Intergenerational Study Of Beliefs About Childcare Ppt
Intergenerational study of
beliefs about childcare among
the Lobanas residing in rural
areas of Jammu
Ruchira Sapru ,Research Scholar
Ruchi Mahajan, Ex Student
Deptt of Home Science, University of Jammu, Jammu
The present research was conducted to study the intergenerational
differences in beliefs regarding child care among the grandmothers and
mothers belonging to Lobana community of Jammu.For this 30
grandmother-mother dyads were selected from the rural areas of R.S.
Pura- Dablehar,Kirpind and Kalyana.The tools used for data collection
were Interview schedule, rating scale, and observation. Results reveal a
difference in the beliefs of grandmothers and mothers.Grandmothers,
who were mostly illiterate , believed that the ideal place for delivery was
home and the delivery should be supervised by a Dai (traditional
midwife) whereas the mothers believed that a doctors consultation is
must as they can handle any sort of complications. Mothers also
consider colostrums as a must. Folk traditions and customs of child
care are celebrated and the joint family system helps in maintaining this
continuity. Some age old beliefs are not liked by the younger generation
but they follow them with least modification. Both generations endorse
the importance of the role of parents in shaping the child’s personality
and future.Gender discrimination was prevalent in families with low
educational status. Results of the parental belief survey revealed a
significant difference between mothers and grandmothers over talking
and telling story to the child and beliefs regarding spoiling the child.
Parents play an important role in the all round development of
They are the architects of the future from whom the child learns
the lesson of socialization.
Parental ideas about how to raise children in the society are
generally derived from a large number of resources.
Like our cultural system , each culture conveys message about
appropriate child rearing techniques.
These practices shape the developmental niche of the child.
Such beliefs may come from personal experiences often
reflecting the values of one’s own family.
Family beliefs vary from culture to culture.
According to religious scriptures the initial nature of the child
depends upon the ideology of the parents and the family.
•Harkness and Super(1991) gave the concept of developmental
niche which comprises of
a Physical and social settings in which the child lives
b Cultyrally regulated customs of child care and child learning
c the psychology of the caretakers of the child
•The physical and social setting is important in shaping a child’s
activity not only through the kinds of activities available but also through
defining the activities of other people present.
•Customs are refered to here as techniques of protecting, teaching
and socialising that are commonly used by members of the community
and so thoroughly integrated into the larger culture that individual
caretakers do not need to rationalise them or even give them conscious
•The psychology of the care takers , their beliefs, values and
affective orientation organises not only their immediate behaviour
towards childrebn but also many larger decisions such as which settings
are most appropriate for children of a certain age or sex.
The objectives of the present research are to study the
beliefs of mothers and grandmothers regarding:
Pregnancy, child birth and feeding practices
Qualities desired in children
Health and hygiene
Folk traditions and practices
Sources of parental beliefs for mothers
Spoiling the child
Discipline and control
Talking and telling stories
The sample for the study comprised of
30 families of Lobana community of
R.S.Pura Tehsil, Jammu(J&K).
From these families both mothers
(n=30) and grandmothers(n=30) were
selected from each family.
Purposive sampling technique was used
for selection of the sample.
•Interview schedule prepared to explore the
of mothers and grandmothers about child rearing
The schedule was divided into two major heads, the
background information and specific information.
Modified Parental Belief Survey as used by Manpreet Maan
Singh(1992), Department of Human Development, Punjab
Agriculture University , Ludhiana . The three-point scale is divided
in to four subscales as follows:
Beliefs regarding spoiling the child: Includes questions which unfold
the beliefs about emotional; stimulation of the child.
Beliefs regarding floor freedom: Includes statement which reveal
as to what amount of floor freedom is good for the child for better
Beliefs regarding discipline and control: Includes statements, which
show how much of discipline and control is required or employed to
control the child.
Beliefs regarding talking and telling stories: Includes statements
that emphasize the need of talking and telling stories to children.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In the present study it was found that majority
mothers were in the age group of 25-30 years
and grandmothers were in the age group of
55-60years in majority.
Most (37%) of the mothers has studied upto
higher secondary whereas majority
grandmothers(77%) were illiterates.
Ninety three percent mothers were
homemakers while quite a few were working as
TABLE I: ANALYSIS OF MODIFIED PARENTAL BELIEF SURVEY
N=30 % N=30 %
BELIEF REGARDING SPOILING
i) Will spoil the child 23 76.6 - -
ii) Average 5 16.6 12 40
iii) Will not spoil the 2 6.6 18 60
BELIEFS REGARDING FLOOR FREEDOM
i) Freedom should be 11 36.6 17 56.6
ii) Less freedom should be given 19 63.3 12 40
iii) Freedom should not be given - - 1 3.3
BELIEFS REGARDING DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL
i) Strict discipline 28 73.3 12 40
ii) Average 8 26.6 18 60
iii) Less discipline - -
BELIEFS REGARDING TALKING AND TELLING STORIES
i) Lot of effect 11 36.6 12 40
ii) Average effect 19 63.3 12 40
iii) No effect - - 6 20
Parental belief survey : (table I)
77% mothers believe that too much
affectionate behavior would spoil the children.
60% grandmothers believed that it would not
spoil the children.
64% mothers were of the opinion that less floor
freedom should be given to children and strict
discipline (64%) needs to be employed to
control the behavior of
57% grandmothers said more floor freedom
should be given to children and instead of strict
discipline most of the grandmothers think
average disciplinary techniques should be used
Mothers feel that talking or telling stories to children has an
average effect on their development
40% grandmothers are of the opinion that talking and telling
stories to children has lot of effect on children.
Parents design the child’s home environment hence the beliefs
they hold exert a significant influence on children (Sharma, 1999).
Brody et al (1999) also traced links among maternal child rearing
efficiency beliefs, parenting practices and child’s psychosocial
The influence of beliefs of grand parents has a significant impact
on the development of children as well.
Sharma, Sapru and Gupta(2004) in their study on maternal beliefs
about child rearing found similar views where mother believe that
more of responsive and affectionate behavior spoils children and
favor an organized environment for children .
RESPONSES MOTHERS GRANDMOTHERS
N=30 % N=30 %
Should go for regular medical check ups and seek doctors advice
Yes 21 70 - -
No 9 30 - -
Follow doctor’s advice and seek his opinion during pregnancy*
They are educated 12 40 4 13
Diagnose the problem well 5 17 - -
Give better advice 4 13 - -
Recommend cesarean 6 20 21 70
Fear to go to doctor 3 10 21 70
Ideal place for delivery*
Government hospital 14 47 8 26.6
Private hospital 6 20 - -
Home 10 33.3 22 73.3
Activities avoided post delivery
Avoid heavy work 22 73.3 13 43.3
No sexual contact 29 96.6 22 73.3
Avoid daily bath 5 16.6 10 33.3
Avoid travel 5 16.6
Staying indoors 15 50 21 70
TABLE 2: PREGNANCY, CHILD BIRTH AND FEEDING PRACTICES
*differences significant at 5% level
TABLE 2 contd : PREGNANCY, CHILD BIRTH AND FEEDING
*differences significant at 5% level
Baby should be fed on breast milk….
Immediately after birth - - - -
3-6 hours after birth 12 40 - -
6-12 hours after birth 19 63.3 - -
Baby should be fed on colostrums
Yes 22 73.3 - -
No 8 26.6 - -
Weaning should be started in
During 3-6 months 23 76.6 28 93.3
During 6-8 months 7 23.3 2 6.6
Special weaning foods are..
Egg yolk 30 100 30 100
Rice water 18 60 10 33.3
Dal ka pani 12 40 10 33.3
Chicken soup 15 50 18 60
Fruit juice 14 46.6 22 73.3
Mashed banana 11 36.6 14 46.6
Khichri 12 33.3 11 36.6
Cerelac 12 33.3 2 6.6
dalia 9 3 6 20
Majority mothers had got married in early 20’s,
For them pregnancy and child birth along with child rearing was the
best phase of their lives.
While 74% mothers believe that doctor’s consultation is a must
during pregnancy to avoid any complications, grandmothers in
majority were however against this because they think doctors
always recommend a cesarean section.
43% mothers favor doctor’s advice because they are professionals
and grandmothers favored elders because they are experienced.
Grand mothers and mothers shared more or less similar views
about the fact that non-vegetarian food and papaya should be
avoided during pregnancy, as they are considered hot foods.
Most of the grandmothers and fair number of mothers(33%)
believed that delivery should take place at home.
47% mothers considered government hospitals and 20% private
hospitals as the ideal place for delivery under the supervision of
Majority in both the groups favored eating non vegetarian food
post delivery as it is healthy and nutritious
It is their belief that mother digesting non vegetarian food indicates
that new born baby is healthy.
Sixty three percent mothers said they breast fed their baby 7-12
hours after birth
Only 27% mothers fed their baby on colostrum as recommended
by the doctor.
On the contrary all the grandmothers believe that colostrums
should not be fed to the new born, as it is hard to digest.
Similar results were found by Singh and Laxminarayan(1997) in
their study where infants were put on breast milk after 6 hours of
Majority mothers and grandmothers believe than child should be
breast-fed till 1-2 years of age.
Most of the mothers and grandmothers believed that
weaning food should be started after 3-6 months because
after 3 months child is able to digest semi solid foods.
Khan(1970), and Singh et al(1997) also found that most of
the mothers started weaning the child when the child turns
6-12 months old.
73% mothers and 60% grandmothers further stated no
specific method to stop breast feeding is applied rather the
child gradually gives up breast milk as he/she grows
Few were of the view that to stop breast feeding mothers
should apply spices, saufi, neem paste on the breast.
All grandmothers and 23% mothers believe that mother and
new born should be kept in isolation to avoid buri nazar.(evil eye).
Swain(1978) found that the period when mother and new born
are isolated from others for 40 days is beneficial as it reduces the
chances of catching infection.
Mothers and grandmothers share almost similar views on giving
daily bath to baby in summers, and massaging the baby, which
helps in the muscular development of baby.
53% mothers and 70% grand mothers believe that cradle cap is
present in all children, although 26% mothers and 30%
grandmothers think it is not present is every child.
33% grandmothers and 23% mothers believe that dryness of
scalp is the reason behind it, whereas 23% grandmothers and
10% mothers think it is the dirt from within the skull that comes
out. 37% mothers said they had no idea about the reason behind
RESPONSES MOTHERS GRANDMOTHERS
N=30 % N=30 %
Rituals performed after child birth
Pag ceremony 30 100 30 100
Paasha ceremony 27 90 27 90
Kuldevi puja for a son 22 73.3 28 93.3
Guhania 3 10 3 10
Prelacteal feed given as..*
Sugar and honey 17 56.6 25
Jaggery and sugar 6 20 83.3
Honey 4 16.6 5
Jaggery and honey 3 10 16.6
Believe in evil eye
Yes 18 60 22 73
No 12 40 8 27
Measures taken to protect mother and baby from evil eye..
Black spot 30 100 30 100
Iron bangle 13 43.3 25 83.3
Black thread 10 33.3 14 46.6
Raashia 5 16.6 10 33.3
santisarian - - 7 23.3
TABLE 3 : TRADITIONS AND PRACTICES
*χ2 significant at .05 level
oPag ceremony is performed when the child is a 10-15 years old.
o90% mother and grandmothers said that they also perform Pasha
ceremony after the birth of the baby, in which the mother has to drink
cardamom water for seven consecutive days.
oThis water is prepared by the mother’s sister-in- law(jethani).
oOn the seventh day the mother is then allowed to enter the kitchen,
as she is considered pure and clean.
oAnother ceremony named Guhania is performed which is more or
less like Pasha, the only difference is that in Guhania ceremony
mother is allowed to enter the kitchen on the 11th day.
oIt was found that these practices are performed in the Lobana’s and
they doe not want to change these practices.
oAll the mothers and grand mothers believe that Gurathi should be
given to the baby as prelacteal feed, and the one who feeds the baby
with the Gurathi transfers his/her sanskars and wisdom to the child.
oKishore and Garg (1999) found in their study that most of the mothers
gave prelacteal feed to their infants in the form of sugar water, gur
water or cow’s milk.
oNamkaran ceremony is performed only for sons in Lobana community
and not for daughters.
oFor protecting the mother and the baby from evil eye, mothers and
especially grandmothers insist upon tying black thread, wear iron
bangle, black spot, on the forehead.
oEven those who do not believes in evil eye protect their baby by
tying black thread, or putting black spot.
oSome of the mothers and grandmothers believe that it is not only
others that caste evil eye sometimes even when the mothers say “
now the child is having adequate diet” affects the child’s diet the very
o Taneja et al(1990) also found that majority mothers had
superstitious beliefs regarding common illness that all superstitions
are largely in joint families due to influence of older family members.
While talking about the qualities desired in children, all
grandmothers and 77% mothers want the daughters to be
83% mothers and 80% grandmothers also want them to be
All the mothers and grandmothers believe that boys should be
well educated and more educated than girls because boys have
to run the family and take family’s responsibility.
Grandmothers (43%), and 23% mothers prefer a son, as they
are the ones who carry the lineage and provide future security to
the family, and believe that having a son is more advantageous
than a daughter, and consider daughter as “Begani Amanat”.
Results indicate a variation in the responses of mothers
Education is a key factor in the changed perception of
mothers and strong beliefs among grandmothers,
Although both the groups live in the same joint family
set up and strong traditional and cultural backgrounds.
Storm et al(1999) also report more or less similar
results in their study about differences in the perception of
two generation of females living in the same ecological
conditions and cultures.
The developmental niche of the children shows that
these children will be facing a transitional face with their
mothers and grandmothers showing differences in
majority of areas
Except customs and traditions they show difference in