Perception by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )


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Perception by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal )

  1. 1. Lecture 3
  2. 2. Concept  Is a process of interpretation  People select, organize, interpret and respond to information around them  May be described as a person’s view of reality  Opinions about issues or activities surrounding a person  Impression about people (subordinates, peers and superiors) around an individual
  3. 3. Features  Sensory experience – we use our senses to interpret information  Filter- sorting out the relevant information from the irrelevant ones  Subjective- different people look at the same event from different angles  Unique interpretation- mental process of judging events  Basis of human behavior- there can be no behavior without perception
  4. 4. Factors that Influence Perception Factors in the perceiver Attitudes Motives Interests Experience Expectation Factors in the situation Time Work setting Social setting PERCEPTION Factors in the target Novelty Motion Sound Size Background Proximity Perception, Attribution And Individual Decision Making
  5. 5. Factors affecting  Characteristics of perceiver:  - Attitudes: positive & negative  - Moods: good or foul mood  - Motives: goals  - Self concept: opinion about oneself, confidence  - Interest: individual’s interest in any task
  6. 6. ..contd  Characteristics of target:  - Motion: moving objects catch better attention  - Sound: louder sound will be more noticeable  - Size: larger size better attention  - Contrast: more contrast more attention  - Novelty & familiarity: uncommon objects in common surroundings
  7. 7. ..contd  Characteristics of the situations  - Time: crucial or casual time  - Work setting: conditions of the work environment  - Social setting: cooperative or manipulative
  8. 8. Perceptual Distortions/Errors  Selective perception: It is our tendency to choose information that supports our viewpoints, individuals often ignore information that makes them feel uncomfortable  Stereotyping: It is a generalization about a group of people. Ex: Good looking people are good employees
  9. 9. ..contd  Halo Effect: It is the process of using a single personality attribute while evaluating a person, especially a positive impression. Ex: A good student is also a responsible student  First impressions: First impression is the last impression. We tend to remember what we perceive first about a person
  10. 10. …contd  Contrast effect: Contrasting effect always catches more attention. Ex: Yellow against black background. “No smoking” posters  Projection: Is the tendency for people to see their own traits in other people. Example: Dishonest people tend to see dishonesty in others  Attribution: Refers to the way people try to understand the behavior of others. It is the process of assigning causes for any activity or event
  11. 11. …contd  Implicit personality theory: We tend to have our mini theories about how people look & behave. Ex: People in fashionable dress are considered to like modern music  Self fulfilling prophesy: Also known as Pygmalion effect. These are situations in which our expectations about people affect our interaction with them in such a way that our expectations are fulfilled. Ex: When a manager says he trusts his subordinates will perform well, there is a tendency for subordinates to perform well automatically
  12. 12. Perceptual Process  Observation & selection: It is the tendency to filter out information that is irrelevant. It is the process of selecting only relevant information  Perceptual organization: Is the process by which people categorize data into recognizable patterns  Perceptual Interpretation: Refers to the process of analyzing the information thus gathered & drawing meaningful conclusions thereof.
  13. 13. Importance / Applications  Employee Interview: helps in deciding whom to hire & whom not to  Performance evaluation: An employees future is closely tied to his appraisal- promotions, pay raises etc  Performance expectations: depending of the employees capabilities & skills, responsibilities & duties are assigned  Employee loyalty: helps in judging whether an employee will remain with the organization for a short, medium or long term