We need water for life. Beyond this fundamental association of water with ‘life’ however, water plays a major role in humanity's social and economic existence. Not only is the management of water needed to enable almost all productive activity, but the need to manage water has historically imposed organisations requirements on human society. AT t a first glance it might seem strange that we are concerned about water use since human activity withdraws less than 10% of available water resource on the planet. ‘Available water’ here means water in stream, lakes and groundwater – sometimes referred to as ‘blue water’ – after discounting the 99% of the worlds water as ‘unavailable’ because it is contained in the oceans or polar ice, falls as rain but is absorbed by vegetation and returned to the atmosphere (transpiration – ‘green water’) before it an drain into aquifers and streams.
Water resources and development
Water, Resources and Development
Water for LifeWater plays a major role inhumanity’s social and economicexistence.‘Available water’ : streams, lakes andgroundwater = blue water‘unavailable’ – constrained in oceansor polar ice.‘Green Water’ – water absorbed byvegetation and returned to theatmosphere.
Water DivisionOceans Saline 1,350,000, 97.37% 000km3Snow and Ice Freshwater 27,5000,000 1.98Groundwater Freshwater 8,200,000 0.59Atmospheric Freshwater 460,000 0.033Lakes and Rivers Freshwater 207,000 0.015Soil Moisture Freshwater 70,000 0.005
Relationships between waterdevelopment and human livelihoods Health (hygiene, improvement, disease reduction) Labour availability (health and less effort required to collect water) Cheaper water (compared to commercial vendors) Improved well-being (more security, less stress) Education (More time, especially for children) Empowerment (through greater community decision making) Income (health and labour improvement raise other opportunities) Food security and nutrition (household production opportunities)
Water Scarce countries(i.e. less than 1,000 m3) 700 million people in ‘water stressed’ countries.
Water Scarce CountriesWorld Water Council (2010): ‘While the worlds population tripled in the 20thcentury, the use of renewable water resources has grown six-fold. Within thenext fifty years, the world population will increase by another 40 to 50 %. Thispopulation growth - coupled with industrialization and urbanization - willresult in an increasing demand for water and will have serious consequenceson the environment. ‘UN World Water Development Report (WWDR, 2009) presents an equallygloomy future with these opening comments, ‘At the beginning of thetwenty-first century, the Earth, with its diverse and abundant life forms,including over six billion humans, is facing a serious water crisis. All the signssuggest that it is getting worse and will continue to do so, unless correctiveaction is taken. This crisis is one of water governance, essentially caused by theways in which we mismanage water.’
Water and Development Social and economic development are not dictated by water distribution, although nor are they independent it. Mismatches between development and ‘natural’ distribution are compounded by changes in hydrological regimes.
Chain of climate change uncertainty for water resource management
Hydrological changes that could impact on water resourcesPrecipitation intensity increases leading to higher surface runoffLower seasonal rainfall leading to droughtHigher temperatures with lower humidity causing plant water stressIncreased potential evaporationHigher peak runoffLower seasonal runoffIncreased glacial meltwater runoffSea level rises and coastal flooding with associated saline waterintrusionGroundwater recharge decliningIncreased agricultural (irrigation) demandIncreased domestic water demands
Water dilemmasScience and EconomicTechnology: and politicalEngineering or capacity to mobilisetechnology. resources.
Enhancing Strategiesup to 1850s – small private (commercial) water supplycompanies,up to 1920s – municipal bodies investing in water andsanitation measures due to health and environmentalconcernsUp to 1970s – large scale, national control of waterinvestment and regulation with goals of economicdevelopment and social welfare improvement,post 1970s – period of privatisation and decline of state-ledeconomic development.
Recognised by 75% as an independent state. Not recognised by the UN. However it has it’s own water regime and respective management issues.Palestine: Water Resources
The HDI of PalestineHuman Dev Index Rank 114 / (United Nations 0.641 DevelopmentHealth (Life Exp.) 72.8 Programme, 2011)Education Index 0.674GNI per Capita $2,656Inequality n/aPoverty Index 0.005Gender n/aSustainability n/aDemography (pop) 4,152,400
International recognition of the State of Palestine
The Political Issues of Palestine Conflict with surrounding states and associated import restrictions Food shortages Lack of central government Lack of international recognition as a sovereign state
Water Use & Provision in Palestine Arid region Only 69% of Palestinian communities are connected to water networks Water consumption below WHO’s minimum standard Restrictions of transboundary water supplies Dependency on an Aquifer system
Palestine’s Aquifer Dependency Dependency upon an Aquifer system which discharges 600- 660 Mm3 annually However West Bank Palestinians exploit a mere 115-123 Mm3 Israel controls the westward- flowing aquifers and all waters flowing eastward into the Jordan River
Predictions of Climate Change in the Levant Annual rainfall is likely to decrease, with proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. The last 7 years have already seen precipitation levels fall. The Levant is the most effected region by changes in precipitation in the Middle East. 4.5°C suggested surface temperature rise and 25% precipitation decrease by the end of the century.
Downscaling the Effects of Climatic Change to Palestine The aquifer system will be severely effected, the replenishment rate is expected to decrease by up to 60%. 25% decrease in precipitation the Upper River Jordan catchment. The Mediterranean Sea is expected to rise, leading to salinization of the aquifer system.
Palestine’s Water Outlook in Relation to Political and Climatic Pressures2.5% to 5% decrease in agricultural grain yield by 2080– exacerbating food shortages.Lack of political stability inhibits their access to waterresources, restraining adaption to climate change.In the absence of a clear political structure, there isno clear water management plan, with or withoutrespect to climate change.Increasing price of imported waterThey don’t have the economic resources todesalinize.
UN Policy Brief ChallengeInformation on Water ResourcesFor the selected country the water resource environment should be described usinginformation from FAO Aquastat at,http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stmonline data basehttp://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=enThe data is organised into Geography and Population Water Resources (precipitation, total renewable resources) Water Use (agriculture, industry and domestic). Irrigation Conservation Health