Beginnings of Govt. in America <ul><li>Mayflower Compact </li></ul><ul><li>- signed by 41 men on Mayflower </li></ul><ul><...
Beginnings of Govt. in America <ul><li>Social contract = government is formed by the consent of the governed </li></ul><ul...
Beginnings of Govt. in America <ul><li>Social contract = government is formed by the consent of the governed </li></ul><ul...
Puritans <ul><li>John Winthrop & a “City on a Hill” </li></ul><ul><li>Congregationalism =  </li></ul>
Puritans <ul><li>Congregationalism = type of church govt in which members of the church elect their leaders such as elders...
Education in the Colonies <ul><li>What was the purpose of education in the early colonies? </li></ul>
Education in the Colonies <ul><li>What was the purpose of education in the early colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>- so people c...
Education in the Colonies <ul><li>What was the purposed of education in the early colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>- so people ...
Influence of the Church <ul><li>Great Awakening: What was it? </li></ul>
Influence of the Church <ul><li>Great Awakening: What was it? </li></ul><ul><li>A revival that began in 1734 </li></ul><ul...
Influence of the Church <ul><li>Great Awakening: What was it? </li></ul><ul><li>A revival that began in 1734 </li></ul><ul...
Influence of the Church <ul><li>Great Awakening: What was it? </li></ul><ul><li>A revival that began in 1734 </li></ul><ul...
Important Figures: Witherspoon <ul><li>John Witherspoon  </li></ul><ul><li>- Served on many committees of the Continental ...
How has influence of Church changed in America? <ul><li>Once-strong denominations have lost their Biblical focus </li></ul...
Contributions of the Church to America <ul><li>Personal Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>- individual liberty is a legacy of Prot...
Church Contributions cont. <ul><li>Tradition of Dissent </li></ul><ul><li>- American immigrants came here to escape religi...
Self-Government in the Colonies <ul><li>1619 House of Burgesses est. in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Based mostly on English...
Self-Government in the Colonies <ul><li>1619 House of Burgesses est. in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Based mostly on English...
Reasons for War of Independence <ul><li>Why did the colonists rebel against England? </li></ul>
Reasons for War of Independence <ul><li>Why did the colonists rebel against England? </li></ul><ul><li>“ No taxation witho...
Lead-up to American Revolution <ul><li>What events led to increased tension in the colonies? </li></ul>
Lead-up to American Revolution <ul><li>What events led to increased tension in the colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>- Large deb...
More Tensions <ul><li>- Boston Massacre 1770 </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know who defended the British soldiers? </li></ul><u...
Even More Tensions <ul><li>Lexington & Concord 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress 1775-89 </li></ul><ul><l...
Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Lexington & Concord 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress 1775-89 </li></...
Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Lexington & Concord 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress 1775-89 </li></...
Philosophy behind the D of I <ul><li>Age of Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>-  natural laws  as seen in the Bible & in cre...
More Influences on the Founders <ul><li>Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws 1748 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govts should be divide...
The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Paragraph 1 Summary: </li></ul>
The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Paragraph 1 Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>- Introduction: When a people needs to brea...
The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Paragraph 1 Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>- Introduction: When a people needs to brea...
The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Paragraph 1 Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>- Introduction: When a people needs to brea...
More on the D of I <ul><li>pursuit of happiness =  “When Jefferson spoke of pursuing happiness, he had nothing vague or pr...
Pursuit of Happiness <ul><li>According to the United States, the pursuit of happiness is defined as: &quot;...one of the &...
D of I cont. <ul><li>Paragraph 2 Cont: </li></ul><ul><li>Govts are instituted to secure & protect these rights </li></ul><...
The King's Abuses <ul><li>Any comments on these?  </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree that these facts justify the D of I?  </l...
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Week 3 lead up to constitutional convention

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American Government Week 3 Presentation: Lead-up to the Constitutional Convention & the Declaration of Independence

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Transcript of "Week 3 lead up to constitutional convention"

  1. 1. Beginnings of Govt. in America <ul><li>Mayflower Compact </li></ul><ul><li>- signed by 41 men on Mayflower </li></ul><ul><li>- based on the idea of a covenant, an agreement </li></ul><ul><li>- supplanted by an official agreement 1 year later with the king's sanction </li></ul><ul><li>- needed to counter mutinous talk on board ship b/c some wanted to go to Virginia rather than stay in New England </li></ul><ul><li>Social contract = </li></ul>
  2. 2. Beginnings of Govt. in America <ul><li>Social contract = government is formed by the consent of the governed </li></ul><ul><li>- Foundational principle of American govt </li></ul><ul><li>- Opposed Divine Right of Kings = </li></ul>
  3. 3. Beginnings of Govt. in America <ul><li>Social contract = government is formed by the consent of the governed </li></ul><ul><li>- Foundational principle of American govt </li></ul><ul><li>- Opposed Divine Right of Kings = belief that since God ordains kings, they are accountable only to God and cannot be questioned or removed from power </li></ul>
  4. 4. Puritans <ul><li>John Winthrop & a “City on a Hill” </li></ul><ul><li>Congregationalism = </li></ul>
  5. 5. Puritans <ul><li>Congregationalism = type of church govt in which members of the church elect their leaders such as elders & the pastor (rather than having such positions filled by appointment by a bishop or other denominational office.) </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Govt was based on this election approach in Mass.; governors & magistrates were elected in each town </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: first written constitution in America </li></ul>
  6. 6. Education in the Colonies <ul><li>What was the purpose of education in the early colonies? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Education in the Colonies <ul><li>What was the purpose of education in the early colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>- so people could read the Bible & the laws of the land </li></ul><ul><li>First college? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Education in the Colonies <ul><li>What was the purposed of education in the early colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>- so people could read the Bible & the laws of the land </li></ul><ul><li>First college? Harvard, 1636 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Lost its Christian vision by 1800 </li></ul><ul><li>Other Ivy League schools originally founded to preserve Christian education and to equip ministers & missionaries </li></ul>
  9. 9. Influence of the Church <ul><li>Great Awakening: What was it? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Influence of the Church <ul><li>Great Awakening: What was it? </li></ul><ul><li>A revival that began in 1734 </li></ul><ul><li>Preachers? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Influence of the Church <ul><li>Great Awakening: What was it? </li></ul><ul><li>A revival that began in 1734 </li></ul><ul><li>Preachers? </li></ul><ul><li>- Jonathan Edwards </li></ul><ul><li>- George Whitefield </li></ul><ul><li>Results? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Influence of the Church <ul><li>Great Awakening: What was it? </li></ul><ul><li>A revival that began in 1734 </li></ul><ul><li>Preachers? </li></ul><ul><li>- Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield </li></ul><ul><li>Results? </li></ul><ul><li>- big increase in church attendance </li></ul><ul><li>- missionary outreach to frontier & Indians </li></ul><ul><li>- many colleges founded to educate ministers </li></ul><ul><li>- united the views of colonists into an American viewpoint </li></ul><ul><li>- many parsons supported the American Revolution </li></ul>
  13. 13. Important Figures: Witherspoon <ul><li>John Witherspoon </li></ul><ul><li>- Served on many committees of the Continental Congress </li></ul><ul><li>- Trained many leaders at Princeton, including James Madison </li></ul><ul><li>- Taught about important political figures such as Locke & Montesquieu </li></ul>
  14. 14. How has influence of Church changed in America? <ul><li>Once-strong denominations have lost their Biblical focus </li></ul><ul><li>Society is largely antagonistic toward Biblical standards </li></ul><ul><li>Secular humanism has replaced Christianity as the guide to morality & values </li></ul><ul><li>God, prayer, and Bibles are largely forbidden in public schools </li></ul><ul><li>So what did Christianity give to America? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Contributions of the Church to America <ul><li>Personal Liberty </li></ul><ul><li>- individual liberty is a legacy of Protestant Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>- every believer stands along before God with no need of a human priest to intervene; each man can know God personally – one of our inalienable rights, the right of liberty </li></ul><ul><li>- monopoly of the Roman Catholic Church & the various state churches was broken </li></ul>
  16. 16. Church Contributions cont. <ul><li>Tradition of Dissent </li></ul><ul><li>- American immigrants came here to escape religious & political oppression in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>- They protested the abuse & concentration of power in the church & state (moral dissent) </li></ul><ul><li>Biblical Influence on American society </li></ul><ul><li>- Biblical standards formed the basis of America's education, courts & local govts. </li></ul><ul><li>- Revivals such as Great Awakening affected all aspects of colonial life </li></ul><ul><li>- Believers were active in all aspects of life & thus strongly influenced America's founding </li></ul>
  17. 17. Self-Government in the Colonies <ul><li>1619 House of Burgesses est. in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Based mostly on English law characterized by: </li></ul>
  18. 18. Self-Government in the Colonies <ul><li>1619 House of Burgesses est. in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Based mostly on English law characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>- limited govt </li></ul><ul><li>- all equal before the law </li></ul><ul><li>- basic rights are protected </li></ul><ul><li>- strong colonial legislatures </li></ul><ul><li>- benign neglect on part of British govt </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reasons for War of Independence <ul><li>Why did the colonists rebel against England? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reasons for War of Independence <ul><li>Why did the colonists rebel against England? </li></ul><ul><li>“ No taxation without representation” tells only half the story </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists didn't want to lose their freedom of self-govt </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes were lower in colonies than in England & actually increased 10 fold after the revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Authority of the colonies was being undermined by England </li></ul><ul><li>They feared that loss of political freedom would lead to loss of religious freedom </li></ul>
  21. 21. Lead-up to American Revolution <ul><li>What events led to increased tension in the colonies? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Lead-up to American Revolution <ul><li>What events led to increased tension in the colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>- Large debt from French & Indian War 1760 </li></ul><ul><li>- King George took throne in 1760 wanting to be a strong king </li></ul><ul><li>- Stamp Act 1765 & other taxes & trade restrictions </li></ul><ul><li>- British set up a peacetime army in colonies who had to feed & house the troops </li></ul><ul><li>- Colonists resented military & economic intrusions into their self-govt </li></ul>
  23. 23. More Tensions <ul><li>- Boston Massacre 1770 </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know who defended the British soldiers? </li></ul><ul><li>- Boston Tea Party 1773 </li></ul><ul><li>- Intolerable Acts 1774 closed Boston Harbor, nullified MA charter of govt & allowed quartering of soldiers in private homes </li></ul><ul><li>- Quebec Act 1774 encouraged spread of Roman Catholicism & took over Canadian govt </li></ul><ul><li>- First Continental Congress, Sept. 1774, Philadelphia issued Declaration of Grievances to the king & declared their political rights as Americans </li></ul>
  24. 24. Even More Tensions <ul><li>Lexington & Concord 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress 1775-89 </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>Who was on the committee that wrote it? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Lexington & Concord 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress 1775-89 </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>Who was on the committee that wrote it? </li></ul><ul><li>- Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, John Adams, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Who did most of the writing? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Lexington & Concord 1775 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Continental Congress 1775-89 </li></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>Who was on the committee that wrote it? </li></ul><ul><li>- Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, John Adams, Robert Livingston, and Thomas Jefferson </li></ul><ul><li>Who did most of the writing? </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson, only 33 at the time </li></ul><ul><li>Approved on July 4, signed on August 2 </li></ul>
  27. 27. Philosophy behind the D of I <ul><li>Age of Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>- natural laws as seen in the Bible & in creation govern the universe & govts as well </li></ul><ul><li>- John Locke's social contract theory: When govt threatens people's natural rights it is reasonable & necessary for them to change their govt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights & liberty are gifts from God not the king/govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People are sovereign – the state functions with their approval, not the other way around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt exists to protect rights & property of the people, not those of the the king </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. More Influences on the Founders <ul><li>Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws 1748 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Govts should be divided into three branches, executive, legislative & judicial; This separation of powers needed to keep govt in check </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed to slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil laws are necessary b/c man does not obey God's law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deism: God set universe in motion & doesn't intervene supernaturally </li></ul><ul><li>George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights 1776 </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Paragraph 1 Summary: </li></ul>
  30. 30. The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Paragraph 1 Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>- Introduction: When a people needs to break their political bonds with their mother country, they need to give their reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph 2: What are those reasons? </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Paragraph 1 Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>- Introduction: When a people needs to break their political bonds with their mother country, they need to give their reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph 2 Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>All men are created equal </li></ul><ul><li>All men have certain inalienable rights including the right to life, liberty & the pursuit of happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Inalienable = ? </li></ul><ul><li>Pursuit of happiness = ? </li></ul>
  32. 32. The Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Paragraph 1 Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>- Introduction: When a people needs to break their political bonds with their mother country, they need to give their reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph 2 Summary: </li></ul><ul><li>All men are created equal </li></ul><ul><li>All men have certain inalienable rights including the right to life, liberty & the pursuit of happiness </li></ul><ul><li>inalienable = unable to be taken away from or given away by the possessor </li></ul><ul><li>pursuit of happiness = ? </li></ul>
  33. 33. More on the D of I <ul><li>pursuit of happiness = “When Jefferson spoke of pursuing happiness, he had nothing vague or private in mind. He meant a public happiness which is measurable; which is, indeed, the test and justification of any government.” - Gary Wills </li></ul><ul><li>- Pursuit of happiness is not the same as property. This is an important difference from Bastiat. Property cannot be guaranteed as a right b/c not everyone owns property. </li></ul><ul><li>- See also p. 40 of Declaration Statesmanship for a good explanation: Property is not the only thing we can labor for. Happiness entails more than property or wealth. According to the Founders, it refers to the virtuous life, the good life in the classical sense. The Greeks called it arete. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Pursuit of Happiness <ul><li>According to the United States, the pursuit of happiness is defined as: &quot;...one of the &quot;unalienable rights&quot; of people enumerated in the Declaration of Independence, along with &quot;life&quot; and &quot;liberty.&quot; &quot;The right to pursue any lawful business or vocation, in any manner not inconsistent with the equal rights of others, which may increase their prosperity or develop their faculties, so as to give them their highest enjoyment.&quot; Butchers' Co. v. Crescent City Co., 111 U.S. 746, 757, (1884.)&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>See this link for more about this phrase and what it meant to the Founders: http://hnn.us/articles/46460.html </li></ul>
  35. 35. D of I cont. <ul><li>Paragraph 2 Cont: </li></ul><ul><li>Govts are instituted to secure & protect these rights </li></ul><ul><li>These govts derive their authority from the consent of the people (social contract) </li></ul><ul><li>The people therefore have a right & even a duty to change or abolish their govt when it abuses their rights </li></ul><ul><li>Such rebellion should not be lightly done but only upon severe provocation </li></ul><ul><li>The British king has tried to institute tyranny over the colonies so that they now need to throw off his rule </li></ul>
  36. 36. The King's Abuses <ul><li>Any comments on these? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree that these facts justify the D of I? </li></ul><ul><li>Would they have been enough to cause you to sign the document? </li></ul><ul><li>Note that the signers understood they were risking their life, liberty & pursuit of happiness when they signed the document. Some of them did lose their property, families, and/or their lives during the revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Was the American Revolution justified? What about Romans 13:1-7? </li></ul>
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