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03 2frame Str Steel Jan07sbq&C2213&42

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  • 1. STEEL STRUCTURES
  • 2. Steel frame structure
  • 3. Steel Structure
  • 4. STEEL STRUCTURES
    • Selain daripada struktur kerangka konkrit, bangunan boleh dibina daripada struktur kerangka keluli.
    • Bangunan daripada struktur ini dibina dengan menggunakan Steel Sections tertentu untuk elemen Tiang, Rasuk, dan Lantai.
    • Pembinaan lebih teguh dan tinggi serta cepat kerana dibina di kilang.
    • Masalah utama adaalh pengkaratan kerana iklim Malaysia yang panas dan lembap serta perlindungan daripada bahaya api kerana keluli akan kehilangan kekuatannya apabila terdedah kepada tindakan bahang api lebih 550  C. (Kebakaran lebih 1000  C)
    • Contoh bangunan di Malaysia daripada strukturkeluli adalah Daya Bumi, PNB, The Weld, KLCC Twin Tower (composite) dsb.
  • 5. Photos of Buildings featuring Steel Framework
  • 6. Steel Structure
    • Buildings with steel skeletal framework consisting of:
    • STEEL SECTIONS
  • 7.
    • Hot Rolled Steel Sections
    • Castella Beams
    • Hollow Steel Sections
    • Cold Rolled Steel Sections
    TYPES OF STEEL SECTIONS
  • 8. HOT ROLLED STEEL SECTIONS
    • Universal beams
    • Joist
    • Universal columns
    • Channels
    • Angels
    • T-bars
    Universal Beam & Column yang paling biasa digunakan. Mengikut Piawai BS 4, Part 1&2
  • 9. STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMES
    • Consists
    UNIVERSAL BEAMS JOISTS UNIVERSAL COLUMN CHANNELS ANGLES T bars
  • 10. Hot Rolled Steel Section Universal Sections Angle Channel T bars
    • Universal beams
    • Joist
    • Universal columns
    Castellated Sections
  • 11.  
  • 12. Universal Beam (I section) T-Bars Channel Angles
  • 13. CASTELLATED BEAM Built up Section from UC Beam or Joist
  • 14. Castella beams
    • Formed by flame cutting a standard universal beam or column section
    • The increase in depth gives greater resistance to deflection without adding extra weight
    • Economical when used to support lightly loaded floor or roof slabs
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17. CASTELLATED BEAM
  • 18. HOLLOW STEEL SECTION Hollow square steel section Hollow rectangular Steel section Circulars Hollow Steel Section
  • 19. Hollow steel section
    • Hollow sections are tubes of circular, square or rectangular cross-section. They can also be made from plates or double-T profiles by welding
    • Square hollow sections have the advantage that they have the same resistance in the two principal directions, enabling the minimum section dimensions to be obtained.
    • Sometimes hollow sections are filled with concrete, giving an increase in strength and, at the same time, achieving significant fire resistance.
  • 20. Hollow Rectangular Steel Section
  • 21. Hollow Rectangular Steel Section
  • 22. Circular Steel Section
  • 23. COLD ROLLED STRIP SECTIONS
    • Untuk bangunan rendah kerana ianya lebih ringan dan mudah dari segi pengangkutan.
  • 24. Cold rolled strip sections
    • manufactured from hot rolled coil that has been chemically cleaned before being rolled.
    • reduces the thickness of the steel and at the same time changes the  mechanical properties of the steel.
  • 25. Channel steel Inwardly turned lip Outwardly turned lip
  • 26. STEEL STRUCTURE METHODS OF CONNECTIONS
    • Bolts
    • Black bolts
    • High strength friction bolts
    • Rivets
    • Welding
  • 27. CONNECTING STEEL MEMBERS
  • 28. Joining steel Members Rivets Bolts Welding
  • 29. RIVETS
    • Rivets are manufactured from mild steel bars
    • Rivets are made from bars by a machine which forms the head and cuts the rivet of the desired length as required.
    • The size rivet is the diameter of the shank.
    • Generally superseded by bolted and welded connections
    • Available as cold or hot forged with a variety of head shapes
  • 30. Head Shanks Head Shanks RIVETS
  • 31. RIVETS
  • 32. BOLT & Nuts
  • 33.
    • four types of bolts
    • Black bolts
    • Tension bolts
    • Torshear bolts
    • Load indicating bolt
  • 34. Bolts Black Bolt Torshear Bolt Load Indicating Bolt Tension Bolt Nut &Washer
  • 35. Black bolts
    • The cheapest form of bolt available,the black bolt can be either hot or cold forged,the thread being machined onto the shank.
    • BS 4190 for black bolts and nuts for a diameter range of 5 to 68 mm exclusive.
    HEXAGON HEADED 5 TO 68MM DIAMETER SHANK THREAD
  • 36. Black Bolt
  • 37. Tension Bolt Nut &Washer Load Indicating Bolt Torshear Bolt
  • 38.
    • Steel grade 2 Zinc plated low carbon steel. Best for general hardware
    • use where high strength is not required.
    • Steel grade 5 Made from medium carbon steel,
    • tempered and zinc plated.
    • Best for automotive use and other areas where
    • higher strength is desired.
    • Steel grade 8 Made from medium carbon alloy steel,
    • tempered and yellow zinc plated.
    • Best suited for applications where high strength and
    • hardness is required.
  • 39.
            • NUTS
  • 40.
    • NUTS
    Hex nuts Used for fastening to a bolt when mechanically joining materials together Hex machine screw nuts This type refers to nuts used with smaller machine screw sizes under ¼. Prevailing torque lock nuts All metal lock nuts are non-reverseable and often used high temperature applications. more... Square nuts Square nuts, once very common, were mostly replaced by hex nuts.
  • 41. BOLT & Nuts CONNECTION
  • 42. WELDING
  • 43.
    • WELDING
    • The basic method of welding are oxy-acetylene and electric arc
    • Classify as fillet or butts weld;
    • Fillet-used to the edges and end of members.
    • Butts-used on chamfered end to end connections.
  • 44. TYPES OF WELDING
  • 45. square bolt weld V’ shaped weld ‘ J’ shaped weld back weld atau surface bead weld
  • 46. Welding joint
  • 47. WELDED CONNECTIONS
  • 48. Structural steel connections Column based Beam to column Beam to beam
  • 49.
    • Column based
    Strutural steel connections
  • 50. Column Based CONNECTIOn
  • 51. Column Based CONNECTIOn
  • 52. Steel Connection Column-Column Beam-column
  • 53. Beam to column connection
  • 54. Beam to column connection column to column connection
  • 55. Beam to column Universal column Site connection beam beam
  • 56.
    • Beam to beam
    Structural steel connections
  • 57. Universal column Beam to beam connection
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61.
    • Either shop connections and can be made by using bolts , welding or combine..
    connections BOLTS WELDING CONNECTIONS COMBINE BOLT AND WELDING
  • 62. JOINT DETAILS
  • 63.  
  • 64. FIRE PROTECTIONS
  • 65.  
  • 66. WORLD TRADE CENTER-US
  • 67. PERLINDUNGAN API UNTUK STRUKTUR KERANGKA KELULI
    • cara-cara melindungi struktur kerangka keluli
  • 68. PERLINDUNGAN API UNTUK STRUKTUR KERANGKA KELULI
    • Disebabkan keluli akan kehilangan kekuatan secara mendadak, suhunya mencapai lebih 550  C maka perlindungan api bagi struktur kerangka yang dibina daripada keluli adalah sangat penting.
    • Di bawah adalah cara-cara yang biasa digunakan untuk melindungi struktur kerangka keluli daripada api kebakaran;
  • 69. Composite Structure
    • Composite systems utilize both steel and concrete together in ways that neither material predominates over the other.
    • Variation of composite structural systems:
    • i. steel frame surrounding concrete core
    • ii. steel beams encased in and interacting with concrete enclosure
    • iii. steel outrigger beams used with concrete structure.
  • 70. Photos of Buildings featuring Composite Framework