0
Lecture 5
Is a pattern of stable characteristics of a
person that influences his behavior
towards goal achievement
It includes ext...
 Each person is unique & distinct: it consists of all those
characteristics which an individual has in common with
others...
A. Biological factors
 Heredity: physical features, facial features, gender, etc, all those features
which are inborn
 B...
B. Cultural factors
Norms prevailing within the family
Personality formation is influenced to a
large extent in the cul...
C. Family Factors
 Refers to the overall home environment
created by parents
 Siblings also contribute to personality
de...
D. Social factors
Consists of friends, peers, colleagues,
Relates to the process of socialization
E. Situational factors...
Psychoanalytical Theory or Intra psychic
theory
Trait Theory
 Developed by Sigmund Freud
 This theory emphasizes the unconscious
determinants of behavior
He says personality is the...
 Id: is the only part of the personality that is
present at birth, inherited & uncontrolled
 The id operates according t...
 Ego is the logical, rational, realistic part of the
personality
 It keeps the id in check
 It mostly operates on the r...
 Super ego is the moral component of the
personality
 It is popularly known as the conscience which
consists of all thos...
 A trait is a personal characteristic that is used to describe &
explain personality.
 It is a set of relatively stable ...
Raymond Cattell’s 16 personality
framework can be divided into 2 parts:
i) Surface traits: observable qualities of a
per...
 Reserved vs Outgoing
 Less intelligent vs More intelligent
 Emotionally stable vs Emotionally unstable
 Submissive vs...
 Conscientiousness: extent of obedience & hard
working vs lazy & unorganized
 Extraversion: the degree to which a person...
 Matching jobs & individuals- every job needs some
specific characteristics of the job performer
 Training & Development...
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Personality by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

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Transcript of "Personality by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )"

  1. 1. Lecture 5
  2. 2. Is a pattern of stable characteristics of a person that influences his behavior towards goal achievement It includes external appearance & behavior It consists of inner awareness of self It is therefore a particular pattern of measurable traits both inner & outer
  3. 3.  Each person is unique & distinct: it consists of all those characteristics which an individual has in common with others & some of which separates him from others  Each person has some stable patterns of behavior: although a person’s personality undergoes certain changes over time, most behavior patterns remain stable over the years  Personality is thus both internal & external elements: one can easily form an opinion by observing the external traits of a person. The internal states such as feelings & thoughts make a person somewhat unique
  4. 4. A. Biological factors  Heredity: physical features, facial features, gender, etc, all those features which are inborn  Brain: this refers to the IQ level of a person. Shows his analytical bent of mind  Biofeedback: All involuntary functions which affects behavior like blood pressure, brainwave patterns  Physical features: external appearances, a tall well built person has an imposing personality  Age: Aged employees tend to be more loyal with organizations than younger employees  Gender: Rate of absenteeism in females is higher than males  Ability: includes both intellectual & physical abilities, some parts of which are inborn
  5. 5. B. Cultural factors Norms prevailing within the family Personality formation is influenced to a large extent in the culture in which we are born
  6. 6. C. Family Factors  Refers to the overall home environment created by parents  Siblings also contribute to personality development  Children raised by parents in a warm & loving home become socially well adjusted  It also involves the socialization process when a child learns to interact & communicate with others in the society
  7. 7. D. Social factors Consists of friends, peers, colleagues, Relates to the process of socialization E. Situational factors Refers to the effect of environment Varying demands of the situation
  8. 8. Psychoanalytical Theory or Intra psychic theory Trait Theory
  9. 9.  Developed by Sigmund Freud  This theory emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior He says personality is the interaction between 3 elements: a) Id b) Ego c) Superego
  10. 10.  Id: is the only part of the personality that is present at birth, inherited & uncontrolled  The id operates according to the pleasure principle & wants immediate fulfillment of its wants with or without logic  Id is largely childish, irrational & always demanding
  11. 11.  Ego is the logical, rational, realistic part of the personality  It keeps the id in check  It mostly operates on the reality principle & thus is mostly conscious  It considers the constraints of the real world in determining the appropriate time, place & object for gratification of the id’s wishes
  12. 12.  Super ego is the moral component of the personality  It is popularly known as the conscience which consists of all those behaviors for which we are punished or feel guilty  It is the most power element in one’s personality  Its main function is to keep the id & ego in check
  13. 13.  A trait is a personal characteristic that is used to describe & explain personality.  It is a set of relatively stable & consistent personal characteristics  Allport gave 2 main categories of traits: a) Common traits- those which are common to others belonging to the same culture like praying before taking a meal which reflects religiousness of a person b) Individual traits- specific or unique to an individual like good at painting or singing which shows artistic abilities
  14. 14. Raymond Cattell’s 16 personality framework can be divided into 2 parts: i) Surface traits: observable qualities of a person like honest, helpful, kind etc ii) Source traits: these are the causes of behavior like intelligence, practicality etc
  15. 15.  Reserved vs Outgoing  Less intelligent vs More intelligent  Emotionally stable vs Emotionally unstable  Submissive vs Dominant  Serious vs Happy go lucky  Expedient vs Conscientious  Timid vs Venturesome  Tough minded vs Sensitive  Trusting vs Suspicious  Practical vs Imaginative  Forthright vs Shrewd  Self assured vs Apprehensive  Conservative vs Experimenting  Group dependent vs Self sufficient  Uncontrolled vs Controlled  Relaxed vs Tense
  16. 16.  Conscientiousness: extent of obedience & hard working vs lazy & unorganized  Extraversion: the degree to which a person can connect & gel up with other individuals vs introvert & reserved people  Agreeableness: cooperation vs non cooperation  Emotional stability: the degree to which an individual is secure vs insecurity  Openness: the extent to which an individual is creative & open to new ideas vs narrow ideas
  17. 17.  Matching jobs & individuals- every job needs some specific characteristics of the job performer  Training & Development- certain skills can be developed through training  Designing Motivation System- All people cannot be motivated by the same incentives, some prefer monetary incentives while some prefer non monetary  Designing control systems- democratic or autocratic, different personality variable react differently to different control mechanism
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