARANCE RATING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>%RESIN ADD-ON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TENSILE STRENGTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABRASION RESISTANCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DIMENSIONAL STBILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. CHEMICAL TEST <ul><ul><ul><li>Cuen TEST (1N CUPRIETHYLENE DIAMINE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HYDROXIDE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PULL FIBRES FROM YARN OF THE FINISHED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GARMENT (FROM THE BACKSIDE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·      PUT ON MICROSCOPIC SLIDE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·      PUT 1-2 DROPS OF Cuen SOLUTION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>      PUT COVER SLIDE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·      OBSERVE AFTER 15 min UNDER MICROSCOPE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·      RATING 3-4 IS ACEPTABLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>·  RATING < 3 FAILS, LOW CROSSLINKS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RATING > 4 FAILS, HEAVY STRENGTH LOSS </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. SWELLING RATING MEANING <ul><li>NONE 5 FULLYCROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>SLIGHT OR NONE 4 GOOD CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATE 3 MODERATE CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>MODERATE TO 2 PRTIALLY CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>HEAVY </li></ul><ul><li>HEAVY, RAPID 1 LOW CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>RAPID AND 0 NO CROSS LINKED </li></ul><ul><li>DISSOLVES </li></ul>
  29. 29. ECO FRIENDLY CROSS LINKING AGENTS <ul><ul><li>MOST POPULAR CROSS LINKING AGENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYDE (DMDHEU) OR ETHERIFIED (DMeDHEU) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EFFICIENT AND COST EFFECTIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RELEASE OF FORMALDEHYDE DURING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRYING AND CURING, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GARMENT STORAGE AND USE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WORLD WIDE CONCERN BECAUSE OF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>KNOWN TO BE CARCINOGENIC AND DERMATITIS EFFECTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCEPTABLE FORMALDEHYDE LEVEL 20 ppm </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30.   CONTROL OF FORMALDEHYDE RELEASE FROM DMDHEU   <ul><ul><li>WASH AFTER FINISH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADDITION OF FORMALDEHYDE ACCEPTOR/SCAVENGER LIKE UREA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MODIFICATION OF DMDHEU TO PRODUCE ZERO FORMALDEHYDE ETHERIFIED PRODUCT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ETHERIFIED DMDHEU IS MORE EXPENSIVE AND LESS EFFECTIVE </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS (PCAs)   <ul><ul><li>WELCH IN 1998 REPORTED THE USE OF BTCA FOR CROSS LINKING OF COTTON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CATALYST SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOOD CRA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOOD STRENGTH RETENTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DURABLE TO WASHING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXCEEDINGLY HIGH COST PREVENTED COMMERCIALIZATION  </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. CITRIC ACID <ul><ul><li>LOW PRICED TRICABOXYLIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LESS EFFECTIVE, LESS DURABLE COMPARED TO BTCA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YELLOWING ON CURING </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. MECHANISM OF PCA CROSS LINKING <ul><ul><li>DMDHEU FORMS ETHER BONDS WITH COTTON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCA FORMS ESTER BONDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESTERIFICATION IN TWO STEPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STEP 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DEHYDRATION OF TWO ADJACENT COOH GROUPS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FORMATION OF ANHYDRIDE UNDER CURING CONDITIONS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>STEP 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ESTERIFICATION WITH CELLULOSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REACTION ACCELERATED IN PRESENCE OF ALKALI METAL SALTS OF PHOSPHORUS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SODIUM HYPOPHOSPHITE MONO HYDRIDE (NaH 2 PO 2 .H 2 O) MOST SATISFACORY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CATALYST ACCELERATE THE RATE OF ANHYDRIDE FORMATION AND CROSS LINKING </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. OTHER CARBOXYLIC ACIDS <ul><ul><li>PCA OTHER THAN BTCA SUITABLE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIVE CRA IN THE RANGE OF 285 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DP RATING 4.3 - 4.7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARIATION IN DURABILITY TO ALKALINE WASHING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER OF DURABILITY - </li></ul><ul><li>  BTCA>CA>MALEIC ACID>SUCCINIC ACID </li></ul>
  35. 35. DEMERITS OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>PHOSPHATE CATALYSTS NON ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>    MOST EFFECTIVE IS SODIUM HYPO PHOSPHITE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     EXPENSIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     REDUCING AGENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     AFFECT SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONSUME LARGE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN FROM WATER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  INFLUENCE AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECENT ATTEMPTS TO USE TRI SODIUM CITRATE OR COMBINATION OF SODIUM OXALATE AND SODIUM FORMATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAFE TO SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAFE TO AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. COST OF BTCA <ul><ul><li>HIGH COST OF BTCA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  WAYS TO REDUCE COST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOPHISTICATED MANUFACTURE PROCESS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE BTCA PASTE FORM WITHOUT PURIFICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FINISHING COST MAY BE REDUCED BY MIXING OTHER PCAs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TEA MAY BE USED TO REDUCE FINISHING COST AND IMPROVE FABRIC STRENGTH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  37. 37. YELLOWING EFFECT OF CA <ul><ul><li>UNDER CURING CONDITIONS PRODUCTS FORMED ARE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TRANS ACONITIC ACID, ITACONIC ACID, CITRACONIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YELLOW IN COLOUR </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. MINIMIZATION OF YELLOWING <ul><ul><li>INCORPORATE TEA, N,N BIS HYDROXYETHYL GLYCINE, BORIC ACID OR PEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TEA IS MOST EFFECTIVE TO SUPPRESS YELLOWING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   OH IN TEA REACT WITH OH IN CA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   PREVENT CA TO DECOMPOSE TO UNSATURATED ACIDS UNDER CURING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FORMATION OF ACIDS RESPONSIBLE FOR YELLOWING PREVENTED </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. POOR WASH FASTNESS OF FINISH <ul><ul><li>PRESENCE OF OH IN CA REDUCES THE STABILITY OF ESTER BOND WITH CELLULOSE DURING ALKALINE WASH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAY OUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MODIFY OH IN CA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INCORPORATE POLY MALEIC ACID (PMA) IN FINISH BATH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-COOH OF PMA REACTS WITH OH OF CA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  BLOCKS OH GROUP IN CA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  ENHANCE WASH FASTNESS OF FINISH </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. SUMMARY OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>HIGH COST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CATALYST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YELLOWING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THESE PROBLEMS ARE UNDER INVESTIGATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOME HAVE BEEN SATISFACTORILY SOLVED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN NEAR FUTURE PCA WOULD REPLACE CONVENTIONAL DMDHEU BASED CROSS LINKING AGENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECENT APPROACH IS TO USE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMBINATION OF HOMOPOLYMER OF PMA AND TER POLYMER OF MALEIC ACID, ACRYLIC ACID AND VINYL ALCOHOL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FINISH EQUIVALENT TO DMDHEU </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. SOFTENERS <ul><ul><li>SILICONE SOFTENERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>  NON REACTIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   REACTIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   ORGANO FUNCTIONAL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>NON REACTIVE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BASED ON POLY DIMETHYL SILOXANES (PDMS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOFTENING EFFECT NOT DURABLE DUE TO ABSENCE OF REACTIVE GROUPS </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. SILICONE SOFTENERS <ul><li>REACTIVE SILICONES       </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDMS POLYMER MODIFIED WITH SILANE H OR SILANOL FUNCTIONAL GROUP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BETTER DURABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  ORGANO FUNCTIONAL SILLICONES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANO FUNCTIONAL REACTIVE GROUPS INTRODUCED IN PDMS (AMINE, EPOXIDE, CARBOXY etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPROVE ORIENTATION AND SUBSTANTIVITY ON FIBRE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VERY SOFT FINISH (SUPER SOFT) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  43. 43. ECO FRIENDLINESS <ul><ul><li>PDMS PRESENT IN EFFLUENT IN THE FORM OF TINY DISPERSED DROPLETS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATTACH TO SUSPENDED SOLIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BEING WATER INSOLUBLE AND NON VOLATILE BECOME MINOR PART OF SLUDGE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>IF SLUDGE IS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INCINERATED, SILICONE GETS CONVERTED TO SILICA, WATER AND CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AS LAND FILL, INTRODUCE PDMS IN SOIL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NATURALLY GETS DEGRADED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THOUGH PDMS ARE HIGHLY RESISTANT TO BIO DEGRADATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOIL CONTACT BREAK DOWN TO LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT PRODUCTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DECOPOSITION PRODUCTS ARE SUSCEPTIBLE TO BIOLOGICAL DECOMPOSITION EVENTUALLY TO NATURAL SILICA. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. EFFECTS <ul><ul><li>PDMS IS ECOLOGYCALLY INERT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO EFFECT ON AEROBIC OR ANAEROBIC BACTERIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DOES NOT INHIBIT BIOLOGICAL PROCESS DURING WASTE WATER TREATMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO ADVERSE EFFET ON SEED GERMINATION OR PLANT SURVIVAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DO NOT BIO CONCENTRATE IN AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO ADVERSE EFFECT ON AQUATIC LIFE AND ANIMAL LIFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO SIGNIFICANT BOD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO THREAT TO INSECT POPULATION AND BIRDS </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. WATER RESISTANT BREATHABLE FINISH   <ul><ul><li>IMPERMEABLE TO WATER DROPLET </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALLOW THE ESCAPE OF WATER VAPOUR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE BECAUSE OF SIZE DIFFERENCE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  LIQUID WATER MOLECULAR SIZE 100 MICRONS DIAMETER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  WATER VAPOUR MOLECULAR SIZE 0.0004 MICRONS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  SIZE DIFFERENCE FACTOR 2,50,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  SUCH GARMENTS DESIGNED FOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  SPORTS WEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  SKI WEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  TRACK SUITS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  RAIN WEAR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  MOUNTENEERING CLOTHING </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. CLASSIFICATION OF BREATHABLE FABRICS   <ul><ul><li>HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>    LAMINATED FABRICS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>    COATED FABRICS </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. HIGH DENSITY WOVEN FABRICS <ul><ul><li>OBTAINED BY DENSLY WEAVING FINE SMOOTH MICRO FIBRE YARNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WIND PROOF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  EXCELLENT WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  NOT WATER RESISTANT EVEN AFTER FINISHING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  USED FOR HIGH FASHION SKI CLOTHING WHERE WIND PROOFING AND WATER VAPOUR PERMEABILITY ARE IMPORTANT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USED AS OUTER COVER GARMENT AS WIND CHEATER </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. LAMINATED FABRICS <ul><ul><li>ROTORY SCREEN OR SPRAY COATING OF FABRIC WITH BREATHABLE ADHESIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LAMINATION OF MICRO POROUS BREATHABLE BARRIER FILM LIKE PTFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BREATHABLE FILMS ARE MADE THROUGH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIAXIAL STRETCHING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MECHANICAL FIBRILATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  CLAIM OF 9 BILLION MICRO PORES PER SQUARE INCH WITH A MAXIMUM PORE SIZE OF 0.2 MICRON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUCH PTFE MEMBRANES ARE USED IN GORETEX TWO AND THREE LAYER LAMINATES OF POLYESTER FABRIC </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. COATED FABRICS <ul><li>IMPORTANT TECHNIQUES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>      SOLVENT EXCHANGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      PHASE SEPARATION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  50. 50. SOLVENT EXCHANGE <ul><ul><li>DISSOLVE POLYMER IN WATER MISCIBLE SOLVENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THIN COATING ON TO FABRIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO POROUS STRUCTURE BY PASSAGE THROUGH AQUEOUS POLYMER COAGULATION BATH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  EXAMPLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>POLYMER: POLYURETHANE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOLVENT: DMF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  51. 51. PHASE SEPARATION <ul><ul><li>DISSOLUTION OF COATING POLYMER IN A MIXTURE OF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOLVENT AND HIGH BOILING POINT NON SOLVENT MIXTURE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      COAT THE POLYMER, DRY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      EVAPORATION OF SOLVENT DURING DRYING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      NON SOLVENT STILL PRESENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      PRECIPITATION OF POLYMER AS MICRO POROUS LAYER </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>UCE COAT 2000 (UCB SPECIALITY CHEMICALS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>      POLY URETHANE COATING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      SOLVENT: LOW BOILING METHYL ETHYLE KETONE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      NON SOLVENT: HIGH BOILING PEG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      HIGHLY MICRO POROUS COATING ON DRYING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      REMOVAL OF PEG ON SUBSEQUENT WASHING. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. BIO FINISHING <ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF CELLULASE ENZYMES FOR FINISHING OF CELLULOSIC FABRICS AND GARMENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONCEPT DEVELOPED IN 1980’S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENT MAJOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WASH DOWN OR WORN OUT LOOK (STONE WASH) ON INDIGO DYED DENIM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROCESS KNOWN AS BIOSTONING </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. MECHANISM <ul><ul><li>    CELLULASE CONSISTS OF THREE ENZYMES WORKING TOGETHER SYNERGISTICALLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.  ENDOGLUCONASES OR ENDO CELLULASE : HYDROLYSE CELLULOSE RANDOMNLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. CELLOBIOHYDROLASE OR EXO CELLULASE: ATTACK CHAIN ENDS AND PRODUCE CELLOBUOSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. B-(1,4)-GLUCOSIDASE: HYDROLYZE CELLOBIOSE AND SMALL CHAIN OLIGOMERS TO GLUCOSE </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. ENZYME TYPES <ul><li>1.  ACID STABLE (pH 4.5-5.5) </li></ul><ul><li>2.  NEUTRAL (pH 6.5-7) </li></ul><ul><li>3.  ALKALI STABLE (pH 9-10) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERATURE RANGE 40-60 o C </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  55. 55. BIO POLISHING <ul><ul><ul><li>TREATMENT WITH CELLULASE ENZYM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PARTIAL SURFACE HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WEIGHT LOSS 3-5% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STRENGTH LOSS 2-7% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MERCERIZATION ENHANCES THE RATE OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOST POPULAR FOR BIOSTONING OF INDIGO DYED GARMENTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELIMINATES OR DEVREASES QUANTITY OF PUMICE STONES THAT CAUSE DAMAGE TO MACHINE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AVOIDS OCCURRENCE OF PUMICE DUST IN ENVIRONMENT AND IN GARMENT CREATING HARSH HANDLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEUTRAL CELLULSES ARE PREFERRED FOR BIOSTONING. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH <ul><ul><li>CLOTHING AND TEXTILE MATERIALS ARE CARRRIERS OF ORGANISMS SUCH AS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PATHOGENIC BACTERIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ODOUR GENERATING BACTERIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FUNGI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GROWING CONCERN ALL OVER THE WORLD ON THE DANGERS OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECENT OUT BREAK OF DISEASES LIKE AIDS, HEPATITIS B HAVE INCREASED THE AWARENESS OF THESE HEALTH HAZARDS AND NEED FOR PROTECTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NECESSARY TO IMPART ANTI MICROBIAL FINISH TO FABRIC OR GARMENT </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. SURGICAL APPARELS <ul><ul><li>A SURGICAL PATIENT IS AT GREAT RISK AS THE BACTERIAL AND VIRAL DESEASES ARE SPREAD THROUGH AIR AND BLOOD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL FINISHED FABRIC PREVENT THE GROWTH DISEASE CAUSING MICROBES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL TREATMENT TO SURGICAL APPARELS IS ESSENTIAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FOR THE PROTECTION OF PATIENT, DOCTOR AND NURSE </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. UNDER GARMENTS AND BABY CLOTHING <ul><ul><li>ANTI MICROBIAL UNDER GARMENTS ARE USEFUL TO PREVENT SKIN RELATED DISEASES, URINARY TRACK INFECTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SINCE INTERNAL INTAKE OF ANTI BIOTIC FOR INFANT IS NOT DESIRABLE PROTECTIVE ACTION MAY BE ACHIEVED THROUGH ANTI BACTERIAL CLOTHING </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. REQUIREMENTS OF ANTI BACTERIAL FINISH <ul><ul><li>DURABILITY TO MULTIPLE LAUNDERING AND DRY CLEANING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO TOXIC EFFECT ON WEARER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACCEPTABLE MOISTURE TRANSFER PROPERTIES (BREATHABILITY) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COMPATIBILITY WITH AUXILIARIES AND OTHER FINISHING CHEMICALS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>READY AVAILABILITY AT REASONABLE PRICE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHOULD NOT AFFECT FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF DYES </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. PROTECTION MECHANISM <ul><li>CONTROLLED RELEASE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE ANTI BACTERIAL AGENT IS RELEASED FROM FINISHED FABRIC AT A RATE SUFFICIENT TO KILL OR INHIBIT THE GROWTH OF BACTERIA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REGENERATION MODEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBJECTING THE CONTAMINATED FABRIC TO AGENCY THAT WOULD DESTROY THE BACTERIA. e.g. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADDITION OF BLEACHING AGENT DURING LAUNDERING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   EXPOSURE TO UV LIGHT </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. PROTECTION MECHANISM <ul><li>BARRIER OR BLOCKING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INSERTION OF PHYSICAL BARRIER FILM OR COATING WHICH IS IMPERVIOUS TO TRANSMISSION OF MICRO ORGANISMS THROUGH FABRIC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FILM OR COATING THAT HAVE DIRECT SURFACE CONTACT ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIAL GROWTH </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. FINISHING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>PAD-DRY-CURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENT ALONG WITH CROSS LINKING AGENT SUCH AS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARIOUS TRADE PRODUCTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CHITOSAN AND CITRIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>POLY(HEXAMETHYLENE HYDROCHLORIDE) PHMB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TULSI LEAVES </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. FINISHING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>GRAFTING         </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GRAFTING OF POLY-(2-METHYL-5-VINYL PYRIDINE) ONTO CELLULOSE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMMERSION IN AQUEOUS KI SOLUTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MATERIAL SLOWLY RELEASES IODINE TO IMPART ANTI BACTERIAL AND ANTI FUNGAL ACTIVITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USED AS SURGICAL DRESSING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  64. 64. FINISHING TECHNIQUES <ul><li>BARRIER COATING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>COATING OF DOW CORNING 5700 (3-TRI METHOXY SILYL PROPYL DIMETHYL OCTADECYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE) ORGANO SILICONE POLYMER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THE FINISH IS EFFECTIVE IN INHIBITING THE GROWTH OF ODOUR CAUSING BACTERIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STABLE TO 40 WASHES </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. SOIL AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES <ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT FOR LEISURE WEAR AND SPORTS WEAR WHERE SOILING IS MORE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPORTANT FOR EASY CARE FINISHED GARMENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAJORITY OF SOIL RELEASE FINISHES ARE BASED ON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MAKING FIBRE SURFACE HYDROPHILIC </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. SOIL AND STAIN RELEASE FINISHES <ul><ul><li>THREE MAJOR GROUP OF FINISHES CONTAINING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-COOH GROUPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OXYETHYLENE O/OR HYDROXYL GROUPS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FINISHES CONTAINING –COOH, OXYETHYLENE, -OH GROUPS MAY BE INCORPORATED IN THE EASY CARE FINISH BATH </li></ul><ul><li>IMPROVE SOIL AND OIL STAIN RELEASE DRAMATICALLY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FLURO CHEMICALS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PROVIDE GOOD SOIL, STAIN RELEASE AND WATER REPELLENCY </li></ul>
  67. 67. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES   <ul><li>TRADITIONAL FINISH APPLICATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>      PADDING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      LOW WET PICK UP TECHNIQUES LIKE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      LICK ROLL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      POROUS BOWL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      VACUUM EXTRACTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      FOAM APPLICTION </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALTERNATE METHODS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>      LAMINATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>      COATING </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES   <ul><li>NEXTEC PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>·      PATENTED BY NEXTEC APPLICATIONS Inc., USA </li></ul><ul><li>·      NOVEL PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>·      INDIVIDUAL FIBRES WITHIN FABRIC ARE ENCAPSULATED OR WRAPPED WITH ULTRA THIN FILM OF POLYMER </li></ul><ul><li>·      CAN BE USED TO IMPART BREATHABLE WATER RESISTANT FINISH TO FABRIC WITHOUT AFFECTING THE FABRIC HANDLE </li></ul><ul><li>·      ALSO POSSIBLE TO IMPART </li></ul><ul><li>·      WRINKLE RESISTANCE, </li></ul><ul><li>·      SOIL RELEASE, STAIN RESISTANCE, </li></ul><ul><li>·      UV PROTECTION </li></ul><ul><li>·      FLAME RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>·      MICROBIAL BARRIER </li></ul>
  69. 69. NEXTEC PROCESS <ul><li>THIS UNIQUE FIBRE ENCAPSULATION PROCESS ACHIEVED USING </li></ul><ul><li>S ILICONE BASED POLYMERS </li></ul><ul><li>POLYURETHANE </li></ul><ul><li>POLYACRYLIC POLYMERS </li></ul><ul><li>THE PROCESS WOULD OPEN UP MANY </li></ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROVIDING MULTI FUNCTIONAL FINISHES TO COTTON FABRICS AND GARMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  70. 70. PLASMA TREATMENT <ul><li>TREATMENT WITH IONIZED GASES PRODUCED BY ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE </li></ul><ul><li>·      HIGHLY SURFACE SPECIFIC </li></ul><ul><li>·      DOES NOT AFFECT BULK PROPERTIED </li></ul><ul><li>THE SURFACE PROPERTIES ENHANCED INCLUDE </li></ul><ul><li>·      WETTABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>·      ADHESION </li></ul><ul><li>·      CROSS LINKING </li></ul><ul><li>·      BIO COMPATIBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>·      CHEMICAL AFFINITY OR INERTNESS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  71. 71. MERITS <ul><li>·      LOW ENERGY CONSUMPTION </li></ul><ul><li>·      DRY TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>·      ENVIRONMENT FRIEDNDLY </li></ul><ul><li>·      OFFER SCOPE FOR IMPROVEMENT IN FUNCTIONAL FINISHES FOR COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  72. 72. USE OF BIO TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>BY THE NEXT DECADE GENETIC MANIPULATION OF COTTON GENE MAY USHER NEW COTTON VARIETIES WITH IPROVED PROPERTIES TO PRODUCE INNOVATIVE EFFECTS THROUGH FINSHING </li></ul>
  73. 73. UV PROTECTION <ul><li>·     INCREASED HEALTH PROBLEMS ON EXPOSURE OF SKIN TO UV RADIATIONS DUE DEPLETION OF OZONE LAYER </li></ul><ul><li>·     UV PROTECTION CAN BE IMPARTED BYTREATMENT OF FABRICS OR GARMENTS WITH SELECTED UV ABSORBERS </li></ul>
  74. 74. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>· DESIRABLE PROPERTIES CAN BE IMPARTED TO COTTON BY APPLICATION OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES </li></ul><ul><li>·      IMPROVE QUALITY OF COTTON </li></ul><ul><li>·      GIVE VALUE ADDITION </li></ul><ul><li>·      MANY INNOVATIVE IDEAS ARE BEING EXPLORED IN THE FIELD OF FUNCTIONAL FINISHES </li></ul><ul><li>·      IN THE NEXT DECADE QUITE A FEW NEW CONCEPTS MAY BE INTRODUCE FOR IMPARTING DESIRABLE PROPERTIES TO COTTON FABRIC AND GARMENTS. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
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