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Amendments XI - XXVII
Amendment XI: Suing States“The judicial power of the United States shall not be  construed to extend to any suit in law or...
Amendment XII: Separate Ballots  for President and Vice PresidentSee p. 127 for the text of this amendment; ratified in 18...
Amendment XIII – XV: The Civil War or Reconstruction AmendmentsAll proposed and ratified as a direct result of the Civil W...
Amendment XIII – XV: The Civil War or Reconstruction AmendmentsAll proposed and ratified as a direct result of the Civil W...
Amendment XIII: Slavery AbolishedSection 1: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except  as a punishment for crime ...
Amendment XIII: Slavery AbolishedSection 1: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except  as a punishment for crime ...
Amendment XIII: Slavery AbolishedSection 1: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except  as a punishment for crime ...
Amendment XIV: Citizenship             DefinedSee p. 129-130 for the text of this amendmentRatified in 1868; southern stat...
Amendment XIV Sect. 2 – 5Section 2: Prevented southern states from counting blacks  for representation purposes while simu...
Amendment XV: Black Voting RightsRatified 1870The right of citizens to vote cannot be denied or abridged on  account of ra...
Amendment XV: Black Voting RightsRatified 1870The right of citizens to vote cannot be denied or abridged on  account of ra...
Civil Rights MovementBegan in the courts in the 1940s and 50s by overturning  state laws that restricted the voting rights...
Current Civil Rights MovementHow is it different than the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 60s?
Current Civil Rights MovementHow is it different than the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 60s?- it attempts to give...
Amendment XVI: Income TaxProgressive amendment, Ratified Feb. 1913Two previous attempts to establish a federal income tax ...
Amendment XVI: Income TaxProgressive amendment, Ratified Feb. 1913Two previous attempts to establish a federal income tax ...
Amendment XVII: Direct Election of          SenatorsProgressive; ratified in May, 1913; see p. 131 for textHow were Senato...
Amendment XVII: Direct Election of          SenatorsProgressive; ratified in May, 1913; see p. 131 for textHow were Senato...
Amendment XVIII: National            ProhibitionProgressive; ratified Jan. 1919Forbid the manufacture, sale, or transporta...
Amendment XVIII: National            ProhibitionProgressive; ratified Jan. 1919Forbid the manufacture, sale, or transporta...
Amendment XIX: Womens SuffrageProgressive; Ratified Aug. 1920Gave women the right to voteSuffrage = franchise = right to v...
Amendment XX: Lame Duck            AmendmentRatified February, 1933What is a lame duck?
Amendment XX: Lame Duck            AmendmentRatified February, 1933What is a lame duck?- officials who will not be returni...
Amendment XX cont.Section 3: Provides for presidential selection in case the  Prez and/or VP die or are unqualified before...
Amendment XXI: Repeal of             ProhibitionRatified in Dec. 1933Why was this passed?
Amendment XXI: Repeal of             ProhibitionRatified in Dec. 1933Why was this passed?- Prohibition had led to all kind...
Amendment XXII: Presidential Term           LimitsRatified February, 1951What did this amendment do?
Amendment XXII: Presidential Term           LimitsRatified February, 1951What did this amendment do?- limited Presidents t...
Amendment XXII: Presidential Term           LimitsRatified February, 1951What did this amendment do?- limited Presidents t...
Amendment XXIII: Voting for         Washington, D.C.Ratified April 1961Gave residents of Washington, D.C. the right to vot...
Amendment XXIV: Poll Tax             AbolishedPart of the Civil Rights movement; Ratified February, 1964No poll tax can be...
Amendment XXIV: Poll Tax             AbolishedPart of the Civil Rights movement; Ratified February, 1964No poll tax can be...
Amendment XXV: Presidential     Succession and DisabilityRatified February, 1967 as a response to Kennedys assassination w...
Amendment XXV cont.Section 3: When the president is unable to perform his duties  (usually due to illness), he requests in...
Amendment XXV cont.Section 3: When the president is unable to perform his duties  (usually due to illness), he requests in...
Amendment XXVI: Eighteen-Year-           Old VoteRatified July, 1971, shortest period ever required to pass an amendmentWh...
Amendment XXVI: Eighteen-Year-           Old VoteRatified July, 1971, shortest period ever required to pass an amendmentWh...
Amendment XXVII: Restriction on   Congressional Pay RaisesRatified May, 1992; originally proposed in 1789 – took over 200 ...
Amendment XXVII: Restriction on   Congressional Pay RaisesRatified May, 1992; originally proposed in 1789 – took over 200 ...
What Do You Think?What amendment(s) would you propose to our Constitution?Are there any that you think are unnecessary or ...
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Week 13 amendments xi xxvii

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Amendments 11 - 27 of US Constitution

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Transcript of "Week 13 amendments xi xxvii"

  1. 1. Amendments XI - XXVII
  2. 2. Amendment XI: Suing States“The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States, by citizens of another state, or by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.”A citizen from one state (or a foreign country) cannot sue a different state in a federal court without that states consent.Was a result of Chisholm v. Georgia (1793) in which a citizen of South Carolina sued the state of Georgia.Ratified in Jan. 1798
  3. 3. Amendment XII: Separate Ballots for President and Vice PresidentSee p. 127 for the text of this amendment; ratified in 1804This amendment replaced most of Article II, Section 1, Clause 2Purpose: to eliminate the possibility of a tie between the President & VP as happened between Jefferson and John Adams in 1800 AND to make sure Prez & VP were not from different partiesAlso set up a plan to break a deadlock in the electoral college. The House breaks a tie in the case of the President, the Senate in the case of the VP.Finally, it ensures that the VP meets the same qualifications for office as those established for the president
  4. 4. Amendment XIII – XV: The Civil War or Reconstruction AmendmentsAll proposed and ratified as a direct result of the Civil War and the treatment of blacksGiven Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 that set the slaves free, why was an amendment needed?
  5. 5. Amendment XIII – XV: The Civil War or Reconstruction AmendmentsAll proposed and ratified as a direct result of the Civil War and the treatment of blacksGiven Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 that set the slaves free, why was an amendment needed?1. The proclamation was declared by the president without Congresss approval or involvement during wartime2. The proclamation only abolished slavery in the southern states that had seceded from the Union so the rest of the nation needed to be included.
  6. 6. Amendment XIII: Slavery AbolishedSection 1: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.Section 2: “Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”Ratified in Dec. 1865What is the only condition under which slavery or involuntary servitude is now allowed?
  7. 7. Amendment XIII: Slavery AbolishedSection 1: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.Section 2: “Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”Ratified in Dec. 1865What is the only condition under which slavery or involuntary servitude is now allowed?- as a punishment for a crimeWhy was involuntary servitude included?
  8. 8. Amendment XIII: Slavery AbolishedSection 1: “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.Section 2: “Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”Ratified in Dec. 1865What is the only condition under which slavery or involuntary servitude is now allowed?- as a punishment for a crimeWhy was involuntary servitude included?- to protect poor blacks from becoming virtual slaves
  9. 9. Amendment XIV: Citizenship DefinedSee p. 129-130 for the text of this amendmentRatified in 1868; southern states had to ratify it in order to be readmitted to the UnionSection 1:- All persons born or naturalized in the U.S. are citizens of the U.S. and the state where they live.- The states cannot make a law that goes against the privileges and immunities of a U.S. Citizen- The states cannot deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process (fair trial & legal procedures)- The states cannot deny equal protection of the law to any person living within them.
  10. 10. Amendment XIV Sect. 2 – 5Section 2: Prevented southern states from counting blacks for representation purposes while simultaneously preventing them from voting. This replaced the 3/5 clause of Article I.- Note: It did allow a state to withhold the vote from some people as long as they were not included for representation purposes.Section 3: Banned former Confederates from office although a 2/3 vote of Congress could overturn this. The ban was mostly lifted 4 years later, and abolished in 1898.Section 4: Although the Unions war debts would be repaid, none of the debts incurred by the Confederacy would be assumed by the U.S.
  11. 11. Amendment XV: Black Voting RightsRatified 1870The right of citizens to vote cannot be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or having been a slave.In response to a number of states that didnt allow blacks to voteHow did these states restrict the black vote after this amendment was passed?
  12. 12. Amendment XV: Black Voting RightsRatified 1870The right of citizens to vote cannot be denied or abridged on account of race, color, or having been a slave.In response to a number of states that didnt allow blacks to voteHow did these states restrict the black vote after this amendment was passed?- By requiring literacy tests and poll taxes b/c many blacks could not read and were too poor to pay the tax.- Through gerrymandering that diminished influence of the black vote- White-only primaries
  13. 13. Civil Rights MovementBegan in the courts in the 1940s and 50s by overturning state laws that restricted the voting rights of blacksBrown v. Board of Education of Topeka: declared all segregated schools to be in violation of 14th AmendmentCivil disobedience: non-violent mass demonstrations and boycotts led by Martin Luther King JrCivil Rights Act of 1964: businesses could no longer discriminate on the basis of race & EEOC looked for discrimination in hiringVoting Rights Act of 1965: eliminated state poll taxes, literacy tests, and other ways that southern states tried to prevent black voting
  14. 14. Current Civil Rights MovementHow is it different than the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 60s?
  15. 15. Current Civil Rights MovementHow is it different than the Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 60s?- it attempts to give not only equality of opportunity but also equality of outcomes, which would require the govt to interfere in our private lives and institutions- it uses the courts, which are more arbitrary and less answerable to the people rather than the legislatures to accomplish its goals- it stresses acceptance of perversion: drugs, pornography, homosexuality, gender changes, abortion, etc.
  16. 16. Amendment XVI: Income TaxProgressive amendment, Ratified Feb. 1913Two previous attempts to establish a federal income tax were struck down by Supreme Court as unconstitutionalSee I.8.1 and I.2.9: Taxes had to be uniform throughout the United States and such direct taxes had to be levied based on population with everyone paying the same amount.This amendment nullified those clausesWhat is the result of the federal income tax?
  17. 17. Amendment XVI: Income TaxProgressive amendment, Ratified Feb. 1913Two previous attempts to establish a federal income tax were struck down by Supreme Court as unconstitutionalSee I.8.1 and I.2.9: Taxes had to be uniform throughout the United States and such direct taxes had to be levied based on population with everyone paying the same amount.This amendment essentially nullified those clausesWhat is the result of the federal income tax?- a huge increase in federal revenue, leading to an ever- growing govt and an ever more complicated tax code
  18. 18. Amendment XVII: Direct Election of SenatorsProgressive; ratified in May, 1913; see p. 131 for textHow were Senators originally chosen?
  19. 19. Amendment XVII: Direct Election of SenatorsProgressive; ratified in May, 1913; see p. 131 for textHow were Senators originally chosen?- By the state legislatures, who were accused of playing politics and/or delaying the election of senatorsA result of the populist movement which worked to increase the influence of the people in politics & wanted senators to be more accountable to the peopleBy 1912, 29 states had already adopted a form of popular election of senators by holding primaries or referendums which were binding on the state legislaturesThis made it possible for Congress to pass this amendment.
  20. 20. Amendment XVIII: National ProhibitionProgressive; ratified Jan. 1919Forbid the manufacture, sale, or transportation of liquor as well as the importation or exportation of alcohol across the border; not illegal to consume it, just difficultResult of influential Temperance Movement; alcohol had already been outlawed in several statesWhat happened?
  21. 21. Amendment XVIII: National ProhibitionProgressive; ratified Jan. 1919Forbid the manufacture, sale, or transportation of liquor as well as the importation or exportation of alcohol across the border; not illegal to consume it, just difficultResult of influential Temperance Movement; alcohol had already been outlawed in several statesWhat happened?- an enforcement nightmare- huge increase in organized crime as criminals bootlegged liquor & also a loss of tax income- disregard for the law during the Roaring Twenties, esp. in the big cities
  22. 22. Amendment XIX: Womens SuffrageProgressive; Ratified Aug. 1920Gave women the right to voteSuffrage = franchise = right to voteResult of decades of campaigningSome states had already given women this right; Wyoming was the first to do so.
  23. 23. Amendment XX: Lame Duck AmendmentRatified February, 1933What is a lame duck?
  24. 24. Amendment XX: Lame Duck AmendmentRatified February, 1933What is a lame duck?- officials who will not be returning to office (due to retirement or losing their election) and are serving out the end of their term after that election before the next term beginsSection 1: Terms of Prez & VP ends on Jan. 20 (originally March 4) and on Jan. 3 for CongressSection 2: Congress must meet at least once every year on Jan. 3 unless they choose another day by law- Congress meets before the President takes over in case a tie in the electoral college needs to be broken
  25. 25. Amendment XX cont.Section 3: Provides for presidential selection in case the Prez and/or VP die or are unqualified before they take office- Congress was given the authority to determine succession if both Prez & VP are absent, which they did in 1947 with the Presidential Succession Act. See p. 325Section 4: Congress may decide what to do if a candidate dies before the election.Section 5 & 6: Specified when the amendment would go into effect and how long the states had to ratify it (7 years).
  26. 26. Amendment XXI: Repeal of ProhibitionRatified in Dec. 1933Why was this passed?
  27. 27. Amendment XXI: Repeal of ProhibitionRatified in Dec. 1933Why was this passed?- Prohibition had led to all kinds of enforcement and growing crime problemsRegulation of alcohol was left to the states.Did you know that Fort Collins was dry (sale of alcohol prohibited) until 1969 when voters repealed it? Now were one of the beer capitols of the country.What do you think about illegal drugs? Should we allow them and therefore regulate and tax them? Are drugs similar to alcohol? Should we continue to outlaw them? What about marijuana?
  28. 28. Amendment XXII: Presidential Term LimitsRatified February, 1951What did this amendment do?
  29. 29. Amendment XXII: Presidential Term LimitsRatified February, 1951What did this amendment do?- limited Presidents to only two elected terms- VPs that have assumed the Presidents office can also run for two additional terms if they initially took office during the last two years of the previous presidents term; Otherwise, they can only run for one more term.Why was this change made?
  30. 30. Amendment XXII: Presidential Term LimitsRatified February, 1951What did this amendment do?- limited Presidents to only two elected terms- VPs that have assumed the Presidents office can also run for two additional terms if they initially took office during the last two years of the previous presidents term; Otherwise, they can only run for one more term.Why was this change made?- b/c FDR ran for an unprecedented 4 terms, dying early in his fourth term. This broke the tradition set by Washington.
  31. 31. Amendment XXIII: Voting for Washington, D.C.Ratified April 1961Gave residents of Washington, D.C. the right to vote in presidential elections.- the district has 3 electoral votes who follow the procedures outlined in Amendment XII.They still do not have representation in Congress.
  32. 32. Amendment XXIV: Poll Tax AbolishedPart of the Civil Rights movement; Ratified February, 1964No poll tax can be charged to anyone voting in U.S. Presidential or Congressional elections.Why was this done?
  33. 33. Amendment XXIV: Poll Tax AbolishedPart of the Civil Rights movement; Ratified February, 1964No poll tax can be charged to anyone voting in U.S. Presidential or Congressional elections.Why was this done?- Because some of the southern states kept blacks from voting b/c they could not afford to pay the poll taxPoll taxes at state elections were still legal until the Supreme Court declared them unconstitutional in Harper v. Virginia Board of Electors.
  34. 34. Amendment XXV: Presidential Succession and DisabilityRatified February, 1967 as a response to Kennedys assassination which left the nation without a VP for 14 monthsSection 1: VP becomes President when the President is removed from office due to death or resignation (wasnt clear in Article IISection 2: If the vice-presidency becomes vacant, the President appoints a new VP who must be approved by a majority vote of both houses.- This happened soon after when VP Agnew resigned, was replaced by Ford, who then became President when Nixon resigned, and then appointed Nelson Rockefeller to be his VP.
  35. 35. Amendment XXV cont.Section 3: When the president is unable to perform his duties (usually due to illness), he requests in writing to the Senate Pro Tempore and Speaker of the House that the VP take over as Acting President until he lets them know in writing that he is once again available.Section 4: Allows VP to act as president even when the president hasnt given his written consent if an executive committee or other body designated by Congress request this. If the president disagrees with this panel, Congress must resolve this with a 2/3 vote in both houses.When might this provision be needed?
  36. 36. Amendment XXV cont.Section 3: When the president is unable to perform his duties (usually due to illness), he requests in writing to the Senate Pro Tempore and Speaker of the House that the VP take over as Acting President until he lets them know in writing that he is once again available.Section 4: Allows VP to act as president even when the president hasnt given his written consent if an executive committee or other body designated by Congress request this. If the president disagrees with this panel, Congress must resolve this with a 2/3 vote in both houses.When might this provision be needed?- If the Prez has become insane or is incapacitated for a long time as Garfield (gunshot) and Wilson (stroke) were.
  37. 37. Amendment XXVI: Eighteen-Year- Old VoteRatified July, 1971, shortest period ever required to pass an amendmentWhy was this done?
  38. 38. Amendment XXVI: Eighteen-Year- Old VoteRatified July, 1971, shortest period ever required to pass an amendmentWhy was this done?- During wartime (Vietnam in this case) pressure grew to expand the vote to 18-year-olds b/c they were old enough to be drafted & give their life for their country, so they should be old enough to vote.Note: All voters have to register with their states to make sure theyre qualified and so that voter fraud can be avoided.Do you think changing the voting age was a good idea?
  39. 39. Amendment XXVII: Restriction on Congressional Pay RaisesRatified May, 1992; originally proposed in 1789 – took over 200 years to ratify!States that a pay raise proposed by Congress cannot go into effect until a Congressional election has taken placeWhy was this finally passed in 1992?
  40. 40. Amendment XXVII: Restriction on Congressional Pay RaisesRatified May, 1992; originally proposed in 1789 – took over 200 years to ratify!States that a pay raise proposed by Congress cannot go into effect until a Congressional election has taken placeWhy was this finally passed in 1992?- B/c Congress voted for pay raises for themselves in the 1980s- allows voters to vote out members of Congress who voted a pay raise for themselves- Automatic COLAs were ruled to not fall under this amendment b/c federal courts do not see them as new salary laws
  41. 41. What Do You Think?What amendment(s) would you propose to our Constitution?Are there any that you think are unnecessary or wrong- headed?
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