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  1. 1. PALATE<br />
  2. 2. Palate<br /><ul><li>Lies in the roof of the oral cavity
  3. 3. Has two parts: </li></ul>Hard (bony) palate anteriorly<br />Soft (muscular) palate posteriorly<br />hard<br />soft palate<br />
  4. 4. Hard Palate<br /><ul><li>Lies in the roof of the oral cavity
  5. 5. Forms the floor of the nasal cavity
  6. 6. Formed by:</li></ul>Palatine processes of maxillae in front<br />Horizontal plates of palatine bones behind<br />Bounded by alveolar arches<br />
  7. 7. Hard Palate<br /><ul><li>Posteriorly, continuous with soft palate
  8. 8. Its undersurface covered by mucoperiosteum
  9. 9. Shows transverse ridges in the anterior parts</li></li></ul><li>
  10. 10. SOFT PALATE<br /> movable muscular fold suspended from post border of hard palate<br />Separates nasopharynx from oropharynx<br />Trafficcontroller<br />2 surfaces<br />2 borders<br />2 folds of mucous memb<br />
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  12. 12. Soft Palate<br /><ul><li>Attached to the posterior border of the hard palate
  13. 13. Covered on its upper and lower surfaces by mucous membrane
  14. 14. Composed of:</li></ul>Muscle fibers<br />Anaponeurosis<br />Lymphoid tissue<br />Glands<br />Blood vessels<br />Nerves<br />
  15. 15. Palatine Aponeurosis<br /><ul><li>Fibrous sheath
  16. 16. Attached to posterior border of hard palate
  17. 17. Is flattened tendon of tensor vellipalatini
  18. 18. Splits to enclose musculusuvulae
  19. 19. Gives origin & insertion to palatine muscles</li></li></ul><li>Muscles<br /><ul><li>Tensor velipalatini</li></ul>Origin: spine of sphenoid;,scaphoid fossa, auditory tube <br />Insertion: forms palatine aponeurosis which is attached to<br />(a) Posterior border of hard palate<br />(b)Inf surface of palate behind palatine crest<br />Action: Tenses soft palate,opens auditory tube <br />
  20. 20. Muscles<br />Levatorvelipalatini<br />Origin:petrous temporal bone, auditory tube, Enters pharynx by passing over the upper concave margin of sup constrictor<br />Insertion: palatine aponeurosis<br />Action: Raises soft palate also dilates auditory tube<br />
  21. 21. Muscles<br />Musculusuvulae<br />Origin: posterior nasal spine<br />Palatine aponeurosis<br />Insertion: mucosa of uvula<br /> Action: Elevates uvula<br />
  22. 22. Muscles<br />Palatopharyngeus<br />2 fasciculi<br />Origin: Ant Fasciculus<br />Post border of hard palate<br />Post fasciculus:palatineaponeurosis<br />Insertion: posterior border of thyroid cartilage<br />Action: Elevates wall of the pharynx<br />
  23. 23. Muscles<br />Palatoglossus<br />Origin: palatine aponeurosis<br />Insertion: side of tongue<br />Action: pulls root of tongue upward, narrowing oropharyngeal isthmus<br />
  24. 24. Blood Supply<br /><ul><li>Greater palatine branch of the maxillaryartery</li></ul>Ascending palatine, branch of the facial artery<br />Palatine br of Ascending pharyngeal, branch of the external carotid artery<br />VEINS;<br />Pterygoid and tonsillar plexus of veins<br />Lymphatics<br />Upper deep cervical&retropharyngeal<br />
  25. 25. Sensory Nerve Supply<br />General Sensory:Mostly by the maxillarynerve through its branches:<br />Middle lesser palatine nerve<br />Posterior lesser palatine nerve<br />Special Sensory:For taste sensations: lesser palatine nerves:greaterpetrosalnervegeniculate ganglion facial nerve nucleus of solitary tract.<br />Secretomotor;Lesser palatine nerves Derived from sup salivatory nucleus Travel through greater petrosal nerves.<br />
  26. 26. Motor Nerve Supply<br />All the muscles, except tensor veli palatini, are supplied by the:<br />Pharyngeal plexus<br />Tensor veli palatini supplied by the:<br />Nerve to medial pterygoid, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve<br />
  27. 27. Passavants Ridge<br />Upper fibres of palatopharyngeus<br />Raises a ridge<br />Morphology<br />Best developed in cleft palate<br />
  28. 28. Movements & functions of Soft palate<br />Controls 2 gates<br />Isolates mouth from Oropharynx during chewing<br />Separates Oropharynx from nasopharynx<br />Vary degree of closure of pharyngeal isthmus to modify quality of voice<br />During coughing and sneezing <br />
  29. 29. Clinical Notes<br />Cleft palate:<br />Unilateral<br />Bilateral<br />Median<br />Pharyngeal isthmus<br />
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  34. 34. Paralysis of the soft palate<br />The pharyngeal isthmus can not be closed during swallowing and speech<br />Nasal regurgitation<br />Nasal twang<br />Flattening of Palatoglossal arch<br />
  35. 35. Perforation of hard palate in Tertiary syphilis<br />Epignathus :Teratoma of palate<br />