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Non Parametric Test: Cases Dr Neeraj Kaushik TIT&S Bhiwani
Essential Concepts <ul><li>Sort Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Transpose </li></ul><ul><li>Restructure (Cases to Variables or Var...
Weight Cases <ul><li>Weight Cases gives cases different weights (by simulated replication) for statistical analysis. </li>...
Split File <ul><li>Split File splits the data file into separate groups for analysis based on the values of one or more gr...
Chi Square Test <ul><li>A large hospital schedules discharge support staff assuming that patients leave the hospital at a ...
Chi Square Test <ul><li>By default, the Chi-Square Test procedure builds frequencies and calculates an expected value base...
Chi Square Test <ul><li>The Chi-Square Test procedure is typically used to test observed frequencies against a single expe...
Binomial Test <ul><li>A telecommunications firm loses about 27% of its customers to churn each month. In order to properly...
Runs Test <ul><li>An e-commerce firm enlisted beta testers to browse and then rate their new Web site. Ratings were record...
Mann Whitney U test <ul><li>Physicians randomly assigned female stroke patients to receive only physical therapy or physic...
Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test <ul><li>A grain processor has two corn crops with aflatoxin levels below 20 parts per b...
Kruskal-Wallis test <ul><li>Agricultural researchers are studying the effect of color on the taste of crops. Strawberries ...
Median Test <ul><li>A sales manager evaluates two new training courses. Sixty employees, divided into three groups, all re...
Wilcoxon test <ul><li>An investment firm estimates that the median gain for S&P 500 stocks last year was about 0.078% per ...
McNemar test <ul><li>A grocery store manager wants to increase sales of the store-brand detergent. She puts together an in...
Friedman test <ul><li>An insurance group is evaluating four health care plans for small employers. Twelve employers are re...
Cochran's Q test   <ul><li>An online retailer has created a new Web store. Usability testing is expensive but vital, so fi...
Presentation by: <ul><li>Dr. Neeraj Kaushik </li></ul><ul><li>Asstt. Professor (Management Studies) </li></ul><ul><li>The ...
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Non Parametric Tests

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Non Parametric Tests

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Transcript of "Non Parametric Tests"

  1. 1. Non Parametric Test: Cases Dr Neeraj Kaushik TIT&S Bhiwani
  2. 2. Essential Concepts <ul><li>Sort Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Transpose </li></ul><ul><li>Restructure (Cases to Variables or Variable to Cases) </li></ul><ul><li>Merge Files </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh cases </li></ul><ul><li>Split File </li></ul>
  3. 3. Weight Cases <ul><li>Weight Cases gives cases different weights (by simulated replication) for statistical analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The values of the weighting variable should indicate the number of observations represented by single cases in your data file. </li></ul><ul><li>Cases with zero, negative, or missing values for the weighting variable are excluded from analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Fractional values are valid; they are used exactly where this is meaningful, and most likely where cases are tabulated. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Split File <ul><li>Split File splits the data file into separate groups for analysis based on the values of one or more grouping variables. </li></ul><ul><li>If we select multiple grouping variables, cases are grouped by each variable within categories of the prior variable on the Groups Based On list. We can specify up to eight grouping variables. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if we select gender as the first grouping variable and minority as the second grouping variable, cases will be grouped by minority classification within each gender category. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chi Square Test <ul><li>A large hospital schedules discharge support staff assuming that patients leave the hospital at a fairly constant rate throughout the week. </li></ul><ul><li>However, because of increasing complaints of staff shortages, the hospital administration wants to determine whether the number of discharges varies by the day of the week. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Chi-Square Test to test the assumption that patients leave the hospital at a constant rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Data file1 (Weigh case by Avg Daily Discharge) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chi Square Test <ul><li>By default, the Chi-Square Test procedure builds frequencies and calculates an expected value based on all valid values of the test variable. However, you might want to restrict the range of the test to a contiguous subset of the available values. </li></ul><ul><li>The hospital requests a follow-up analysis: Can staff be scheduled assuming that patients discharged on weekdays only (Monday through Friday) leave at a constant daily rate ? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chi Square Test <ul><li>The Chi-Square Test procedure is typically used to test observed frequencies against a single expected value that is equal for all rows. </li></ul><ul><li>A clothing manufacturer tries first-class postage for direct mailings, hoping for faster responses than with bulk mail. Order-takers record how many weeks are taken after mailing each order. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Chi-Square Test to determine whether the percentage of orders by week between the two methods differs. </li></ul><ul><li>Datafile2 (Weigh case by fcmail) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Binomial Test <ul><li>A telecommunications firm loses about 27% of its customers to churn each month. In order to properly focus churn reduction efforts, management wants to know if this percentage varies across predefined customer groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the binomial test to determine whether a single rate of churn adequately describes the four major customer types. </li></ul><ul><li>Data File (Split file on the basis of customers) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Runs Test <ul><li>An e-commerce firm enlisted beta testers to browse and then rate their new Web site. Ratings were recorded as soon as each tester finished browsing. The team is concerned that ratings may be related to the amount of time spent browsing. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Runs Test to test the hypothesis that time spent browsing is correlated with site rating. </li></ul><ul><li>Data File </li></ul><ul><li>Large significance values (>.05) indicate that the data are randomly ordered. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mann Whitney U test <ul><li>Physicians randomly assigned female stroke patients to receive only physical therapy or physical therapy combined with emotional therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>Three months after the treatments, the Mann-Whitney test is used to compare each group's ability to perform common activities of daily life. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Mann-Whitney test to determine whether the two groups' abilities differ. </li></ul><ul><li>Data File </li></ul>
  11. 11. Two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test <ul><li>A grain processor has two corn crops with aflatoxin levels below 20 parts per billion and are safe for human consumption. However, because aflatoxin varies widely across yields, he wants to compare the levels of aflatoxin in each of the yields. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to determine whether the distribution of aflatoxin differs significantly between the two safe yields. </li></ul><ul><li>Data File </li></ul><ul><li>Small significance values (<.05) indicate the two groups differ. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Kruskal-Wallis test <ul><li>Agricultural researchers are studying the effect of color on the taste of crops. Strawberries grown in red, blue, and black color were rated by taste-testers on an ordinal scale of one to five (far below to far above average). </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Kruskal-Wallis test to determine if taste varies by color. </li></ul><ul><li>Data File </li></ul><ul><li>Significance levels below .05 indicate that the group locations differ. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Median Test <ul><li>A sales manager evaluates two new training courses. Sixty employees, divided into three groups, all receive standard training . </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, group 2 receives technical training , and group 3 receives a hands-on tutorial . </li></ul><ul><li>Each employee was tested at the end of the training course and their score recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the median test to assess the difference in performance between the three groups, if any. </li></ul><ul><li>Data File </li></ul><ul><li>Significance levels less than .05 indicate that the groups differ. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Wilcoxon test <ul><li>An investment firm estimates that the median gain for S&P 500 stocks last year was about 0.078% per day, and it is 0.123% so far this year. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Wilcoxon test (2 related sample) to see if the median gain for technology stocks is different from the known median for all stocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Data File </li></ul><ul><li>Small significance values (<.05) indicate that the two variables differ in distribution. </li></ul>
  15. 15. McNemar test <ul><li>A grocery store manager wants to increase sales of the store-brand detergent. She puts together an in-store promotion and talks with customers at check-out. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the McNemar test to determine if the in-store advertisement changed her customers' buying behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Data file </li></ul><ul><li>A small significance level (<.05) indicates that the two groups are not equal </li></ul>
  16. 16. Friedman test <ul><li>An insurance group is evaluating four health care plans for small employers. Twelve employers are recruited to rank the plans about how much they would prefer to offer them to their employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Friedman test to determine if the plans are of equal preference. </li></ul><ul><li>Data file </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cochran's Q test <ul><li>An online retailer has created a new Web store. Usability testing is expensive but vital, so five users are invited. Each is asked to perform six tasks on the site, all of which are designed to be equally easy. </li></ul><ul><li>Use Cochran Q procedure to test the null hypothesis that multiple related proportions are the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Data File </li></ul><ul><li>Small significance values (<.05) indicate that at least one of the variables differs from the others. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Presentation by: <ul><li>Dr. Neeraj Kaushik </li></ul><ul><li>Asstt. Professor (Management Studies) </li></ul><ul><li>The Technological Institute of Textile & Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Birla Colony </li></ul><ul><li>Bhiwani-127021 </li></ul><ul><li>Haryana </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Website: http://titsbhiwani.org </li></ul>
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