Cleaner producton technologies (modified)

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Cleaner producton technologies (modified)

  1. 1. CLEANER PRODUCTON TECHNOLOGIES IN TEXTILE CHEMICAL PROCESSING <ul><li>R.B.CHAVAN </li></ul><ul><li>FORMER PROFESSOR, I I T DELHI </li></ul><ul><li>CONSULTANT </li></ul><ul><li>MGIRI, WARDHA </li></ul><ul><li>E-MAIL [email_address] </li></ul>
  2. 2. PRESENT CONCEPT <ul><ul><li>POLLUTERS MUST PAY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CRADLE TO GRAVE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WOMB TO TOMB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT ONLY FINAL PRODUCT BE ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RAW MATERIALS, PRODUCTION PROCESSES, PACKAGING, ECO FRENDLY EVEN AFTER DIPOSAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MEET EMS 14000 AND SAS 1800 STANDARDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ECO FRIENDLY PRODUCTS INDENTIFIED BY ECO LABLES </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>GREEN MINDED CONSUMER PREFER ECO PRODUCTS EVEN AT HIGH COST </li></ul>
  3. 3. THREE ECOLOGIES <ul><li>PRODDUCTION ECOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>USER ECOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSAL ECOLOGY </li></ul>
  4. 4. PRODUCTION ECOLOGY <ul><li>COMPRISES OF </li></ul><ul><li>CULTIVATION AND HARVESTING OF NATURAL FIBRES </li></ul><ul><li>THE MANUFACTURE OF REGENERATED AND SYNTHETIC FIBRES </li></ul><ul><li>SPINNING, WEAVING, KNITTING </li></ul><ul><li>TEXTILE CHEMICAL PROCESSING </li></ul><ul><li>GARMENT MANUFACTURE </li></ul><ul><li>PACKING </li></ul>
  5. 5. USER AND DISPOSAL ECOLOGY <ul><li>USER ECOLOGY REFERS TO </li></ul><ul><li>AESTHETICS </li></ul><ul><li>PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>EFFECTS OF TEXTILES ON HUMAN BODY. </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSAL ECOLOGY REFERS TO </li></ul><ul><li>DISPOSAL OF TEXTILES AFTER USE </li></ul><ul><li>RECYCLING, </li></ul><ul><li>COMPOSTING, </li></ul><ul><li>DUMPING, </li></ul><ul><li>INCINERATION </li></ul><ul><li>LEAST POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT . </li></ul>
  6. 6. ECO FIBRES <ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL COTTON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL COTTON IS NOT ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE OF FERTILIZERS, PESTICIDES AND VARIOUS CROPS RELATED CHEMICALS DURING COTTON CULTIVATION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENCE OF THESE CHEMICALS AS RESIDUE ON COTTON BOLLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WASHED AWAY DURING PREPARATORY PROCESSES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WATER POLLUTION </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON CULTIVATED WITHOUT USING FERTILIZERS PESTICIDES AND OTHER CHEMICALS (ORGANIC FARMING) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RESIDUE OF THESE CHEMICALS REMOVED DURING FIRST TWO SEASONS OF CULTIVATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>COTTON FROM THIRD SEASON ONWARDS IS ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INDENTIFIED BY LOGOS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ORGANIC COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GREEN COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NATURAL COTTON </li></ul></ul></ul>ECO FRIENDLY COTTON
  8. 8. ORGANIC COTTON
  9. 9. NATURALLY COLOURED COTTON <ul><ul><ul><li>CULTIVATION SINCE ANCIENT TIME </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PISTA GREEN, BROWN ARE POPULAR COLOURS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOT POPULAR ON COMMERCIAL SCALE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LOW STAPLE LENGTH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>INFERIOR STRENGTH </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>POOR SPINABILITY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>REVIVAL OF NATURALLY COLOUR COTTON CULTIVATION </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NO CHEMICAL PROCESSING REQUIRED </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELIMINATE POLLUTION CAUSED DURING CHEMICAL PROCESSING </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. LYOCELL <ul><li>REGENERATED CELLULOSE </li></ul><ul><li>N-METHYL MORPHOLINE OXIDE SOLVENT </li></ul><ul><li>SOLVENT IS TOTALLY RECOVERED, PURIFIED AND RECYCLED </li></ul>
  11. 11. BIO DEGRADABLE POLYESTER <ul><li>ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CORN FIBRE </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPED BY KANEBO SPINNING AND KANEBO GOHSEN OF JAPAN </li></ul><ul><li>TRADE NAME LACTRON (POLY-LACTIDE) </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCED FROM POLYMERIZATION OF LACTIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>LACTIC ACID-FERMENTATION OF CORN STARCH </li></ul><ul><li>FIBRE COMPARABLE IN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TO PETROLEUM BASED POLYESTER AND NYLON </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEPT LOW MELTING POINT 175 O C </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  12. 12. ENVIRONMENTALLY CHEMICAL PROCESSING Input / output analysis of Textile chemical Processes Textile Auxiliaries Dyes Base chemicals (e.g. acid, Alkali, sodium chloride) Textile Energy Natural Fibres; 10-20 MJ/kg Chemical Fibres: 5-50 MJ/kg Water 60-360 l/kg textile Polluted Air Water Effluent Waste Sewage sludge: 60-70 g/kg textile Wet Processing (pre-treatment, dyeing, printing, finishing.)
  13. 13. ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY DYEING <ul><li>DYE CLASSES FOR CELLULOSIC </li></ul><ul><li>REACTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>VAT </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT </li></ul><ul><li>AZOIC </li></ul><ul><li>SULPHUR </li></ul><ul><li>EFFLUENT </li></ul><ul><li>RESIDUAL DYE </li></ul><ul><li>SALT </li></ul><ul><li>ALKALI </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCING AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>OXIDIZING AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>DETERGENT </li></ul>
  14. 14. REACTIVE DYES <ul><li>ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM </li></ul><ul><li>COLOUR IN EFFLUENT </li></ul><ul><li>SALT IN EFFLUENT </li></ul>
  15. 15. METHODS FOR LOW COLOUR IN EFFLUENT <ul><li>USE OF HIGH FIXATION BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES </li></ul><ul><li>DYEING AT LOW LIQUOR RATIO </li></ul><ul><li>CAREFUL FOLLOW UP OF DYESTUFF MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDATION FOR DYEING CONDITIONS FOR OPTIMUM DYE FIXATION </li></ul><ul><li>RIGHT FIRST TIME APPROACH TO AVOID </li></ul><ul><li>SHADING ADDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>STRIPPING AND REDYEING OF OFF SHADES </li></ul>
  16. 16. BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES <ul><li>HOMO BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES </li></ul><ul><li>HETRO BICUNTIONAL REACTIVE DYES </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH EXHAUSTION AND HIGH FIXATION </li></ul>
  17. 17. LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES <ul><li>SALT REQUIREMENT </li></ul><ul><li>CONVENTIONAL REACTIVE DYES 60-80 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES 20 g/l </li></ul><ul><li>FEATURES ( CIBACRON LS) </li></ul><ul><li>BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES </li></ul><ul><li>TWO CHROMOPHORES CONTRIBUTE HIGH AFFINITY AND HIGH COLOUR STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH FIXATION </li></ul><ul><li>STABLE DYE-FIBRE BOND </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 18. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES CHROMOPH-ORE CHROMOPHORE BRID-GE REACT-IVE GROUP REACT-IVE GROUP
  19. 19. ADVANTAGES OF HIGH DYE FIXATION Conventional dyes 60 % fixation Cibacron LS (bireactive) 80 % fixation 200 gm into the waste water 800 gm on the fibre 1 kg dye + 33% % - 50% % 1 kg dye 600 gm on the fibre 400 gm into the waste water
  20. 20. EFFECT OF SALT ON ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>EFFLUENT TREATMENT REMOVES ONLY SMALL QUANTITY OF SALT </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR QUANTITY OF SALT REMAINS IN WATER </li></ul><ul><li>RIVERS AND LAKES GET POLLUTED WITH EFFLUENT CONTAINING HIGH SALT CONCENTRATION </li></ul><ul><li>FRESH WATER ORGANISMS CAN SUFFER TOXIC EFFECTS </li></ul><ul><li>IN REGIONS WITH SCARCE FRESH WATER RESOURCES SUCH WASTE WATER HAS TO BE USED FOR LAND IRRIGATION </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCTION IN LAND FERTILITY AND ULTIMATELY HAVE TO BE ABONDONED </li></ul>
  21. 21. APPROACHES TO SOLVE PROBLEMS OF SALT LOAD <ul><li>DYEING AT LOWEST POSSIBLE LIQUOR RATIO </li></ul><ul><li>USING DYE CLASSES OTHER THAN REACTIVE SUCH AS VAT REQUIRING LOW SALT CONCENTRATION FOR DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>USING REACTIVE DYES GIVING HIGH EXHAUSTION AND FIXATION AT LOW SALT CONCENTRATION </li></ul>
  22. 22. ECO FRIENDLY REDUCING AGENTS FOR VAT DYES <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE IS UNIVERSALLY USED </li></ul><ul><li>DURING DYEING CONVERSION TO SULPHITE AND SULPHATE </li></ul><ul><li>SULPHITE IS TOXIC TO FISH AND BACTERIA </li></ul><ul><li>SULPHATE IS NON-TOXIC TO FISH AND BACTERIA IT MAY CAUSE CORROSION OF CONCRETE PIPES </li></ul>
  23. 23. ALTERNATE REDUCING SYSTEMS <ul><li>HYDROXY ACETONE </li></ul><ul><li>CAN TOTALLY REPLACE HYDROSULPHITE </li></ul><ul><li>BIO-COMPATIBLE </li></ul><ul><li>GIVE 20% HIGHER COLOUR YIELD WITH INDIGO </li></ul><ul><li>EXPENSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>NOT READILY AVAILABLE </li></ul><ul><li>YET TO COMMERCIALIZE </li></ul>
  24. 24. ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION <ul><li>DIRECT REDUCTION OF DYE BY CONTACT BETWEEN DYE DISPERSION AND ELECTRODE </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITION OF SMALL QUANTITY OF HYDROSULPHITE IS ESSENTIAL TO MAINTAIN DYE IN REDUCED STATE </li></ul><ul><li>METHOD PRODUCES LIGHTER SHADE COMPARED TO HYDRO SULPHITE </li></ul>
  25. 25. IRON COMPLEXES <ul><li>USE OF Fe(OH) 2 AS REDUCING AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>COPPERAS METHOD KNOWN FOR LONG FOR DYEING OF INDIGO </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF FeSO4 AND Ca(OH)2 </li></ul><ul><li>Fe(OH)2 HAS VERY LOW WATER SOLUBILITY </li></ul><ul><li>PRECIPITATES IN DYEBATHN NO REPRODUCIBLE RESULTS </li></ul><ul><li>NOT SUITABLE FOR VAT DYES OTHER THAN INDIGO </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF GLUCONIC ACID IS SUGGESTED IN GERMAN LITERATURE FOR ENHANCING SOLUBILITY OF Fe(OH)2 </li></ul><ul><li>GLUCONIC ACID IS EXPENSIVE </li></ul>
  26. 26. STUDY AT IIT DELHI R.B.chavan, J.N.chakraborty <ul><li>USE OF CITRIC ACID, TARTARIC ACID AND TRIETHANOL AMINE TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY OF Fe(OH)2 </li></ul><ul><li>REDUCTION POTENTIAL HIGHER THAN HYDRO SYLPHITE </li></ul><ul><li>DYE REDUCTION AND DYEING AT ROOM TEMPERATURE </li></ul><ul><li>COLOUR YIELD AND FASTNESS PROPERTIES COMPARABLE TO HYDROSULPHITE </li></ul><ul><li>TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF HYDROSULPHITE </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY AND ENERGY SAVING SYSTEM </li></ul>
  27. 27. SULPHUR DYES <ul><li>Na 2 S IS COMMONLY USED REDUCING AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>NO ODOUR NUISANCE ABOVE pH 9 </li></ul><ul><li>LIBERATION OF H2S UNDER ACID CONDITIONS </li></ul><ul><li>FOUL SMELL OF ROTTEN EGGS </li></ul><ul><li>TOXIC WHEN INHALED </li></ul><ul><li>ODOUR THRESHOLD LIMIT 10 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>TOXIC TO FISH </li></ul>
  28. 28. OXIDATION <ul><li>USE OF HALOGENATED COMPOUNDS LIKE BROMATE, IODATE PRODUCE ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS RESPONSIBLE FOR ADSORBABLE ORGANIC HALOGEN (AOX) </li></ul><ul><li>AOX IS TOXIC TO AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul><ul><li>DICHROMATE IS MORE RISKY, HEALTH HAZARDS </li></ul><ul><li>SAFE OXIDIZING AGENT IS H 2 O 2 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Na 2 S REPLACEMENT <ul><li>β – MERCAPTOETHANOL MARKETED BY BASF AS MOLESCAL SF </li></ul><ul><li>LOWER COLOUR YIELD COMPARED TO Na2S </li></ul><ul><li>INCOMPLETE DISSOLUTION OF SOME SULPHUR DYES </li></ul><ul><li>SUITABLE FOR LIMITED RANGE OF SULPHUR DYES </li></ul><ul><li>COSTLY </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>GLUCOSE </li></ul><ul><li>CAN BE USED AS REDUCING AGENT FOR SULPHUR DYES </li></ul><ul><li>CENTURY MILL (MUMBAI) HAS SUCCESSFULLY REPLACED Na2S WITH GLUCOSE ON INDUSTRIAL SCALE </li></ul><ul><li>HYDROL, VISCOUS LIQUID AVAILABLE COMMERCIALLY AT LOW COST </li></ul>
  31. 31. WRINKLE FREE FINISHING <ul><li>LOW FORMALDEHYDE BASED CROSS LINKING AGENTS </li></ul><ul><li>DMDHEU, ETHERIFIED DMDHEU </li></ul><ul><li>FORMALDEHYDE IS </li></ul><ul><li>CARCINOGENIC </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWN TO HAVE DERMATITIS EFFECT </li></ul><ul><li>RELEASE OF FORMALDEHYDE VAPOURS DURING </li></ul><ul><li>FINISHING PROCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>SUBSEQUENT STORAGE </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF FINISHED PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>WORLD WIDE CONCERN ON ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>RELEASE OF FORMALDEHYDE IS RESTRICTED TO 20-PPM LEVEL. </li></ul>
  32. 32. CONTROL OF FORMALDEHYDE RELEASE <ul><li>AFTER WASH OF CURED FABRIC/GARMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ADDITION OF FORMALDEHYDE ACCEPTORS OR SCAVENGERS SUCH AS UREA, CARBOHYDRIZIDE TO THE FINISHING BATH. </li></ul><ul><li>    </li></ul><ul><li>MODIFICATION OF DMDHEU WITH ALCOHOL TO PRODUCE ETHERIFIED DMDHEU e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>TREATMENT OF DMDHEU WITH DIETHYLENE GLYCOL OR 2-PROPANEDIOL. </li></ul>
  33. 33. POLYCARBOXYLIC ACIDS (PCA) AS CROSS LINKING AGENTS <ul><li>USE OF BUTANE TETRA CARBOXYLIC ACID (BTCA ) </li></ul><ul><li>SODIUM HYPO PHOSPHITE AS CATALYST </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH LEVEL OF WRINKLE RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD STRENGTH RETENTION </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD DURABILITY TO HOME LAUNDERINGS </li></ul><ul><li>EXCEEDINGLY HIGH COST </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMICAL SUBSTITUTE </li></ul><ul><li>CITRIC ACID (TRI-CARBOXYLIC ACID) </li></ul><ul><li>LESS EFFECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>LESS DURABLE </li></ul><ul><li>YELLOWING PROBLEM </li></ul>
  34. 34. OTHER CARBOXYLIC ACIDS <ul><ul><li>PCA OTHER THAN BTCA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CITRIC ACID, MALEIC ACID, SUCCINIC ACID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GIVE CRA IN THE RANGE OF 285 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DP RATING 4.3 - 4.7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VARIATION IN DURABILITY TO ALKALINE WASHING </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER OF DURABILITY </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>BTCA > CA > MALEIC ACID > SUCCINIC ACID </li></ul>
  35. 35. DEMERITS OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>PHOSPHATE CATALYSTS NON ECO FRIENDLY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>    MOST EFFECTIVE IS SODIUM HYPO PHOSPHITE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     EXPENSIVE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     MILD REDUCING AGENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>     AFFECT SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONSUME LARGE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN FROM WATER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  INFLUENCE AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECENT ATTEMPTS TO USE TRI SODIUM CITRATE OR COMBINATION OF SODIUM OXALATE AND SODIUM FORMATE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAFE TO SULPHUR AND REACTIVE DYES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAFE TO AQUATIC LIFE </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. SUMMARY OF PCA FINISH <ul><ul><li>HIGH COST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NON ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY CATALYST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>YELLOWING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THESE PROBLEMS ARE UNDER INVESTIGATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SOME HAVE BEEN SATISFACTORILY SOLVED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IN NEAR FUTURE PCA WOULD REPLACE CONVENTIONAL DMDHEU BASED CROSS LINKING AGENTS </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. BIO FINISHING <ul><ul><li>APPLICATION OF CELLULASE ENZYMES FOR FINISHING OF CELLULOSIC FABRICS AND GARMENTS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONCEPT DEVELOPED IN 1980’S </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PRESENT MAJOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WASH DOWN OR WORN OUT LOOK (STONE WASH) ON INDIGO DYED DENIM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PROCESS KNOWN AS BIOSTONING </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. ENZYME TYPES <ul><li>1.  ACID STABLE (pH 4.5-5.5) </li></ul><ul><li>2.  NEUTRAL (pH 6.5-7) </li></ul><ul><li>3.  ALKALI STABLE (pH 9-10) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>TEMPERATURE RANGE 40-60 o C </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  39. 39. BIO POLISHING <ul><ul><ul><li>TREATMENT WITH CELLULASE ENZYM E </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PARTIAL SURFACE HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WEIGHT LOSS 3-5% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>STRENGTH LOSS 2-7% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MERCERIZATION ENHANCES THE RATE OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MOST POPULAR FOR BIOSTONING OF INDIGO DYED GARMENTS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELIMINATES OR DECREASES QUANTITY OF PUMICE STONES THAT CAUSE DAMAGE TO MACHINE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AVOIDS OCCURRENCE OF PUMICE DUST IN ENVIRONMENT AND IN GARMENT CREATING HARSH HANDLE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NEUTRAL CELLULSES ARE PREFERRED FOR BIOSTONING. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  40. 40. IDENTIFICATION OF ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILES <ul><li>SAFE TEXTILES FOR HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT </li></ul><ul><li>DECIDED BY ECO PARAMETERS AND ECO NORMS </li></ul><ul><li>ECO NORMS PUBLISHED BY VARIOUS ORGANIZATIONS </li></ul>
  41. 41. IDENTIFICATION OF ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILES
  42. 42. EFFORTS MADE BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA <ul><li>Regulatory Measures </li></ul><ul><li> Prohibition on the use of carcinogenic azo dyes </li></ul><ul><li> Evolution of eco standards and logo for eco-friendly textiles. </li></ul><ul><li>  Developmental Efforts </li></ul><ul><li>        Organization of educative seminars, workshops and camps to inculcate the eco-friendly concepts among the industry and consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>        Assistance to be provided by Textile Research Associations and Textile Committee to textile units for securing ISO 9000 Quality System Certification and ISO 14000 Environment Management System Certification. </li></ul><ul><li>     Technology upgradation fund (TUF), for modernization of textile industry </li></ul><ul><li>         setting of eco testing laboratories on all India basis </li></ul>
  43. 43. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>CLEANER PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES </li></ul><ul><li>DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF BIFUNCTIONAL REACTIVE DYES FOR LOW COLOUR IN EFFLUENT </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF LOW SALT REACTIVE DYES FOR REDUCTION OF SALT IN EFFLUENT </li></ul><ul><li>REPLACEMENT OF Na2S WITH GLUCOSE IN SULPHUR DYEING </li></ul><ul><li>REPLACEMENT OF HYDROSULPHITE IN VAT DYEING BY </li></ul><ul><li>IRON COMPLEXES </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTROCHEMCAL REDUCTION METHOD </li></ul>
  44. 44. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>FINSHING </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF LOW FORMALDEHYDE DMDHEU </li></ul><ul><li>POLYCARBOXYLIC ACID BASED FINISHES COMMERCIALLY NOT YET SUCESSFUL </li></ul><ul><li>ENVIRONMENT PROBLEMS WITH SODIUM HYPO PHOSPHITE CATALYST </li></ul><ul><li>SILICONE SOFTNERS ARE ENVRONMENT FRIENDLY </li></ul><ul><li>BIO-FINISHING OF DENIM WELL ESTABLISHED </li></ul>
  45. 45. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>IDENTIFICATION OF ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILES </li></ul><ul><li>ECO-FRIENDLY LABELS, LOGOS BASED ON ECO PARAMETERS </li></ul><ul><li>EFFORTS MADE BY MINISTRY OF TEXTILES </li></ul><ul><li>AWARENESS CREATION </li></ul><ul><li>SETTING UP OF ECO TESTING LABORATORIES </li></ul><ul><li>MODERNIZATION FUNDS </li></ul>

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