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  • 1. Historical Development Travel and Tourism
  • 2. Background
    • The development of the travel and tourism industry:
    • origins in the growth of the middle classes in Britain
    • here that the industrial revolution began
    • the introduction of holiday time as a working right
  • 3. Communications: Rail
    • Growth of the train network that preceded the second world war hit the buffers during the 1950s and 60s
    • Government cut large number of train lines and stations. Closure programme recommended by BR chief Dr Beeching
    • Loss of about 50% of Britain’s network over a number of years
  • 4. Focus
      • For your studies it’s sufficient to know about how the industry has grown since the end of World War 2.
      • Three Pre-Requisites for T & T:
      • Improvements to communications
      • Transport for the masses
      • Increased leisure time
  • 5. Communications: Rail
    • The cuts have since been portrayed as a mistake:
    • Cut off communities from each other
    • Lost modern parts of the network
    • Focused the train network on London to detriment of regions
    • Failed to save much money
  • 6. Communications: Rail
    • British railway network at its peak covered more than 20,000 miles
    • It now covers approximately 10,000 miles
    • Analysts believe that this will be reduced further
    • Many country lines loss-making serve few passengers
  • 7. Mass Transport
    • Transport Minister who gave job to Dr Beeching was former director of road-building firm
    • Roads have offered successive governments a number of advantages over railways
    • This has affected UK transport policy
  • 8. UK Roads Policy
    • Government builds a road network in collaboration with the large construction firms
    • Consumers or business must buy vehicles to use the network
    • Government raises tax revenue through vehicle excise duty (road fund tax) and fuel duty (petrol tax)
  • 9. Air Transport Infrastructure
    • 1980 approximately 50 million people used UK airports
    • 2000 there were 180 million flyers
    • Expected to rise to 500 million by 2030
    • Airports privatised and expanded
  • 10. Impact of Rail Disasters
    • Southall, Ladbroke Grove, Hatfield and Potters Bar train crashes in 2000 to 2002
    • Chaos affected the rail industry at that time
    • Significant numbers of people began to travel by plane within the UK
  • 11. Increased Leisure Time
    • Governments have enacted legislation to ensure that workers are able to take holidays
    • Changes in people’s lives both at work and at home
    • Consumer products such as washing machines, driers and dishwashers have become more affordable
  • 12. Increased Leisure Time
    • Technological impact
    • Increased affluence
    • People have greater leisure time on their hands
    • All of the above have underpinned the growth of the UK travel and tourism industry