Iron and steel industry In IndiaIndia has steel producing centres at Bhilai,Durgapur, Burnpur, Jamshedpur, Rourkela, Bokaro.These steel producing centres are located in fourstates.W.B, Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh.
Other important steel producing centres areBhadravati and Vijayanagar in KarnatakaVishakhapatnam in Andhra PradeshSalem in Tamil Nadu
India’s steel production has increased from 1million tonne in 1947 to 30 million tonnes in 2002.
Tata Iron and Steel Company, JamshedpurEstablished before independence, it was the onlyiron and steel company in India b4 1947.It is privately owned by TATA group.TISCO was started in 1907 at Sakchi near therivers Subarnarekha and Kharkai.The most conveniently situated iron and steelcompany in India.
Reasons to choose SakchiIt is only 32 km away from Kalimati station.Close to the iron ore, coal and manganeseTISCO gets coal from Jharia coal fields, iron ore,depositslimestone dolomite and manganese from Orissaand Chhattisgarh.Close to Kolkata, which is a large market.The two rivers provide adequate water supply.
Several other industries have been set up after TISCO. They produce ChemicalsLocomotive parts Agricultural equipmentMachinery Tinplate Cable and wire
The development of iron and steel industry boosted the industrial development in India.Almost all the sectors of Indian industry depends on iron and steel industry for their basic infrastructure.
PittsburghCoal is available locally.Iron ore comes from Minnesota, 1500km fromPittsburghTransportation of ore is via Great Lakes Waterway
The Great Lakes Waterway is one of the bestroutes for shipping iron ore cheaply.Iron ore is shipped from Minnesota to Pittsburghvia Great Lakes Waterway and railway.The Ohio, Monongahela and Allegheny riversprovide water supply.
Cotton Textile IndustryThe term ‘textile’ is derived from Latin word te x te re which means to weave. Weaving cloth from yarn is an ancient art.
The fibres that are used for textile industry can beNatural fibres are, wool, silk, cotton, linen and juteMan made fibres include nylon, polyester, acrylic and rayon
Weaving cloth is one of the oldest industries of the world.Till the industrial revolution, cotton cloth was made by hand spinning techniques. Introduction of power looms boosted thedevelopment of cotton textile industry in England and later in other parts of the world.
Today, India, China, Japan and USA are the important producers of cotton textiles. B4 the British rule Indian hand spun cloth had a wide market. Muslins of Dhaka, Chintzes of Masulipatnam,Calicos of Calicut and Gold-wrought cotton pieces of Burhanpur, Surat and Vadodara.
The first successful cotton textile mill was established in Mumbai in 1854 The warm moist climatePort for importing & exportingAvailability of raw material and skilled labour
Now, some of the other centres of cotton industry are Coimbatore Kolkata Kanpur Ludhiana Chennai Pondichery Ahmedabad Mumbai Panipat
AhmedabadLocated in Gujarat on the banks of Sabarmati river First mill was in 1859 It soon became the second largest textile hub in India after Mumbai. It is called the Manchester of India.
Located in the heart of a cotton growing area Raw material is easily available. Climate is ideal for spinning and weaving. Land is suitable for establishment of the mills.Skilled and semi-skilled labour is available cheaply. Well developed transport system ensures easy transport of textiles.
Decline of mills in Ahmedabad in recent years About one-third of Indian textile production is exported Due to emergence of new textile centersNon-upgradation of machinery and technology
Osaka, Japan Known as the Manchester of Japan Climate is ideal for spinning and weaving Land is suitable for establishment of the millsSkilled and semi-skilled labour is available cheaply Port facility for import and export
Cotton is imported from India, Egypt, China and USAFinished product is exported and has a good market Now a days, cotton industry of Osaka is being replaced by other industries like,Iron and steel, machinery, shipbuilding, automobiles, electrical equipment and cement
Information Technology industry deals with thestorage, processing and distribution of information Is a global industry Main factors of location of these industries are Resource availability, cost and infrastructure
Major centres of IT areSilicon Valley, California Bangalore, India
Locational advantages of Silicon Valley and BangaloreBoth are located in mild climate, dust free regionsBangalore has the largest number of educational institutions and IT colleges in India
Bangalore is dust free with low cost of livingAvailability of skilled managers and workforce with experience Excellent transport facilities are available
Silicon Valley, CaliforniaClose to some of the most advanced technological and scientific centres of the world Pleasant climate with clean environment Located close to major airports
Other emerging cities of IT industry in India are Mumbai Pune Chennai ThiruvanantapuramHyderabad KochiNew Delhi ChandigarhGurgaon