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X physics full notes chapter 4


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  • 1. Sources of EnergyKey Learning :1. A windmill is a simple machine that works with the energyof the wind. The windmill can be used to run a pump to drawwater from the ground. It can also be used to run a flour millto grind grain.2. The moving water also possesses kinetic energy. Thewater – wheel is a device used for obtaining energy fromflowing water.3. The energy of naturally flowing water in high rivers isgenerally stored behind dams as potential energy and thenfurther used to generate electricity. The electricity producedby using the energy of flowing water is known as hydro –electric power. The most important advantage of waterenergy is that like wind energy, it does not cause anypollution.4. Renewable sources of energy: The renewable sources ofenergy are those sources which are being producedcontinuously in nature and are inexhaustible. The importantexamples of renewable source of energy are: wood, fallingwater, geothermal power, sun, wind,, tides, gobar gas etc.The renewable source are also known as non – conventionalsources of energy.5. The non–renewable sources are those sources which gotaccumulated in nature over a long time and can’t be quicklyreplaced when they get exhausted. The important examplesof non – renewable sources of energy are: Coal, natural gas,petroleum, uranium, etc. The non–renewable sources arealso known as conventional sources of energy.For More School Notes & Projects Visit
  • 2. 6. The energy radiated by the sun is called solar energy. Itis interesting to note that the solar energy recovered on theearth in one day is about 50, 000 times more than the totalenergy consumed by all the nations of the world in one year.7. There are two limitations of solar energy:a. The solar energy that reaches the earth is in a verydiffused formb. The solar energy is not uniformly available at all the timeand all the places.8. Any device that gets heated by the sun’s energy is calleda solar heating device. Such a device helps in collecting asmuch solar energy as possible. It is done by using a blackpointed surface, a glass sheet cover and a reflector.9. A solar cooker is a heating device which is used to cookfood by utilizing the energy radiated by the sun. A solarheater is used to heat water by utilizing the energy radiatedby the sun. The solar power plants are used to produceelectricity by using the solar energy. The solar cells are usedto convert solar energy directly into electrical energy. Thesolar cells are made from semi- conductor elements likesilicon and germanium.10. The oceans act as a storehouse of solar heat energy.Because the oceans covers almost 71% collector of solarheat energy. The energy collector of solar heat energy. Theenergy from the oceans is available in different forms. Theyare:a. Ocean Thermal Energy (OTE)b. Sea – waves energyc. Tidal energyd. Energy from salinity gradient in sease. Energy from sea – vegetationf. Energy from the nuclear fusion of deuterium that ispresent in oceans11. There is always some significant temperature differencebetween the water ‘at the surface of ocean’ and ‘at deeperFor More School Notes & Projects Visit
  • 3. levels’. This temperature difference is even upto 2°C atenable the flow of heat. The energy available as a result ofdifference in the temperature water at the surface of theocean and at deeper levels is known as ocean thermalenergy. It is also abbreviated as OTE.12. The rise of ocean water as a result of moon’s attractionis called ‘high tide and the fall of water is called ‘low tide’.The rise and fall of tidal waves takes place twice in a day.This gives rise to enormous movement of water betweenhigh tides and low a tides and is an excellent source ofenergy in many coastal areas of the world. The tidal energycan also be harnessed by constructing some tidal barrier ortidal dam.13. Fuels are substances which are used for producing heatenergy. Fuels are sued for producing electricity.14. The waste material of plants and animals are calledbiomass. When plants and animal die, their biomass can beused as fuel.15. The remains of plant and animals buried under the earthmillions of years ago are known as fossils. These fossils areexcellent fuels and are called fossil fuels. The commonexamples of fusil fuels are coal, petroleum and natural gas.16. Petroleum is a mixture of several hydrocarbons withtraces of salt,rock particles and water.17. Fuels used directly to produce heat are called primaryfuels and fuels derived from primary fuels are known assecondary fuels.18. The nuclear reactor (commonly known as atomic reactoror atomic pile) is a specially designed furnace for carryingout the controlled fission of a radioactive material line U –For More School Notes & Projects Visit
  • 4. 235 for producing atomic power. The heat energy producedfrom fission reactions is ultimately converted into electricity.19. Nuclear fuel is the fissionable material used in thenuclear reactor for producing energy by the process offission. The nuclear fuel used is enriched which slows downthe speed of neutrons so as to cause the fission of uranium235 effectively. Heavy water is an important moderator.20. The process in which an unstable nucleus of a heavyatom (like U – 235) splits up into two medium - sized nucleiwith the liberation of an enormous amount of energy iscalled nuclear fission.For More School Notes & Projects Visit