Personality by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )
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Personality by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )






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Personality by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal ) Personality by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal ) Presentation Transcript

  • Lecture 5
  • Is a pattern of stable characteristics of a person that influences his behavior towards goal achievement It includes external appearance & behavior It consists of inner awareness of self It is therefore a particular pattern of measurable traits both inner & outer
  •  Each person is unique & distinct: it consists of all those characteristics which an individual has in common with others & some of which separates him from others  Each person has some stable patterns of behavior: although a person’s personality undergoes certain changes over time, most behavior patterns remain stable over the years  Personality is thus both internal & external elements: one can easily form an opinion by observing the external traits of a person. The internal states such as feelings & thoughts make a person somewhat unique
  • A. Biological factors  Heredity: physical features, facial features, gender, etc, all those features which are inborn  Brain: this refers to the IQ level of a person. Shows his analytical bent of mind  Biofeedback: All involuntary functions which affects behavior like blood pressure, brainwave patterns  Physical features: external appearances, a tall well built person has an imposing personality  Age: Aged employees tend to be more loyal with organizations than younger employees  Gender: Rate of absenteeism in females is higher than males  Ability: includes both intellectual & physical abilities, some parts of which are inborn
  • B. Cultural factors Norms prevailing within the family Personality formation is influenced to a large extent in the culture in which we are born
  • C. Family Factors  Refers to the overall home environment created by parents  Siblings also contribute to personality development  Children raised by parents in a warm & loving home become socially well adjusted  It also involves the socialization process when a child learns to interact & communicate with others in the society
  • D. Social factors Consists of friends, peers, colleagues, Relates to the process of socialization E. Situational factors Refers to the effect of environment Varying demands of the situation
  • Psychoanalytical Theory or Intra psychic theory Trait Theory
  •  Developed by Sigmund Freud  This theory emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior He says personality is the interaction between 3 elements: a) Id b) Ego c) Superego
  •  Id: is the only part of the personality that is present at birth, inherited & uncontrolled  The id operates according to the pleasure principle & wants immediate fulfillment of its wants with or without logic  Id is largely childish, irrational & always demanding
  •  Ego is the logical, rational, realistic part of the personality  It keeps the id in check  It mostly operates on the reality principle & thus is mostly conscious  It considers the constraints of the real world in determining the appropriate time, place & object for gratification of the id’s wishes
  •  Super ego is the moral component of the personality  It is popularly known as the conscience which consists of all those behaviors for which we are punished or feel guilty  It is the most power element in one’s personality  Its main function is to keep the id & ego in check
  •  A trait is a personal characteristic that is used to describe & explain personality.  It is a set of relatively stable & consistent personal characteristics  Allport gave 2 main categories of traits: a) Common traits- those which are common to others belonging to the same culture like praying before taking a meal which reflects religiousness of a person b) Individual traits- specific or unique to an individual like good at painting or singing which shows artistic abilities
  • Raymond Cattell’s 16 personality framework can be divided into 2 parts: i) Surface traits: observable qualities of a person like honest, helpful, kind etc ii) Source traits: these are the causes of behavior like intelligence, practicality etc
  •  Reserved vs Outgoing  Less intelligent vs More intelligent  Emotionally stable vs Emotionally unstable  Submissive vs Dominant  Serious vs Happy go lucky  Expedient vs Conscientious  Timid vs Venturesome  Tough minded vs Sensitive  Trusting vs Suspicious  Practical vs Imaginative  Forthright vs Shrewd  Self assured vs Apprehensive  Conservative vs Experimenting  Group dependent vs Self sufficient  Uncontrolled vs Controlled  Relaxed vs Tense
  •  Conscientiousness: extent of obedience & hard working vs lazy & unorganized  Extraversion: the degree to which a person can connect & gel up with other individuals vs introvert & reserved people  Agreeableness: cooperation vs non cooperation  Emotional stability: the degree to which an individual is secure vs insecurity  Openness: the extent to which an individual is creative & open to new ideas vs narrow ideas
  •  Matching jobs & individuals- every job needs some specific characteristics of the job performer  Training & Development- certain skills can be developed through training  Designing Motivation System- All people cannot be motivated by the same incentives, some prefer monetary incentives while some prefer non monetary  Designing control systems- democratic or autocratic, different personality variable react differently to different control mechanism