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Womens Movement & Comparable Worth

Womens Movement & Comparable Worth



Overview of the women's movement from 1840 to present.

Overview of the women's movement from 1840 to present.



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  • A crowd of about three hundred people, including forty men, came from five miles round. No woman felt capable of presiding; the task was undertaken by Lucretia's husband, James Mott
  • Their negative articles about the women's call for expanded rights were so livid and widespread that they actually had a positive impact far beyond anything the organizers could have hoped for. People in cities and isolated towns alike were now alerted to the issues, and joined this heated discussion of women's rights in great numbers!
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton, of course. And Susan B. Anthony. Matilda Joslyn Gage. Lucy Stone. They were pioneer theoreticians of the 19th-century women's rights movement. Esther Morris, the first woman to hold a judicial position, who led the first successful state campaign for woman suffrage, in Wyoming in 1869. Abigail Scott Duniway, the leader of the successful fight in Oregon and Washington in the early 1900s. Ida B. Wells-Barnett and Mary Church Terrell, organizers of thousands of African-American women who worked for suffrage for all women. Harriot Stanton Blatch, daughter of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Alice Stone Blackwell, Lucy Stone's daughter, who carried on their mothers' legacy through the next generation. Anna Howard Shaw and Carrie Chapman Catt, leaders of the National American Woman Suffrage Association in the early years of the 20th century, who brought the campaign to its final success. Alice Paul, founder and leader of the National Woman's Party, considered the radical wing of the movement. In 1923 she drafted an Equal Rights Amendment for the United States Constitution. Such a federal law, it was argued, would ensure that "Men and women have equal rights throughout the United States." A constitutional amendment would apply uniformly, regardless of where a person lived. " I always feel the movement is sort of a mosaic. Each of us puts in one little stone, and then you get a great mosaic at the end ."
  • Peterson: govt. & responsibility for discrimination E. Roosevelt: discrimination against women in every area of American life
  • Graduate from Smith College in 1942. She then studied psychology as a graduate student at the University of California at Berkeley graduate work in psychology at Berkeley (1942-1943).
  • Why did Betty Friedan avoid public discussion about her political past? And how does Horowitz address the specific question of her obfuscations about the past? He argues the following:
  • The situation described is by no means static, however. Younger women are working longer and taking shorter breaks for childbearing and child rearing. Because women expect to remain in the work force, they have greatly increased their representation in careers such as medicine and law, which require lengthy training periods. As a result the wage gap narrowed considerably during the eighties. The relatively high ratio of women's to men's earnings at younger ages partly reflects the increased experience and skill acquired by younger women.
  • Title VII: Prohibited employment discrimination on the basis of sex as well as race, religion, and national origin The category "sex" was included as a last-ditch effort to kill the bill. But it passed, nevertheless. EEOC: Investigate discrimination complaints Within five years, it received 50,000 sex discrimination complaints NOW: Spurred innumerable “women’s lib.” orgs. Minorities thoroughly engaged They created battered women's shelters and rape crisis hotlines to care for victims of sexual abuse and domestic violence. They came together to form child care centers so women could work outside their homes for pay. Women health care professionals opened women's clinics to provide birth control and family planning counseling -- and to offer abortion services -- for low-income women Title IX: equal access to higher education and to professional schools One in twenty-seven high school girls played sports 25 years ago; one in three do today
  • Jeannette Rankin was the first woman elected to Congress, in 1916. By 1971, three generations later, women were still less than three percent of our congressional representatives. Today women hold only 11% of the seats in Congress, and 21% of the state legislative seats. Yet, in the face of such small numbers, women have successfully changed thousands of local, state, and federal laws that had limited women's legal status and social roles
  • In Fiscal Year 2007, EEOC received 818 charges of compensation discrimination. EEOC resolved 796 compensation discrimination charges in FY 2007 and recovered $9.3 million in monetary benefits for charging parties and other aggrieved individuals (not including monetary benefits obtained through litigation).
  • The imposition of comparable worth would likely raise pay in traditionally female jobs; appointing persons favorable to the concept to conduct the job evaluation would all but guarantee that result. But because the higher pay in female jobs would raise costs, employers would reduce the number of such jobs, by automating or by reducing the scale of operations, for example. Workers with the most skills would be more likely to keep their jobs, while those without the skills or experience to merit the higher pay would be let go. The ironic result is that fewer workers would be employed in traditionally female jobs. While the higher pay might induce more workers to seek these jobs, the reduced demand could not accommodate them. Less skilled women would lose out to more skilled women and, quite possibly, to men who would be attracted by the higher pay. What's more, some employers would respond to the higher wages by providing fewer of the nonmonetary benefits (like flexible hours) that help accommodate the needs of someone who dovetails home responsibilities and a job. Ex: civil service systems of about twenty state governments and a number of local governments *Washington State * Minnesota's well-known comparable worth plan

Womens Movement & Comparable Worth Womens Movement & Comparable Worth Presentation Transcript

  • The Continuing Struggle for Comparable Worth: Women in America Diversity in the Workplace Psych 701, Fall 2008 UW- Stout, Menomonie WI Presented by Lynnea White
  • Our Founding Feminist Mothers 1840
    • Elizabeth Cady Stanton >
    • Mary Ann McClintock
    • Martha C. Wright
    • Lucretia Mott
    • Jane Hunt
      • American Revolution, 70 years earlier
        • Patriots freedom from tyranny?
        • Women had taken equally tremendous risks…
  • Seneca Falls Convention “…to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman."
      • "A discussion of the rights of animals would be
      • regarded with far more complacency by many of what
      • are called the wise and the good of our land, than
      • would be a discussion of the rights of woman."
      • – Fredrick Douglas
      • Stanton drafted eleven resolutions
        • All passed unanimously except for woman suffrage
    • When national victory came in 1920, seventy-two years after the first organized demand in 1848, only one signer of the Seneca Falls Declaration-Charlotte Woodward, a young worker in a glove manufactory -had lived long enough to cast her ballot.
  • Declaration of Sentiments –Elizabeth Cady Stanton "injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman”
    • Married women were legally dead in the eyes of the law
    • Women were not allowed to vote
    • Women had to submit to laws when they had no voice in their formation
    • Married women had no property rights
    • Husbands had legal power over and responsibility for their wives to the extent that they could imprison or beat them with impunity
    • Divorce and child custody laws favored men, giving no rights to women
    • Women had to pay property taxes although they had no representation in the levying of these taxes
    • Most occupations were closed to women and when women did work they were paid only a fraction of what men earned
    • Women were not allowed to enter professions such as medicine or law
    • Women had no means to gain an education since no college or university would accept women students
    • With only a few exceptions, women were not allowed to participate in the affairs of the church
    • Women were robbed of their self-confidence and self-respect, and were made totally dependent on men
  • The 19 th Amendment Passed by Congress June 4, 1919  Ratified August 18, 1920
    • The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not
    • be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state
    • on account of sex.
  • Susan B. Anthony
    • 1849: Daughters of Temperance
    • 1854: American Anti-slavery Society
    • 1868-70: "The Revolution"
      • equal pay for women
    • 1872-73: Arrested twice for trying to vote
    • 1869-90: National Woman Suffrage Association
    • 1890-06: National American Woman Suffrage Association
  • The Second Wave of Feminism “Birth Control Movement”
    • Margaret Sanger:
      • Woman's right to control her own body
        • Reproduction and sexuality
        • Endorsed educating women about existing birth control methods
          • Reproductive freedom for modern women
      • 1936 : Supreme Court declassified birth control info as being obscene!
      • 1965 : Married couples could obtain contraceptives legally!
  • Feminist Advocates of the 1940-60s
    • Esther Peterson
      • Director of Women’s Bureau of the Dept. of Labor
    • President John F. Kennedy
      • Civil Rights Movement
    • Eleanor Roosevelt
      • Committee on the Status of Women
    • Betty Friedan
      • National Organization for Women
      • National Abortion Rights Action League
      • National Women's Political Caucus
  • “ The problem that has no name"
            • Betty Friedan
            • Advocated: a reasonable, moderate, heterosexual, family-loving not family- destroying, man- loving not man-hating approach
            • The Feminine Mystique
    • - epitomizes an earlier, less sophisticated and less inclusive version of feminism. It is the feminism of a white, privileged middle class woman who was unaware of the lives of women outside the confines of safe and prosperous suburbs.
  • The Threat of the “Red Menace”
    • David Bohm
      • Contributing physicist on the Manhattan Project
      • Friedan’s boyfriend
    • MaCarthyism and involvement in radical politics
      • Dangerous
      • Would undercut impact of book
      • Jeopardize the Women’s Movement
    • "I wish to highlight the damage McCarthyism did to progressive social movements in the 1940s and early 1950s, and especially to feminism, which it forced underground but could not destroy.“
    • – Daniel Horowitz
  • Opposition
    • Historically: women primarily responsible for home and child care
        • 40% fewer years than men
        • Higher education/training
        • Flexibility for home demands
    • Reduce economic efficiency and would even reduce employment opportunities for women
        • Specific fields predominantly employ women
  • The Equal Pay Act of 1963
    • Requires that men and women be given equal pay for equal work in the same establishment. The jobs need not be identical, but they must be substantially equal. It is job content , not job titles, that determines whether jobs are substantially equal.
    • Skill * Effort * Responsibility * Working Conditions * Establishment
  • The Past 45 Years
    • 1964: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
    • 1966: National Organization for Women
    • 1972: Title IX in the Education Codes
    • 1978: Civil Service Reform Act
  • Women's Financial Liberation
    • Do you realize that just 25 years ago married women were not issued credit cards in their own name? That most women could not get a bank loan without a male co-signer? That women working full time earned fifty-nine cents to every dollar earned by men?
    • Help-wanted ads in newspapers were segregated into "Help wanted - women" and "Help wanted- men."
  • The Wage Gap 1988 ratio of men to women’s hourly wages *Doctorates in economics > 5% gap
  • Pay Equity
    • Occupations dominated by female workers:
          • Paid less than comparable male-dominated jobs
          • Secretary vs. Garbage “man”
          • Even when these positions are held by men
        • The Glass Ceiling:
          • Restricted women from certain positions/ promotions
        • Comparable worth:
          • Employers required to set wages reflecting differences in “worth”
            • Job Evaluation studies vs. Market Forces
  • The Third Wave 1990 - Present
    • Women's reproductive rights.
      • Roe v. Wade affirmed women's choice during the first two trimesters.
    • Women's enrollment in military academies and service in active combat.
    • Women in leadership roles in religious worship.
    • Affirmative action. Do qualified women now face a level playing field?
    • The mommy track.
    • Pornography. Is it degrading, even dangerous, to women, or is it simply a free speech issue?
    • Sexual harassment. Just where does flirting leave off and harassment begin?
  • 1998, The 150th Anniversary
    • Many people who have lived through the recent decades of this process have come to accept blithely what has transpired. And younger people, for the most part, can hardly believe life was ever otherwise. They take the changes completely in stride, as how life has always been.
  • Legislation
    • United States v. City of Erie , January 2004
      • Physical abilities test (PAT); entry-level police officer
      • Significant disparate impact upon women
      • Violated Title VII
      • Remedial relief to women who would have been appointed officers
        • Job offers, retroactive seniority, and back pay
    • In a case involving the government employees' union (AFSCME) versus the state of Washington, the court upheld the state's right to base pay on market wages rather than on a job evaluation, writing, "Neither law nor logic deems the free market system a suspect enterprise."
    • -Anthony Kennedy (US Supreme Court Justice)
  • Pay Differentials
    • … permitted when they are based on seniority, merit, quantity or quality of production, or a factor other than sex.
      • These are known as "affirmative defenses" and it is the employer's burden to prove that they apply.
    • In correcting a pay differential, no employee's pay may be reduced. Instead, the pay of the lower paid employee(s) must be increased.
  • Job Evaluation
    • Proposed method:
      • Jobs rated, points assigned
        • Necessary knowledge and skills, mental demands, accountability, and working conditions
      • Equal Scores = Pay
      • Subjectivity:
        • No one correct method to determine points/ attribute
  • Current Trends
    • Earning gaps between college-educated men & women
    • 1) West Virginia 89%
    • 2) District of Columbia 89%
    • 3) Vermont 83%
    • 4) Alaska 82%
    • 5) New York 82%
    • 47) South Carolina 68% 48) Indiana 67% 49) Virginia 67% 50) New Jersey 66% 51) Louisiana 64%
    • ( According to the American Association of University Women, published 2008)
  • For More Information:
    • National Women's History Project 3440 Airway Drive, Suite F Santa Rosa, CA 95403 (707) 636-2888 www.nwhp.org
    • For a more comprehensive timeline of the women’s movement, please refer to: http://www.legacy98.org/timeline.html
  • References
    • Boucher, J. Betty Friedan and the Radical Past of Liberal Feminism [from New Politics , vol. 9, no. 3 (new series), whole no. 35, Summer 2003] http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue35/boucher35.htm#r28
    • Eisenberg, B. & Ruthsdotter, M. (1998). National Women's History Project. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
    • Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848 - 1998 http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
    • http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/activity.html#emp
    • http://www.eeoc.gov/types/epa.html
    • http://www.econlib.org/LIBRARY/Enc/ComparableWorth.html
    • http://hr.blr.com/news.aspx?id=78018
    • http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/remember/jan-june06/friedan_2-6.html
    • http://www.notablebiographies.com/Fi-Gi/Friedan-Betty.html
    • http://www.npg.si.edu/col/seneca/senfalls1.htm
    • http://www.history.rochester.edu/class/sba/bio.html
    • http://www.history.rochester.edu/class/sba/third.html
    • http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.amendmentxix.html