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Raising American Born Children:     Lessons from Research            Cindy H. Liu, Ph.D         Instructor of Psychology  ...
An introduction
What are your hopes for      your child?
―I want my child to be                    happy and successful.‖                                                 Go toGet ...
“Tiger mother” Amy Chua and her teenage daughters
Prior Research on            Asian American Parenting• Obedience and educational achievement• Authoritative or authoritari...
Chinese parents in the U.S. do not need tobe ―American‖ in their ways to successfullyraise a well adjusted Chinese America...
Where do your expectationscome from?Expectations for your childare embedded in the waythat you engage with them inearly de...
To compare the maternal behaviors ofChinese American and European American       infants in Face-to-Face Play Vocalization...
Sample• European American (EA) mother-infant dyads (n=39)• Chinese American (CA) mother-infant dyads (n=38)   – 21 America...
Behavioral ExamplesEuropean American    Chinese American
ResultsVocalization                                                                  60                                   ...
ResultsVocalization                                                                35                                     ...
ResultsVocalization                                                                 60                                    ...
Observed BehaviorsHand Movements                                                          30                              ...
Cultural Differences in CaretakingAutonomy (Western)           Relatedness (non-Western)Physical                     Physi...
Culture by Gender EffectsCultural values of behavior may be emphasized more with sons than with daughters in early infanc...
Parental messages are conveyed by         everyday behavior.    They are observable.
Are there cultural differences in how  parents observe their children?
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area• 70 Chinese mothers and  children• Children 5-7 years old• From churches, summer  programs• Mothers...
A Simulated In Home          One-Way Mirror• Captures mom’s expressions as she watches  child’s expressions       CHILD   ...
Video: SimultaneousMother and Child Expressions
Emotional Expressivity and          Socialization     How Emotion Inferred          CA (%)         EA (%)     Facial/Body ...
The profiles of ABC children…• ABC children: Chinese parents and family  American school• Constant switching in identity• ...
Differing Cultural ValuesJudeo-Christian and    Asian or ConfucianPuritan causes:        values:• individualistic      • i...
Common IssuesAt home: One mother told Wang, "When my three-year-olddaughter plays with friends at home and they fight over...
Common Issues"One mother told me that her daughter is learning todraw, and she praises her childs work when theyre aloneat...
What is the mental health status         among ABCs?    The unfortunate reality:There are ABCs that are suffering.
ABCs and Chinese immigrants do not feel perfectly fine.                                                         High rates...
In their words…• I mean, when I was growing up, there  wasnt even a word for depression. It was  always, you know, youre n...
Postpartum Depression Survey Study• This study used the NYC PRAMS from 2004-2007, a population-  based survey data adminis...
Likelihood for PPD                                  Model 1                 Model 2                  Model 3              ...
Risk factors for PPD differ by race                   White            Asian/Pacific Islander   Hispanic              Blac...
Thus, although Asian/PacificIslanders were the group most likelyto benefit from informationprovided by the provider, they ...
Do we see mood problems in     young children?               Overanxious               •   I do have lots of bad dreams   ...
Do we see mood problems in young              children?  Yes.• More Chinese American boys are more anxious by 5-  to-7 yea...
Being Culturally Flexible• To succeed, children must learn to shift their behavior  and attitude depending on the situatio...
Thank you!          Questions?Cindy.liu@childrens.harvard.edu
American born babies in China
What makes a good parent?• Someone who:  – Provides food and    shelter?  – Ensures safety?  – Provides education for    t...
Sending babies to China• Do parents have to be  with the baby physically  to be a good parent?• There is NO clear  answer ...
Parent-Baby Relationship (Attachment)                  • We know that children                    bond with their parents ...
Parent-Baby Relationship• As babies grow, they  begin to learn who cares  for them.• For example, they begin  to recognize...
Parent-Baby Relationship         • Understanding their           caregiver requires stability.         • When the stabilit...
Video Clip• Video clip of a 4 month old during the still  face paradigm
Sending a baby to China• Do parents have to be with the baby  physically to be a good parent?• Should parents send their b...
Reasons to send babies back• Financial issues• Preserving the culture• The baby will be cared by those who have more  time...
What are some possible             consequences?• Short term:  – Feelings of parental guilt  – Self or other blaming  – De...
Possible problems when the child         come back to the US• Behavioral Problems  – banging their heads on walls  – refus...
New York Times                         9/23/2009Winnie Liu’s son Gordon, 7, with his brother Kyle, 4, had developmental pr...
New York Times                       9/23/2009• Gordon, 3, would not look his parents in the eyes, and refused to  call th...
Long Term Consequences• Immigrant children who have been separated from their  parents are more prone to depression as wel...
Long Term Consequences• Parents often feel guilty. Their parenting  becomes inconsistent (overly strict or indulgent).• So...
Long Term Consequences• The child may have to adapt to new members of the  family (younger siblings) who stayed with the  ...
Gordon in Therapy                                               The therapist explained: ―He                              ...
Does the consequences on the           separation timing?• There is not enough research for us to know  this.• However, be...
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Raising American Born Children - NECP Parenting Seminar 20120428

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  • HypothesesCA > NeutralCA > Forward and LoomEA > long syllabic CA > short syllabic and singing/nursery rhymesEA > kissingCA > rhythmic action, tactile, rhythmic sounds, cleaningEA > touch without motion, no touching
  • HypothesesCA > NeutralCA > Forward and LoomEA > long syllabic CA > short syllabic and singing/nursery rhymesEA > kissingCA > rhythmic action, tactile, rhythmic sounds, cleaningEA > touch without motion, no touching
  • HypothesesCA > NeutralCA > Forward and LoomEA > long syllabic CA > short syllabic and singing/nursery rhymesEA > kissingCA > rhythmic action, tactile, rhythmic sounds, cleaningEA > touch without motion, no touching
  • HypothesesCA > NeutralCA > Forward and LoomEA > long syllabic CA > short syllabic and singing/nursery rhymesEA > kissingCA > rhythmic action, tactile, rhythmic sounds, cleaningEA > touch without motion, no touching
  • Transcript of "Raising American Born Children - NECP Parenting Seminar 20120428"

    1. 1. Raising American Born Children: Lessons from Research Cindy H. Liu, Ph.D Instructor of Psychology McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School
    2. 2. An introduction
    3. 3. What are your hopes for your child?
    4. 4. ―I want my child to be happy and successful.‖ Go toGet into Harvard Harvard(and make sure to and be agraduate) dutiful son. Obtain financial security (provide for the family) Be a famous NBA player
    5. 5. “Tiger mother” Amy Chua and her teenage daughters
    6. 6. Prior Research on Asian American Parenting• Obedience and educational achievement• Authoritative or authoritarian parenting(e.g. Chao, 1994; Chen, 1998).
    7. 7. Chinese parents in the U.S. do not need tobe ―American‖ in their ways to successfullyraise a well adjusted Chinese Americanchild.However it’s important to have anawareness of how your relationship withyour child fits with their bicultural world
    8. 8. Where do your expectationscome from?Expectations for your childare embedded in the waythat you engage with them inearly developmentTaking an observableapproach…..
    9. 9. To compare the maternal behaviors ofChinese American and European American infants in Face-to-Face Play Vocalizations Hand Movements Proximity Affect
    10. 10. Sample• European American (EA) mother-infant dyads (n=39)• Chinese American (CA) mother-infant dyads (n=38) – 21 American born or lived in US > 10 years (CA-settled) – 17 Immigrated to U.S. within < 10 (CA-recent)• Maternal Age: EA (33.3 years), CA (33.7 years)• Infant Age: 16 weeks• Infant Gender: Equal males and females in each group
    11. 11. Behavioral ExamplesEuropean American Chinese American
    12. 12. ResultsVocalization 60 53.9% Long Syllables 50 42.2% 41.8% Proportion of Time Vocalizating 40 36.9%Culture x Gender 35.7%differences 30 26.2% 20EA: > Long SyllabicCA recent: > Singing/Nursery 10Rhymes 0CA settled : > Short Syllabic Male Female Male Female Male Female European American Chinese American - Settled Chinese American - Recent
    13. 13. ResultsVocalization 35 Singing and Nursery Rhymes 30.1% 30Culture x Gender 25 Proportion of Time Vocalizingdifferences 20 17.9%EA: > Long Syllabic 15 14.5%CA recent: > 10 9.1% 10.4%Singing/Nursery 4.8%Rhymes 5CA settled : > Short Syllabic 0 Male Female Male Female Male Female European American Chinese American - Settled Chinese American - Recent
    14. 14. ResultsVocalization 60 Short Syllables 51.3% 50 42.1% Proportion of Time Vocalizating 40Culture x Gender 33.3% 36.7% 36.2%differences 30EA: > Long Syllabic 20.0% 20CA recent: > Singing/Nursery 10RhymesCA settled : > Short 0 Male Female Male Female Male FemaleSyllabic European American Chinese American - Settled Chinese American - Recent
    15. 15. Observed BehaviorsHand Movements 30 Rhythmic Touching 24.7% 25 Proportion of Time Hand Movements 20 15CA-recent: >Rhythmic Touching 10 7.3% 8.4% 6.1% 5 3.1% 2.1% 0 Male Female Male Female Male Female European American Chinese American - Settled Chinese American - Recent
    16. 16. Cultural Differences in CaretakingAutonomy (Western) Relatedness (non-Western)Physical Physical• Greater eye contact • Closer physical proximity • Greater physical stimulationVerbalizations Verbalizations• Contingent response in • Directive verbal communication engagement (turn-taking) • Repetitive vocalizations• Content oriented in communications
    17. 17. Culture by Gender EffectsCultural values of behavior may be emphasized more with sons than with daughters in early infancy. Asian American parents may exert more control over their sons than daughters during childhood (Chao & Tseng, 2002)Each culture might utilize different parenting behaviors to guide their sons’ development.
    18. 18. Parental messages are conveyed by everyday behavior. They are observable.
    19. 19. Are there cultural differences in how parents observe their children?
    20. 20. San Francisco Bay Area
    21. 21. San Francisco Bay Area• 70 Chinese mothers and children• Children 5-7 years old• From churches, summer programs• Mothers and fathers lived in U.S. for ~8 years• Many of them middle to upper middle class
    22. 22. A Simulated In Home One-Way Mirror• Captures mom’s expressions as she watches child’s expressions CHILD MOTHER Webcam Image of Child Wireless Camera
    23. 23. Video: SimultaneousMother and Child Expressions
    24. 24. Emotional Expressivity and Socialization How Emotion Inferred CA (%) EA (%) Facial/Body Expression 32.3 87.5 Past Experience, Other 67.7 12.5 Total 100 100How mothers inferred emotion differed by ethnicity (Chi square (1, N)=94)=25.78, p<.001)
    25. 25. The profiles of ABC children…• ABC children: Chinese parents and family American school• Constant switching in identity• Discrimination from both cultures
    26. 26. Differing Cultural ValuesJudeo-Christian and Asian or ConfucianPuritan causes: values:• individualistic • interdependent• self-sufficiency • discourages emotion• self-determination displays (anger or• independence pride) • self-control
    27. 27. Common IssuesAt home: One mother told Wang, "When my three-year-olddaughter plays with friends at home and they fight over atoy, I tell her, youre the host, you need to give the toy toyour guest, or youre older, you should let the younger oneshave it.At school: "Then, at a parent-teacher conference, the teacher told methat we needed to work on my daughters assertiveness. At school, therule is: If its your turn, you have the right to say no," she continued.
    28. 28. Common Issues"One mother told me that her daughter is learning todraw, and she praises her childs work when theyre aloneat home together," Wang noted. "But if visitors ask how herdaughters art lessons are going, she feels uncomfortablebragging and answers: Oh, just so-so. Shes afraid shesconfusing her daughter because the little girl asks herlater, Do you really think Im good?"
    29. 29. What is the mental health status among ABCs? The unfortunate reality:There are ABCs that are suffering.
    30. 30. ABCs and Chinese immigrants do not feel perfectly fine. High rates of sexually Family problems transmitted diseases in young adult females―American‖ children with more Drug and drinking―Chinese‖ parents show higher problemsrates of depression. Eating disorders Asian American women ages 15-24 have the 4% of Chinese Americans with highest rate of suicide. mental health problems consulted with their physician, and only 8% consulted with a minister or Asian American women show the highest rate priest. of postpartum depression than any other ethnic group (10% of population)
    31. 31. In their words…• I mean, when I was growing up, there wasnt even a word for depression. It was always, you know, youre not trying hard enough or oh, well, you think you have problems, or just work harder in school or pick up a new hobby, you know, practice the piano.
    32. 32. Postpartum Depression Survey Study• This study used the NYC PRAMS from 2004-2007, a population- based survey data administered to postpartum women from the five boroughs of NYC.• The goal of PRAMS is to monitor maternal behaviors and experiences of women before, during, and after pregnancies that include live births. The particular dataset used for this study was provided by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.• Participants• NYC mothers, 2-4 month old infants• Approximately 180 mothers contacted each month• Study sample for analysis included 3,748
    33. 33. Likelihood for PPD Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4Race OR CI OR CI OR CI OR CIWhite 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0Asian/Pacific Islander 4.6*** 2.6 - 8.2 4.0*** 2.2 - 7.2 2.7** 1.4 - 4.9 3.2*** 1.7 - 6.0Hispanic 2.7*** 1.7 - 4.5 1.8* 1.0 - 3.1 1.5 0.9 - 2.7 1.5 0.9 - 2.7Black 1.7† 1.0 - 3.0 1.2 0.6 - 2.2 0.9 0.5 - 1.8 0.9 0.4 - 1.8Model 1: No covariatesModel 2: Controlled for maternal age, education and household incomeModel 3: Controlled for infant gender, gestational diabetes, stressful events, social support, pregnancy intent, prenataldepression dxModel 4: discussion about depressed mood with provider Asian/Pacific Islanders were 3.2 times more likely than Whites to receive a PPD diagnosis even after taking into sociodemographic information and reports of having discussed depression with a treatment provider.
    34. 34. Risk factors for PPD differ by race White Asian/Pacific Islander Hispanic Black OR CI OR CI OR CI OR CIPrenatalDepressionDiagnosis No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Yes 29.4*** 8.5 - 101.4 52.1*** 16.4 - 166.0 15.3*** 7.6 - 30.9 8.1*** 2.9 - 22.8DepressedMoodDiscussion No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Yes 1.7 0.6 - 4.8 9.1** 2.5 - 33.4 1.3 0.7 - 2.6 5.8** 2.1 - 15.9 For all groups, having a prenatal depression diagnosis increased rates of PPD diagnoses. Discussion about depression with providers was associated with increased PPD diagnoses for A/PI and African Americans.
    35. 35. Thus, although Asian/PacificIslanders were the group most likelyto benefit from informationprovided by the provider, they werethe least likely to be providedinformation about depressed mood
    36. 36. Do we see mood problems in young children? Overanxious • I do have lots of bad dreams • I worry that bad things are going to happen • I get nervous when my teacher asks me a question • I get headaches a lot • I worry bad things are going to happen • I do get tummy aches a lot. • I worry a lot • I worry if other kids will like me Separation Anxiety • It’s hard to say goodbye to my mom or dad • I worry my mom or dad will go away and never come back • I worry about my mom or dad when I’m at school • If my mom or dad isn’t near my bed, I’m scared to go to sleep. • When I’m at school I miss my mom or dad • I get scared if my mom or dad goes somewhere without me • I don’t like going places without my mom or dad
    37. 37. Do we see mood problems in young children? Yes.• More Chinese American boys are more anxious by 5- to-7 years (15% vs. 2%)• Chinese children experience more separation anxiety (higher mean levels)
    38. 38. Being Culturally Flexible• To succeed, children must learn to shift their behavior and attitude depending on the situation• Both parents and children must be aware of each others culture• Being rooted in your beliefs• Demonstrating empathy
    39. 39. Thank you! Questions?Cindy.liu@childrens.harvard.edu
    40. 40. American born babies in China
    41. 41. What makes a good parent?• Someone who: – Provides food and shelter? – Ensures safety? – Provides education for their child? – Ensures that their child survives? – Instills good character and values? – Loves?
    42. 42. Sending babies to China• Do parents have to be with the baby physically to be a good parent?• There is NO clear answer to this.• BUT, such a situation is more complicated than what parents think.
    43. 43. Parent-Baby Relationship (Attachment) • We know that children bond with their parents starting from birth. • This takes place through physical caretaking (being held, smelling their mothers, breastfeeding). • Although babies cannot speak or remember, these experiences stay with them.
    44. 44. Parent-Baby Relationship• As babies grow, they begin to learn who cares for them.• For example, they begin to recognize who to trust as they crawl and begin to walk. They know who will feed them.• They recognize the adults that will smile and sooth them when they are feeling distressed.
    45. 45. Parent-Baby Relationship • Understanding their caregiver requires stability. • When the stability is taken away, children can be confused. • 4-month-old babies are even confused and distressed when that stability is taken away during a normal interaction (video example)
    46. 46. Video Clip• Video clip of a 4 month old during the still face paradigm
    47. 47. Sending a baby to China• Do parents have to be with the baby physically to be a good parent?• Should parents send their babies to China?• Again, there is NO clear answer for this. But it is complicated.
    48. 48. Reasons to send babies back• Financial issues• Preserving the culture• The baby will be cared by those who have more time to take care of them.• Overall, it’s an advantage for the whole family.
    49. 49. What are some possible consequences?• Short term: – Feelings of parental guilt – Self or other blaming – Depression after sending their children back – Relationship problems with spouse and other family members – Difficulty concentrating at work
    50. 50. Possible problems when the child come back to the US• Behavioral Problems – banging their heads on walls – refusing to speak, – wandering aimlessly in the classroom• Adjustment Issues – Not wanting to call their parents by mom or dad
    51. 51. New York Times 9/23/2009Winnie Liu’s son Gordon, 7, with his brother Kyle, 4, had developmental problemsafter living temporarily with his grandparents in China.
    52. 52. New York Times 9/23/2009• Gordon, 3, would not look his parents in the eyes, and refused to call them Mom and Dad. He erupted in tantrums And sometimes cried nonstop for half an hour. ―We did not know why,‖ said his mother, Winnie Liu, recalling the desperation that sent them to a neurologist to check Gordon for autism, and to a hospital that referred them to Butterflies, a mental health program for very young children on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Finally they learned the reason for their child’s distress — and the reason social service agencies that help families from China are facing a sharp rise in such developmental problems.
    53. 53. Long Term Consequences• Immigrant children who have been separated from their parents are more prone to depression as well as self- esteem and behavioral problems.• They may have trouble attaching to their parents once they get back to the US. Their parents may seem foreign to them.• Once they are older, they may resent their parents for having sent them to China. Some children do not recover from this and remain estranged from their parents in adulthood.
    54. 54. Long Term Consequences• Parents often feel guilty. Their parenting becomes inconsistent (overly strict or indulgent).• Some of the caregiving styles do not fit with American expectations.• When the child comes back their personality or behavior may not be very adaptive at their schools.• They cannot get along with teachers or friends.
    55. 55. Long Term Consequences• The child may have to adapt to new members of the family (younger siblings) who stayed with the parents, this may produce jealous feelings.• Parents may feel like they cannot cope with this child’s misbehavior• Many instances of mental health issues in the family have been documented, not just with the child.• Extensive therapy may be needed
    56. 56. Gordon in Therapy The therapist explained: ―He was trying to find mastery over things he had no control over. We started introducing scenarios to help him develop trust in his parents’ authority over his life.‖ Still, Gordon remains more withdrawn than typical 7-yearA photo of Gordon with his father, Tim Fang. olds. Ms. Liu said she struggles with guilt and regret.
    57. 57. Does the consequences on the separation timing?• There is not enough research for us to know this.• However, because the child is growing, they are becoming more aware of their environment.• Even if the separation is short and early in life, some children show problems once they reflect on their early childhood.• They ask ―Why did this happen to me?
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