England 3


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England 3

  1. 1. Dover Castle A virtual tour
  2. 2. Dover Castle <ul><li>Through the keyhole </li></ul><ul><li>Besiege the castle! </li></ul><ul><li>What’s my job? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Dover Castle Through the keyhole
  4. 4. Dover Castle Besiege the Castle!
  5. 5. Mission Impossible! <ul><li>In 1216 Prince Louis of France invaded England. All of south east England fell to his armies, only Dover and Windsor held out. Imagine you are a spy working for the Prince. Disguised as a medieval tradesman you manage to penetrate the Castle’s outer defences. Your mission is to find out how Dover Castle is defended and report back to Prince Louis without being captured by its constable Hubert de Burgh . Good luck! </li></ul>
  6. 6. Colton’s Gateway
  7. 7. Colton’s Gateway
  8. 8. Colton’s Gateway – arrow loop
  9. 9. Palace Gateway
  10. 10. Palace Gateway drawbridge
  11. 11. Palace Gateway drawbridge
  12. 12. Henry II’s Keep
  13. 13. Keep stairs into forebuilding
  14. 14. Entrance to the forebuilding
  15. 15. Wall at the entrance to the forebuilding
  16. 16. Looking down the stairs from the entrance to the forebuilding
  17. 17. Inside the entrance to the forebuilding
  18. 18. Detail of the arch above the lower chapel
  19. 19. Detail of zig-zag stonework inside the chapel
  20. 20. Steps to the drawbridge
  21. 21. Detail of wall alongside the steps
  22. 22. Stairs over drawbridge pit
  23. 23. Top of main staircase looking down into forebuilding
  24. 24. Supports for the drawbridge and slots for the counter-weights
  25. 25. Bottom of the drawbridge pit
  26. 26. Top of the stairs at the entrance to the well room
  27. 27. Well
  28. 28. Inside the well
  29. 29. Lead pipes
  30. 30. The Great Hall
  31. 31. Windows inside the Great Hall
  32. 32. Doorway to spiral staircase
  33. 33. Spiral staircase to the roof
  34. 34. Roof
  35. 35. View from the roof top
  36. 36. Dover Castle Mission completed! Now you have to get out again!
  37. 37. Portcullis
  38. 38. Portcullis
  39. 39. Portcullis groove
  40. 40. Murder holes
  41. 41.  Factoids <ul><li>Draw-bar hole: deep hole cut into the sides (or jambs) of the door into which a stout wooden beam could be thrust to secure the door. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Draw bar slots
  43. 43.  Factoids <ul><li>Drawbridges were heavy wooden platforms that spanned a pit or moat between the approach and the gateway. They were lifted using winding gear known as ‘a windlass’ or massive counter-weights. </li></ul>
  44. 44.  Factoids <ul><li>Arrow Loops </li></ul><ul><li>The only holes in the outer walls were arrow loops. They were too small for soldiers to climb through (especially in chain mail). </li></ul><ul><li>There were three types: the single slit, the cross slit and the gun loop. The cross slit was designed for crossbows. </li></ul>
  45. 45.  Factoids <ul><li>Defending the gateway </li></ul><ul><li>The gateway would have been defended with a drawbridge and/or a portcullis . Look for grooves in the walls to show where they descended. </li></ul><ul><li>Inside the gateway, above the heads of the enemy murder holes could be unplugged and stones or hot liquids such as tar poured down on the unfortunate attackers. </li></ul>
  46. 46.  Factoids <ul><li>Henry II’s Keep </li></ul><ul><li>The keep was begun in 1180 by the king’s architect, Maurice the Engineer . The total cost was £7,000 (nearly ¾ of the king’s annual income!) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1185 work begun on the walls around the castle. There are two rings of curtain walls and this was the first time such imposing defences had been used in the West. </li></ul>
  47. 47.  Factoids <ul><li>Draw-bars </li></ul><ul><li>Look out for square shaped holes either side of doorways. This one is at the entrance to the forebuilding and there are more inside the entrance to the keep itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti </li></ul><ul><li>The Keep is covered with Graffiti. Much of it was carved by French prisoners of war when the Keep was used as a prison during the Napoleonic Wars. </li></ul>
  48. 48.  Factoids <ul><li>The forebuilding </li></ul><ul><li>The forebuilding comprises three massive towers. Inside it used to be open to the sky so the defending soldiers could rain arrows and missiles on their attackers from above. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Plan of the keep at Dover
  50. 50.  Factoids <ul><li>Walls </li></ul><ul><li>The massive width of the walls in Dover Castle can be judged by measuring the distance between the inner and outer wall surfaces (or ‘skins’). </li></ul><ul><li>The walls at Dover are between 5.2 and 6.4 metres thick! </li></ul>
  51. 51.  Factoids <ul><li>Spiral stairs </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral stairs were deliberately turned in a clockwise direction. This meant it was easier for the defender to wield a sword or axe in his right hand as he came down the stairs towards his enemy. </li></ul>
  52. 52.  Factoids <ul><li>Well shaft </li></ul><ul><li>The well shaft is 122 metres deep! </li></ul><ul><li>The opening to the shaft is on the second floor to keep the water supply away from attackers in the lower areas of the castle. Besieging armies tended to put dead animals down wells to pollute the water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Two lead pipes can still be seen, taking water to other parts of the castle. Funnily enough lead is also poisonous! </li></ul>
  53. 53.  Factoids <ul><li>Hubert de Burgh </li></ul><ul><li>A man who had many roles: civil servant, soldier and guardian of Dover Castle. He served under Richard I, John and Henry III. In 1215 he became justiciar (chief minister) to the king and was one of the most powerful men in Britain after the king. When the French began to besiege Dover, he reportedly cried, “I beseech you by the blood of Christ allow me to hang, rather than give up the castle to any Frenchman, for it is the key of England!” </li></ul>
  54. 54. Examples of Castle Graffiti
  55. 55. Graffiti
  56. 56. Graffiti
  57. 57. Graffiti
  58. 58. Graffiti
  59. 59.  Factoids <ul><li>Stone </li></ul><ul><li>There were several types of stone used for the castle. The best quality was Caen stone , a pure white sandstone brought especially from Normandy. </li></ul><ul><li>Flint and Kentish ragstone were used for general building work and may have been dressed with lime mortar. </li></ul>
  60. 60.  Factoids Caen stone
  61. 61.  Factoids Flint & Ragstone
  62. 62.  Factoids <ul><li>Stairs into the keep </li></ul><ul><li>Originally the stairs were slightly higher. You can see evidence along the side of the walls.The wooden stairs you see today over the drawbridge pit are modern. </li></ul>
  63. 63.  Factoids <ul><li>Forebuilding stairs </li></ul><ul><li>Originally these stairs went straight down to the ground and didn’t turn a right angle as they do now. </li></ul>
  64. 64.  Factoids <ul><li>Roof </li></ul><ul><li>The roof was strengthened to take the weight of heavy artillery placed here during the Napoleonic Wars. </li></ul><ul><li>The crenellations you can see are sections of masonry approximately the height of a man with spaces in between (merlons) for shooting arrows (crenels) </li></ul>
  65. 65.  Factoids <ul><li>Maurice the Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Maurice the Engineer (or mason) was responsible for designing the Keep and concentric walls. He worked directly for Henry II and was commissioned to work on numerous buildings, including the keep at Newcastle upon Tyne which is similar in some respects to Dover. </li></ul>
  66. 66.  Factoids <ul><li>Prince Louis of France </li></ul><ul><li>Son of the fabled French king, Philip Augstus and eventual Louis VIII, he came to England in 1216 following the sudden death of King John in the hope of claiming the crown for his father. </li></ul>
  67. 67.  Factoids <ul><li>Henry II (1154-1189) </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Richard the Lionheart and King John, and husband of Eleanor of Aquitaine, he was the first of the Plantagenet Kings and one of medieval England’s most able rulers. During his reign he built or improved nearly 90 castles! </li></ul>
  68. 68. Henry II
  69. 69. Newcastle upon Tyne Castle
  70. 70. Dover Castle What’s my job?
  71. 71. At work in Dover Castle Can you identify the trades and professions of these medieval people from the tools and objects they’ve left behind?
  72. 72. ?
  73. 73. A barber-surgeon’s work bench. Can you spot the fingers?
  74. 74. Ouch!
  75. 75. ?
  76. 76. A glazier’s work bench. Where would you have seen ‘stained glass’ like this?
  77. 77. ?
  78. 78. A carpenter’s workbench. What are each of the tools for?
  79. 79. ?
  80. 80. A mason’s work bench. Where might this stone have gone?
  81. 81. ?
  82. 82. Not a workbench – a medieval loo or ‘garderobe’!
  83. 83. Dover Castle Well done!
  84. 84. Through the keyhole! Level One
  85. 85. garderobe Level One
  86. 86. Through the keyhole! Level Two
  87. 87. Chapel of Thomas Becket Level Two
  88. 88. Through the keyhole! Level Three
  89. 89. Great Chamber Level Three
  90. 90. Through the keyhole! Level Four
  91. 91. The Royal Bedchamber Level Four
  92. 92. Through the keyhole! Level Five
  93. 93. The Keep oven Level Five