Desert (english project work)


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Desert (english project work)

  1. 1. The hot desert is a land of extremes:extreme heat and extreme dryness; sudden flash floods and cold nights. Because deserts are such a harsh environment, deserts often have names likes "Death Valley," "the empty quarter," and "the place from where there is no return."
  2. 2. . What are the type of deserts ? There are two types of deserts a) Hot Deserts b) Cold Deserts
  3. 3. Hot Deserts
  4. 4. Hot Deserts of the World DESERTThe main form of precipitation in a hot desert is rain. But thats only ten inches or less of rain per year. This kind of Deserts are mainly found in Southern Africa , Southern Australia ,Southern America andSouthern Asia . In this desert there is a lot of problemsdue to water. In this kind of Desert the population is very less. Due to less water many people die in this area.
  5. 5. Hot Deserts of the WorldName Size Physical Some Plants & Animals Special FactsLocation FeaturesArabian 900,000 mi2 Covered almost entirely by sand; acacia, oleander, saltbush Nomadic Bedouin tribes haveArabian Peninsula 2,300,000km2 has some of the most extensive desert locust, dromedary camel, travelled through the Arabian stretches of sand dunes in the gazelle, lizard, jackal, oryx Desert for thousands of years. world.Australian (Great Sandy, 890,00 mi2 Great Sandy, Victoria, and acacia, casuarina tree, Aborigines have lived in theVictoria, Simpson, Gibson, and 2,300,000km2 Simpson are sandy; Gibson and eucalyptus, saltbush, spinifex Australian deserts for overSturt) (1/3 of Australia) Sturt are stony. grass 30,000 years.Australia blue-tongued lizard, dingo, fat- tailed mouse, kangaroo, marsupial mole, rabbit-eared bandicoot, sand goanna, spinifex hopping mouse, throny devilChihuahuan 175,000 mi2 High plateau covered by stony cacti, chihuahuan flax, creosote Largest North American desert.North Central Mexico and 455,000 km2 areas and sandy soil. Many bush, lechuguilla, mesquite, Big Bend National Park locatedSouthwestern United States mountains and mesas. mexican gold poppy here; more species of birds seen(Arizona, New Mexico, Texas) coyote, diamondback in Big Bend than in any other rattlesnake, javelina, kangaroo National Park in the U.S. rat, roadrunnerKalahari 200,000 mi2 Covered by sand dunes and acacia, aloe Bushman have lived in theSouthwestern Africa 520,000 km2 gravel plains. gazelle, gerbil, ground squirrel, Kalahari for 20,000 years. hyena, jackel, sandgrouse, springbokMojave 25,000 mi2 Covered by sandy soil, gravelly creosote bush, desert sand Death Valley located in thisSouthwestern United States 65,000 km2 pavement, and salt flats. verbena, joshua tree, mesquite desert.(Arizona, California, Nevada) bighorn sheep, chuckwalla, coyote, jackrabbit, sidewinder, zebra-tailed lizard
  6. 6. Monte 125,000 mi2 Covered by sand and soil cardon cactus, creosote bush, Very similar to the SonorantArgentina 325,000 km2 paloverde Desert armadillo, cavy, jaguarundi, puma, tinamou, tuco-tucoSahara 3,500,000mi2 Covered by mountains, rocky acacia, grasses, tamarisks Largest desert in the world.Northern Africa 9,100,000km2 areas, gravel plains, salt flats, addax antelope, dorcas gazelle, Fewer than 2 million inhabitants huge areas of dunes. Areas in fennec fox, horned viper, jackal, (mostly nomads such as the the central sometimes get no jerboa, sandgrouse, spiny-yailed Tuareg). Crossed by Arab rain for years at a time. lizard caravans since the 10th century.Sonorant 120,000 mi2 Covered by sand, soil, and agave, coulters globemallow, Most complex animal-plantSouthwestern United States 312,000 km2 gravelly pavement. Gets more creosote bush, desert mariposa community of any desert.(Arizona, California) and parts of rain than any other North lily, mesquite, ocotillo, One of the most beautifulMexico (Baja Peninsula, Sonora) American desert. paloverde, saguaro deserts in the world. coati, elf owl, gila monster, kangaroo rat, pack rat, roadrunner, sidewinder, tarantulaThar 77,000 mi2 Majority of desert covered by acacia, euphorbias, grasses, Small villages of ten to twentyIndia and Pakistan 200,000 km2 sand dunes; rest covered by shrubs houses scattered throughout the gravel plains black buck, dromedary camel, Thar. great Indian bustard, Indian spiny-tailed lizard, jackel, sandgrouseMojave 25,000 mi2 Covered by sandy soil, creosote bush, desert Death Valley located inSouthwestern United 65,000 km2 gravelly pavement, and sand verbena, joshua this desert.States (Arizona, salt flats. tree, mesquiteCalifornia, Nevada) bighorn sheep, chuckwalla, coyote, jackrabbit, sidewinder, zebra-tailed lizard
  7. 7. Cold Deserts
  8. 8. With snow covered land stretching for hundreds of miles with no vegetations or apparent sign of life,save a few stray patches of thorny plants, the colddeserts are very hostile to any animal for making aliving. With severe lack of vegetation and adequate sunlight here are cold, frozen desert like places in Asia. No vegetation can grow here because of the snow. Thus animals hardly survive here. Some of the few found ones include the goat-antelopes like ibex, gorals and serows; the yaks; and the central Asian snow leopards with broad feet that serve assnow shoes. Both the ice capped poles of Earth has vast ice sheets and the glaciers flowing down the sea. Huge ice shelves jut far out into the waters. Fierce, bitter winds whirl snow about in blizzards. No place on earth is more forbidding.
  9. 9. Cold Deserts of the WorldName Size Physical Some Plants & Animals Special FactsLocation FeaturesAtacama 54,000 mi2 Covered by sand dunes and bunchgrass, cardon cactus, Only a few thousand peopleCoasts of Peru and Chile 140,000 km2 pebbles. One of the driest tamaruga trees (mostly farmers) live in the areas on earth. lizards, llama, Peruvian fox, inland desert areas. nesting area for many Large deposits of sodium seabirds nitrate are found in the desert. Sodium nitrate is used to make gunpowder.Gobi 450,000 mi2 Covered by sandy soil and camels thorn, grasses Crossed by Genghis KhanNorthern China and 1,200,000 km2 areas of small stones called bactrian bamel, gazelle, in the early 13th century.Southern Mongolia "gobi." gerbil, jerboa, lizards, Many nomads now settling onager, wolf on government-run farms.Great Basin 158,000 mi2 Covered by sand, gravel, greasewood, sagebrush, Great Salt Lake locatedWestern United States 411,000 km2 and clay. shadscale here.(Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Many moutains ranges, bighorn sheep, jackrabbit,and Utah) basins, and large expanses pocket mouse, poor-will, of salt flats. pronghorn antelope, sage thrasher, side-blotched lizardIranian 150,000 mi2 Covered by coarse gray grasses, pistachio trees, Worlds largest salt flatIran, Afghanistan, and 390,000 km2 soil, stony pavement, and shrubs located here.Pakistan salt flats. monitor lizard, onager, oryx, scorpionNamib 52,000 mi2 Covered by sand dunes aloe, bunchgrass, lichens, Coast of the Namib DesertCoasts of Southwestern 135,000 km2 along the coast and gravel welwitschia is worlds greatest sourceAfrica farther inland. darkling beetle, fringe-toed of gemstones. lizard, golden mole, jackal, sidewinder, viper, web- footed geckoTakla Makan 600,000 mi2 Covered by sand dunes and grasses, shrubs The word "Takla Makan"Western China 1,600,000km2 rocky soil. bactrian camel, jerboa, means "place from which long-eared hedgehog, there is no return." gazelle Crossed by Marco Polo in the 13th Century.
  10. 10. Desert Animals and Plant There are many animals and plants which live in desert they have somespecific habits and features also known as Adaption to live in Desert area.
  11. 11. These are some animals and Plants which live in desert: 1. Animals Animals in the desert must survive in a hostile environment. Intense heat, searing sun, and lack of water are just a few of the challenges facing desert animals. Animals that live in the hot desert have many adaptations. Some animals never drink, but get their water from seeds (some can contain up to 50% water)and plants. Many animals are nocturnal, sleeping during the hot day and only coming out at night to eat andhunt. Some animals rarely spend any time above ground. Spade foot toads spend nine months of every year underground!
  12. 12. With its heavy head and shoulders and slender hindquarters, the addax is a clumsy-looking animal. Its coloration varies widely between individuals, but there is always a mat of dark-brown hair on theforehead, and both sexes have thin, spiral horns. Addax are typical desert-dwellers, with their large, wide spreading hoofs, adapted to walking on softsand, and they never drink, obtaining all the moisture they need from their food, which includes succulents. Their nomadic habits are closely linked to the sporadic rains, for addax appear to have a special ability to find thepatches of desert vegetation that suddenly sprout after a downpour. They are normally found in herds of 20 to 200. The female produces 1 young after a gestation of 8 1/2 months. Class: Mammalian: Mammals Diet: Plants Order: Artiodactyls: Even-toed Ungulates Size: body:1.3 m (4 1/4 ft), tail: 25 - 35 cm (9 3/4 - 13 3/4 in) Conservation Status: Critically Family: Bovina: Bovid endangered Scientific Name: Addax nasomaculatus Habitat: sandy and stony desert Range: Africa: E. Mauritania, W. Mali; patchy distribution in Algeria, Chad, Niger and Sudan
  13. 13. Cactus Wren The largest North American wren, the cactus wren has a distinctive white stripe over each eye and a longer-than-usual tail, which it does not normally cock up. Cactus wrens frequent areas with thorny shrubs, cacti and trees and forage mostly on theground around vegetation for insects, such as beetles, ants, wasps, and grasshoppers, and occasionally lizards or small frogs. Some cactus fruit and berries and seeds are also eaten. The wrens can run swiftly but usually fly if traveling any distance. Nests are made for roosting in at night and for shelter in bad weather. The breeding season begins in March or April, and there may be two or three broods. The nest is a bulky, domed structure, made of plant fibers, twigs and dead leaves, with a tubelike side entrance that can be up to 15 cm (6 in) long; it is lined with fur or feathers. The nest is situated on a prickly cholla cactus or amid the sharp leaves of a yucca or other thorny bush. From 3 to 7 eggs, usually 4 to 5, are laid and then incubated by the female for about 16 days. Class: Aves: Birds Diet: Insects Order: Passeriformes: Perching birds Size: body:18 - 22 cm (7 - 8 1/2 in) Conservation Status: Non- Family: Troglodytidae: Wrens threatened Scientific Name: Campylorhynchus Habitat: desert, arid scrubland brunneicapillus Range: Southwestern U.S.A. to central Mexico
  14. 14. Desert Lark The plumage of the desert lark perfectly matches the color of the desert soil and is the best example of soil camouflage in birds. Thevery dark subspecies, A. d. annae, blends with the black larval sand of central Arabia, while the pale race, A. d. isabellina, does not stray from areas of white sand. The nest is usually built up against a rock or tuft of grass and is reinforced on the windward side by small decorative pebbles. In the harsh desert interior, 3 eggs are laid, while 4 or 5 may be produced at the desert edge. Class: Aves: Birds Diet: Seeds Order: Passeriformes: Perching birds Size: body:15 cm (6 in) Family: Alaudidae: Larks Conservation Status: Non-threatened Scientific Name: Ammomanes deserti Habitat: stony, hilly desert, dry wooded slopes Range: Africa: Sahara; Middle East, through Iran to Afghanistan
  15. 15. Dingo The dingoes are descended from domesticated dogs introduced by the aboriginal human inhabitants of Australia many thousands of years ago. In anatomy and behavior, dingoes are indistinguishable from domestic dogs, but the two have interbred for so long that there are now few pure dingoes. They live in familygroups but may gather into bigger packs to hunt large prey. Originally they fed onkangaroos, but when white settlers started to kill off the kangaroos, dingoes took to feeding on introduced sheep and rabbits. A litter of 4 or 5 young is born in aburrow or rock crevice after a gestation of about 9 weeks. The young are suckled for 2 months and stay with their parents for at least a year. Class: Mammalia: Mammals Diet: Large mammals Order: Carnivora: Carnivores Size: body:about 1.5 m (5 ft), tail: about 35 cm (13 3/4 in) Family: Canidae: Dogs, Foxes Conservation Status: Non-threatened Habitat: sandy desert to wet and dry Scientific Name: Canis dingo sclerophyll forest Range: Australia
  16. 16. Gila Monster This formidable, heavy-bodied lizard has a short, usually stout tail, in which it can store fat for use in periods of food shortage. It is gaudily patterned and has brightlycolored beadlike scales on its back. The gila lives on the ground and shelters under rocks or in a burrow, which it digs itself or takes over from another animal. It is primarilynocturnal but may emerge during the day in spring. The two members of the gila monster family are the only venomous lizards. The venom is produced in glands in the lower jaw and enters the mouth via grooved teeth at the front of the lower jaw; it flows into the victim as the lizard chews. The gila also eats the eggs of birds and reptiles. Gila monsters mate in the summer, and the female lays 3 to 5 eggs some time later, in the autumn or winter. Class: Reptilia: Reptiles Diet: Small mammals, eggs Order: Squamata: Lizards and Snakes Size: body:45 - 61 cm (17 3/4 - 24 in) Family: Helodermatidae: Gila Monster Conservation Status: Vulnerable Habitat: arid and semiarid areas with some Scientific Name: Heloderma suspectum vegetation Range: Southwestern U.S.A.: Southern Utah, Arizona to New Mexico; Mexico
  17. 17. Desert Plant Deserts are the home to many living things. In fact,deserts are second only to tropical rainforests in the variety of plant and animal species that live there. How do you think plants grow in a place that is very, very dry? Many of the fascinating features of desert plantsare adaptations -- traits that help the plant survive in its harsh environment. Desert plants have two main adaptations: Ability to collect and store water Features that reduce water loss Desert plants often look different than plants in any other biome. Click on the questions to your left to learn more about desert plants and see their pictures.
  18. 18. Saguaro The stem of the Saguaro Cactus stores all of its water. The stem is green. Photosynthesis occurs in the top layer of the stem instead of in leaves. This plant has another adaptation that is hidden from us. This is its large net of roots -- that extend far away from its trunk. How would these roots help a desert plant? The roots collect water after rain. Stored in the pleatedexpandable stem, the water keeps the saguaro alive until the next rain. Saguaro fruit is used in jam and woody skeletons are used in building materials. The Saguaro only grows in the Sonorant Desert.
  19. 19. Prickly Pear Cactus Since many desert plants store water intheir spongy tissue, animals will eat them for the moisture. The thorns keep themsafe from many animal predators. You can find lots of Prickly Pear Cactus in the Chihuahua desert.
  20. 20. Dragon Tree The Dragon Tree is not from the Americandeserts. It is from the Canary Islands. It has a sap that hardens to a dark red. People call thesap "Dragons Blood." The sap is sometimes used as a fake stone in jewelry.
  21. 21. Desert Spoon Succulent leaves can store water inside them.These leaves are usually thick and tough to reducewater loss. The Desert Spoon has leaves that are trimmed and polished for sales as curios. Thepapago and Pima Indians use them in baskets. The woody stems contain a sugary sap that can be fermented into a drink that is called sotol.
  22. 22. This is some Basic Information about Desert and it organism. Desert does not stop here onlythere are many more secrets of Desert.
  23. 23. Submitted to : Sanjay Kumar Submitted by:Neelangini Tiwari