Today we are going to talk about some of the 2XX fields, specifically the title and title-related fields, and the edition fields. The imprint fields are also 2XX fields, but we are going to talk about those next week.
To review from last week, MARC 21 is the framework for bibliographic description. It is made up of tags, delimiters, subfields, and codes. AACR2 is the rules of description, including: punctuation, spacing, abbreviations, and capitalization. It includes the 8 areas of description and access points, and is broken up into different chapters for different types of materials.
Here is the information on the LOC MARC site about the title and title-related fields. We’re not going to cover the 242 and 243 fields in this class, and we will talk about the 240 field in session 7, but the rest of them we will talk about today. Generally speaking, these fields cover an item’s title and any variations on the title. They are used to make other access points and determine whether we want notes to display.
We’ll start with the 245 field, which is the title statement field. Here is the information about it from the LOC MARC site. You will notice that it is non-repeatable. There can only be one 245 field.
There are a lot of examples of 245 fields on this web site. It’s a good resource to refer back to.
The OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards is another place to find this information. You can see that on this site, the fields grouped by hundreds are listed across the top of the page, and then the specific fields in each group are listed along the left-hand side.
You’ll see from these standards that when we create records, we follow the ISBD, or International Standards of Bibliographic Description. These standards are what AACR2 is based on. This determines things like punctuation, which you can see is referenced in this statement.
The OCLC formats and standards will also give you good examples to follow.
Your handout from last week covers the 245 fields and what the indicators and subfields mean, and also has some examples.
The title alternative field is for variations on a title.
These are the most commonly used subfield codes for the 245 field. Subfield b, remainder of title, is used for a parallel title or a subtitle. Subfield h is the medium, otherwise known as the GMD, or general material designation. Subfields n and p are used when you have an item that is one part of a multipart item. This will all probably make more sense after an example.
CIP information is not complete and sometimes has inaccuracies. For example, you can see that this information does not include number of pages or height. (Just has p. cm.)
The title proper goes in subfield a of the 245 field. It is taken from the chief source of information, which in the case of a book, is the title page. If no title exists on the item, you can construct one, but you should put it in brackets to indicate that this is the case. In this field, you should transcribe the title exactly as it appears on the item when it comes to wording, order and spelling – punctuation and capitalization should follow the rules of AACR2. 245 includes the title and an alternative title, if it is joined by the word or.
You can see that there is a discrepancy between the title in the CIP information and the title on the title page. The CIP title uses the word “and” while the actual published title uses an ampersand.
So in our record, we use the ampersand, since that is what is on the title page. Also, notice that “a history of broken promises” is not part of the title proper. It is a subtitle and will go in subfield b.
In this example, even though the title appears in two different fonts, “Triceratops and other forest dinosaurs” is the whole title.
So “Triceratops and other forest dinosaurs” goes in the 245 subfield a.
In this case, again the whole title is the title proper, though the font may be misleading.
Subfields n and p are used to indicate parts of a whole. Subfield n is for the number of the part, and subfield p is for the name of the part. For example, and episode of a TV series would qualify as a part that would be indicated in this way.
Notice the punctuation – there is a period at the end of subfield a and a comma between subfields n and p.
Books can require subfields n and p too.
A parallel title is when the title is given in two different languages. For example, this title field is for an English-Spanish dictionary. The cataloger supplies the = when there is a parallel title.
The other way that subfield b is used is for subtitles, as in this example.
When subfield b is a subtitle, it is preceded by a colon instead of an equal sign. Note that there is a space both before and after the colon.
Notice that the first word of the subtitle is not capitalized.
You will occasionally see an item with two subtitles.
Subfield b is not repeatable (if you look on your handout, you’ll see NR next to it), but you can put both subtitles in one subfield. Separate them with a colon (with a space before and after it).
The general material designation, abbreviated to GMD, describes the type of item that you are cataloging. The GMD is listed in AACR2 as an optional addition, but most libraries do it (for items that are not text). There are two lists of terms in AACR2, one for British libraries and one for libraries in the U.S., Canada, and Australia. The GMD should be put in square brackets after the title proper (it comes after subfields n and p, if they are there).
Notice that there is no punctuation before subfield h.
Notice that if there is a subtitle, the GMD goes before it.
This can be personal names, corporate bodies, or associations or groups.
The statement of responsibility should be transcribed exactly as it is on the title page, so if the title page says “by”, you should include the word “by” in your subfield c. Notice the punctuation here – subfield c is preceded by a slash, with a space on either side of it.
Whereas in this case, there is no “by.”
So the subfield c contains just the author’s name, exactly as it appears on the title page.
When there are two authors names, you include them both in the statement of responsibility.
Notice that when two people in the statement of responsibility have the same role, you separate their names with a comma. However, when they have different roles, like in the first example (author vs. illustrator), you separate them with a semi-colon (with a space both before and after it). Another thing to notice about this is that on the title page, both authors had degrees after their names. According to AACR2, you do not include these.
Sometimes no statement of responsibility is given.
In this case, you simply do not have a subfield c.
The first indicator determines whether or not the title is indexed as a main entry. This is not as important now that we no longer use card catalogs, but it is still how the rules are set up. The second indicator tells us the number of non-filing characters at the beginning of a title. Non-filing characters are the words “a”, “an,” and “the.” They are not included when the title is listed alphabetically, so we need to tell the computer to skip them.
In this case, since there is no author to be used as a main entry, the title is the main entry, so the first indicator is 0. The second indicator is also 0 because there are no characters to be skipped.
This example is different both because there is an author who is the main entry, and because the title starts with “The.”
Because of this, the first indicator is 1 and the second indicator is 4. The 4 tells the computer to skip 4 characters (t-h-e and a space) before indexing the title.
Two items published together with no collective title will present a problem in the 245 field.
The way this is handled is based on AACR2 rule 21.7C1. As far as the MARC coding goes, subfield c is not repeatable, and no other codes can be used after $c, so the second title and statement of responsibility are put into subfield c after the first statement of responsibility.
The handout from last session has a number of examples of 245 fields.
The 246 field is for a varying title – any variation of the title besides a parallel title. This includes any other form of the title that may be found on the item, or any form of the title that contributes to the identification of the item.
For example, if there are numbers in the title, people may also try searching for the title with the numbers spelled out.
In the 245 field, we provide the title as written, but in the 246 field, we provide the title with the numbers written out.
A similar issue is abbreviations – even if something is abbreviated in the title, people may search for it by spelling it out.
Numbers from 0 to 3 can be used for the first indicator in the 246 field. The most commonly used values are 1 (note, added entry) and 3 (no note, added entry). The second indicator indicates the type of variant title that it is (the values for these are listed on your handout, and they include things like portion of the title, cover title, and running title).
In the first example, a first indicator of 3 is used (no note displayed, title added entry) and the second indicator is blank, which means that the cataloger chose not to specify information about what type of title it is. In the second example, the second indicator is 4, meaning cover title – this means that the title on the cover is different than the one on the title page. In the last example, the first indicator is 1 (for a note and an added entry) and the second indicator is again blank, which is required if you have a subfield i with display text, as this example does. In this case, the source of the title is explained in the display text, instead of the indicator. Your use of these indicators depends on how your system handles the various codes.
Designation means volume and issue numbers, or dates.
In subfield f, you specify the time that the publication had that title.
The first indicator in a 247 field is 0 for no added entry and 1 for an added entry. The second indicator is 0 for no note and 1 for a note.
For example, these indicators mean that you want there to be an added entry for this title, but no note.
These titles are assigned through the International Standard Serials Number Network. They appear on serials records that you download, as catalogers, you don’t have any control over what is in the fields.
Remainder of the edition statement is any other information about the edition.
You might see editions with numbers.
Abbreviation “ed.” comes from AACR2
Editions might be listed as “revised” instead of a numbered edition.
Edition might have a special name.
If an editor is listed for a specific edition, this is an example of what would go in subfield b.
As usual, information about the field and some examples are listed on the handout from last week.
Understanding MARC 21 Bibliographic Records Session 2 Presented by Emily Dust Nimsakont PowerPoint by Devra Dragos, Nebraska Library Commission; revised by Sharon Mason, Charity Martin & Emily Dust Nimsakont