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    Copernicus Rising Actor Packet Copernicus Rising Actor Packet Document Transcript

    • COPERNICUS RISING An Actor’s Guide Susan Patrick Benson, Director Michael A. Rose, Playwright Neal Ryan Shaw, Dramaturg
    • Table of Contents Scenic Breakdown of Copernicus Rising 1 Character Biographies 5 Nicolas Copernicus 5 George Rheticus 7 Tycho Brahe 8 Andreas Osiander 9 Galileo Galilei 10 Albert Einstein 11 Simone de Beauvoir 13 Glossary 17 Polish History 21 A Brief History of Poland 21 A Brief History of Church in Poland 23 Astronomy 27 Medieval-Renaissance Astronomy 27 Copernican Astronomy 34 Galileo and Astronomy 38 Tycho Brahe's Observations 42 Existentialism 45 Existentialism 45 Simone de Beauvoir, Philosopher of the Self 49 Existential Primer: Jean-Paul Sartre 54 Fun Stuff 58 Ten Obscure Factoids Concerning Albert Einstein 58 Tycho Brahe's Nose And The Story Of His Pet Moose 59 Fun Astronomy Facts 61 Quotes by Galileo 62 Quotes by Simone de Beauvoir 63 "Einstein and Copernicus" 64
    • Scenic Breakdown of Copernicus Rising I.ii 1543. Copernicus' deathbed, Frauenberg. Copernicus demands to speak with Rheticus. Rheticus is a professor at Wittenberg now (historical fudging: in reality he was at the University of Leipzig by now). (flashback to:) 1539, May. Frauenberg. George Rheticus comes from Wittenberg to study with Copernicus. (shift to:) The Dreamscape. Copernicus meets Galileo, who attempts to convince him that his influence on the future is at stake. (shift back to:) Deathbed. Copernicus tells Doctor to pass some letters along to Rheticus. I.ii 1543. Johann Petreius' print shop, Nurnberg. (More fudging: this really took place in 1541.) Rheticus brings Copernicus' De Revolutionibus to Petreius' shop to be printed. Because he has other obligations, Petreius entrusts the job to Andreas Osiander. (shift to:) 1543. Copernicus deathbed, Frauenberg. The Doctor and Nurse discover that Copernicus has fallen into a coma. (shift to:) The Dreamscape. Copernicus and Galileo meet Tycho Brahe, who historically ~1~
    • challenged the views of Copernicus. Here Brahe ridicules him for being so incompetent. They duel. Galileo leads Copernicus further into the future. I.iii Some time between 1539-41. Copernicus' observation room. Copernicus and Rheticus discuss the difficulties of being a visionary. (shift to:) The Dreamscape. Galileo and Copernicus meet Einstein, who historically was indebted to Copernicus for his (Einstein's) Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein leads them through the "time stream". (shift to:) Late 1570's. Public forum. (This never really took place. Rheticus had died by this point, anyway.) Copernicus, Galileo and Einstein witness a lecture given by Tycho Brahe. The lecture is interrupted by Rheticus, who defends Copernicus. (shift back to:) The Dreamscape. Einstein shows Copernicus the negative effect that progress can have on society, in the example of the atom bomb. II.i 1543 (More fudging: really '41). Petreius' shop, Nurnberg. Petreius hands over to Osiander the task of printing Copernicus' manuscript. Osiander replaces Copernicus' preface with his own, less controversial, unsigned introduction, as well as changes the title. Rheticus returns to collect the copies, and notices the new addition. Argues with Petreius over it. Petreius admits ignorance. (shift to:) ~2~
    • The Dreamscape. The Stream of Consciousness. Copernicus, Galileo and Einstein meet the explorer, who is navigating the stream. II.ii Some time between 1539-41. Copernicus' observatory. While Copernicus and Rheticus are working, they are called upon by two Papal Guards, who pass along orders for Copernicus to cease his controversial investigations. (shift to:) The Dreamscape. Copernicus, Galileo, Einstein and the Explorer enter the Collective Unconscious, where they meet Simone de Beauvoir. De Beauvoir informs Copernicus that he is the master of his own destiny; she also demostrates the power of the Collective Unconscious. II.iii 1542. Rheticus' room. Rheticus writes a letter discussing Copernicus' methods. Copernicus enters, and Rheticus confronts him with the idea of finally publishing his work. Copernicus imagines three different ways he could make the decision. Copernicus reveals to Rheticus a letter he received from Cardinal Schonberg of Capua, entreating him to communicate his ideas to the public. Rheticus volunteers to take the manuscript to the press himself. (shift to:) The Dreamscape. Copernicus, Galilieo, Einstein, Simone and Tycho Brahe discuss what Copernicus will do next, now that he has decided to publish. II.iv 1543. Copernicus' deathbed, Frauenberg. Rheticus returns with the printed copies of De Revolutionibus. ~3~
    • Copernicus wakes from his coma, aware of his place in the universe. Rheticus shows him the books; Copernicus notices the additions. Nevertheless, he accepts the copies, and implores Rheticus to carry on his legacy. Copernicus dies. ~4~
    • Character Biographies Nicolas Copernicus
(1473-1543) Copernicus is said to be the founder of modern astronomy. He was born in Poland, and eventually was sent off to Cracow University, there to study mathematics and optics; at Bologna, canon law. Returning from his studies in Italy, Copernicus, through the influence of his uncle, was appointed as a canon in the cathedral of Frauenburg where he spent a sheltered and academic life for the rest of his days. Because of his clerical position, Copernicus moved in the highest circles of power; but a student he remained. For relaxation Copernicus painted and translated Greek poetry into Latin. His interest in astronomy gradually grew to be one in which he had a primary interest. His investigations were carried on quietly and alone, without help or consultation. He made his celestial observations from a turret situated on the protective wall around the cathedral, observations were made "bare eyeball," so to speak, as a hundred more years were to pass before the invention of the telescope. In 1530, Copernicus completed and gave to the world his great work De Revolutionibus, which asserted that the earth rotated on its axis once daily and traveled around the sun once yearly: a fantastic concept for the times. Up to the time of Copernicus the thinkers of the western world believed in the Ptolemiac theory that the universe was a closed space bounded by a spherical envelope beyond which there was nothing. Claudius Ptolemy, an Egyptian living in Alexandria, at about 150 A.D., gathered and organized the thoughts of the earlier thinkers. (It is to be noted that one of the ancient Greek astronomers, Aristarchus, did have ideas similar to those more fully developed by Copernicus but they were rejected in favour of the geocentric or earth-centered scheme as was espoused by Aristotle.) Ptolemy's findings were that the earth was a fixed, inert, immovable mass, located at the center of the universe, and all celestial bodies, including the sun and the fixed stars, revolved around it. It was a theory that appealed to human nature. It fit with the casual observations that a person might want to make in the field; and second, it fed man's ego. Copernicus was in no hurry to publish his theory, though parts of his work were circulated among a few of the astronomers that were giving the matter some thought; indeed, Copernicus' work might not have ever reached the printing press if it had not been for a young man who sought out the master in 1539. George Rheticus was a 25 year old German mathematics professor who was attracted to the 66 year old cleric, having ~5~
    • read one of his papers. Intending to spend a few weeks with Copernicus, Rheticus ended up staying as a house guest for two years, so fascinated was he with Copernicus and his theories. Now, up to this time, Copernicus was reluctant to publish, -- not so much that he was concerned with what the church might say about his novel theory (De Revolutionibus was placed on the Index in 1616 and only removed in 1835), but rather because he was a perfectionist and he never thought, even after working on it for thirty years, that his complete work was ready, -- there were, as far as Copernicus was concerned, observations to be checked and rechecked. (Interestingly, Copernicus' original manuscript, lost to the world for 300 years, was located in Prague in the middle of the 19th century; it shows Copernicus' pen was, it would appear, continually in motion with revision after revision; all in Latin as was the vogue for scholarly writings in those days.) Copernicus died in 1543 and was never to know what a stir his work had caused. It went against the philosophical and religious beliefs that had been held during the medieval times. Man, it was believed (and still believed by some) was made by God in His image, man was the next thing to God, and, as such, superior, especially in his best part, his soul, to all creatures, indeed this part was not even part of the natural world (a philosophy which has proved disastrous to the earth's environment as any casual observer of the 20th century might confirm by simply looking about). Copernicus' theories might well lead men to think that they are simply part of nature and not superior to it and that ran counter to the theories of the politically powerful churchmen of the time. Two other Italian scientists of the time, Galileo and Bruno, embraced the Copernican theory unreservedly and as a result suffered much personal injury at the hands of the powerful church inquisitors. Giordano Bruno had the audacity to even go beyond Copernicus, and, dared to suggest, that space was boundless and that the sun was and its planets were but one of any number of similar systems: Why! -- there even might be other inhabited worlds with rational beings equal or possibly superior to ourselves. For such blasphemy, Bruno was tried before the Inquisition, condemned and burned at the stake in 1600. Galileo was brought forward in 1633, and, there, in front of his "betters," he was, under the threat of torture and death, forced to his knees to renounce all belief in Copernican theories, and was thereafter sentenced to imprisonment for the remainder of his days. ~6~
    • The most important aspect of Copernicus' work is that it forever changed the place of man in the cosmos; no longer could man legitimately think his significance greater than his fellow creatures; with Copernicus' work, man could now take his place among that which exists all about him, and not of necessity take that premier position which had been assigned immodestly to him by the theologians. "Of all discoveries and opinions, none may have exerted a greater effect on the human spirit than the doctrine of Copernicus. The world had scarcely become known as round and complete in itself when it was asked to waive the tremendous privilege of being the center of the universe. Never, perhaps, was a greater demand made on mankind - for by this admission so many things vanished in mist and smoke! What became of our Eden, our world of innocence, piety and poetry; the testimony of the senses; the conviction of a poetic - religious faith? No wonder his contemporaries did not wish to let all this go and offered every possible resistance to a doctrine which in its converts authorized and demanded a freedom of view and greatness of thought so far unknown, indeed not even dreamed of." [Goethe.] (http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Science/Copernicus.ht m) George Rheticus RHETICUS, or RHAETICUS (1514-1576), a surname given to GEORGE JOACHIM, German astronomer and mathematician, from his birth at Feldkirch in that part of Tirol which was anciently the territory of the Rhaeti. Born on the 15th of February 1514, he studied at Tiguri with Oswald Mycone, and afterwards went to Wittenberg where he was appointed professor of mathematics in 1537. Being greatly attracted by the new Copernican theory, he resigned the professorship in 1539, and went to Frauenberg to associate himself with Copernicus, and superintended the printing of the De Orbium Revolutione which he had persuaded Copernicus to complete. Rheticus now began his great treatise, Opus Palatinum de Triangulis, and continued to work at it while he occupied his old chair at Wittenberg, and indeed up to his death at Cassovia in Hungary, on the 4th of December 1576. The Opus Palatinum of Rheticus was published by Valentine Otho, mathematician to the electoral prince palatine, in 1596. It gives tables of sines and cosines, tangents, &c., for every to seconds, calculated to ten places. He had projected a table of the same kind to fifteen places, but did not live to ~7~
    • complete it. The sine table, however, was afterwards published on this scale under the name of Thesaurus Mathematicus (Frankfort, 1613) by B. Pitiscus (1561-1613), who himself carried the calculation of a few of the earlier sines to twenty-two places. He also published Narratio de Libris Revolutionum Copernici (Gedenum, 1540), which was subsequently added to editions of Copernicus's works; and Ephemerides until 1551, which were founded on the Copernican doctrines. He projected numerous other works, as is shown by a letter to Peter Ramus in 1568, which Adrian Romanus inserted in the preface to his Idea of Mathematics. (http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Rheticus) Tycho Brahe Tycho Brahe is probably the most famous observational astronomer of the sixteenth-century, although it is not always clear whether he is better remembered for the fact that his data provided the basis for the work of Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), or because of the more colourful aspects of his life and death. Born into the high nobility of his native Denmark in 1546, he was groomed by his family for a career at court, but from an early age showed greater interest in astronomy than law, the discipline of choice for aspiring royal councillors and administrators. After three years at the University of Copenhagen, he spent much of the period from 1562 to 1576 travelling in Germany, studying at the Universities of Leipzig, Wittenberg, and Rostock, and working with other scholars in Basle, Augsburg, and Kassel. It was in Rostock in 1566 that he lost part of his nose in a duel, and subsequently wore a prosthesis. The appearance in 1572 of a "new star" (in fact a supernova) prompted Tycho's first publication, which was issued by a Copenhagen printer in 1573. In 1574, he gave some lectures on astronomy at the University of Copenhagen. Already he was of the opinion that the world-system of Copernicus was mathematically superior to that of Ptolemy, but physically absurd. In 1576, his permanent relocation to Basle, which he considered the most suitable place for him to continue his astronomical studies, was forestalled by King Frederick II, who offered him in fief the island of Hven in the Danish Sound. With generous royal support, Tycho constructed there a domicile and observatory which he called Uraniborg, and developed a range of instruments of remarkable size and precision which he used, with the aide of numerous assistants and students, to observe comets, stars, and planets. ~8~
    • In 1588, Tycho issued from his press a work on the comet which had appeared, causing a flurry of other publications, in 1577. The eighth chapter of this book also contained Tycho's system of the world, which retained the earth as the unmoving centre of the universe but rendered the other planets satellites of the Sun. In 1596 he published a volume of his correspondence with another noble-astronomer, Wilhelm IV of Hesse- Kassel, and Wilhelm's mathematician Christoph Rothmann. The latter was a committed Copernican, and Tycho's forceful arguments for the superiority of his own cosmology was one reason for his publication of the letters. Other works begun on Hven were the Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (1598), an illustrated account of his instruments and observatories, and the Astronomiae instauratae progymnasmata (1602), which contained his theory of lunar and solar motions, part of his catalogue of stars, and a more detailed analysis of the supernova of 1572. However, the erosion of Tycho's funding and standing following King Christian IV's attainment of his majority caused the astronomer to leave Denmark in 1597. In 1599 he settled near Prague, having been appointed Imperial Mathematician by Emperor Rudolph II, and was joined by Johannes Kepler the following year. He died of uraemia in 1601. (http://www.hps.cam.ac.uk/starry/tycho.html) Andreas Osiander ANDREAS OSIANDER (1498-1552), German reformer, was born at Gunzenhausen, near Nuremberg, on the 19th of December 1498. His German name was Heiligmann, or, according to others, Hosemann. After studying at Leipzig, Altenburg and Ingolstadt, he was ordained priest in 1520 and appointed Hebrew tutor in the Augustinian convent at Nuremberg. Two years afterwards he was appointed preacher in the St Lorenz Kirche, and about the same time he publicly joined the Lutheran party, taking a prominent part in the discussion which ultimately led to the adoption of the Reformation by the city. He married in 1525. He was present at the Marburg conference in 1529, at the Augsburg diet in 1530 and at the signing of the Schmalkald articles in 1537, and took part in other public transactions of importance in the history of the Reformation; that he had an exceptionally large number of personal enemies was due to his vehemence, coarseness and arrogance in controversy. The introduction of the Augsburg Interim in 1548 necessitated his departure from Nuremberg; he went first to Breslau, and afterwards settled at Konigsberg as professor in its new university at the call of Duke Albert of Prussia. Here in 1550 he published two disputations, the one De lege et evangelio and the other De justifications, which aroused a controversy still unclosed at his death on the 17th of October 1552. While he was ~9~
    • fundamentally at one with Luther in opposing both Romanism and Calvinism, his mysticism led him to interpret justification by faith as not an imputation but an infusion of the essential righteousness or divine nature of Christ. His party was afterwards led by his son-in-law Johann Funck, but disappeared after the latter's execution for high treason in 1566. Osiander's son Lukas (1534-1604), and grandsons Andreas (1562- 1617) and Lukas (1571-1638), were well-known theologians. Osiander, besides a number of controversial writings, published a corrected edition of the Vulgate, with notes, in 1522, and a Harmony of the Gospels - the first work of its kind - in 1537. The best-known work of his son Lukas was an Epitome of the Magdeburg Centuries. See the Life by W. Moller (Elberfeld, 1870). (http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Andreas_Osiander) Galileo Galilei Italian scientist and philosopher. Galileo was a true Renaissance man, excelling at many different endeavors, including lute playing and painting. He attended medical school in Padua. While in a cathedral, he noticed that a chandelier was swinging with the same period as timed by his pulse, regardless of its amplitude. He began to study the isochronism of the pendulum in 1581, as well as the motion of bodies. Using an inclined plane, he showed that all bodies fall at the same rate. He also investigated cohesion, and concluded that a waterfall breaks when the weight of the water becomes too great, the same reason that water pumps could only raise water by 34 feet. Galileo described his views on dynamics and statics in Dialog on the Two New Sciences, which emphasized mathematics over rhetorical arguments. Galileo was one of the earliest to propose abstract dynamical theories which were ideal and would not be observed under less than ideal circumstances. Galileo observed the supernova of 1604 and tried unsuccessfully to measure its parallax. According to Copernicus's theory, the Earth's motion must produce a parallax, but no such parallax was found until Bessel. Galileo grew interested in the heavens, and built his own telescope in 1609 after the discovery of lenses was reported from Holland. Galileo used his 30 power telescope to discover craters on the Moon, sunspots which rotated with the Sun, the four largest satellites of Jupiter, and phases of Venus. This last observation demonstrated that the Copernican theory was correct, since phases would only be observed ~ 10 ~
    • if Venus were always closer to the sun than to the Earth. Galileo published his observations in Siderius Nuncius (The Starry Messenger) (1611). For some famous quotes and diagrams from Siderius Nuncius, see MacRobert (1990). A complete translation is contained in van Helden (1989). Galileo also proposed Galilean relativity, which states that the same definitions of motion are valid everywhere. The resultant Galilean transformation is correct for low speeds, but must be replaced by the Lorentz transformation for relativistic speeds. Galileo also said that motion is continuous and can only be altered by the application of a force. Galileo enunciated the law of fall (which states that distance traveled is proportional to the square of time) and the time law (which states that velocity is proportional to time). There is an apocryphal story that Galileo dropped two balls of different masses simultaneously from the leaning tower of Pisa to demonstrate that bodies fall at the same rate. Galileo lay down the chief elements of his mechanics in Dialog on the Two Chief Systems of the World (1632), which was supposed to be an objective debate between the Copernican and Ptolemaic system. Unfortunately, Galileo put the Pope's favorite argument in the mouth of one of the characters, then proceeded to ridicule it. Galileo suddenly lost favor with the church, and was forced to recant his Copernican views and put under house arrest. Misner et al. (1973 p. 38) give some quotes by Galileo. One of the most telling is "In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual" (1632). A very similar twentieth century quote is attributed to Einstein. (http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Galileo.html) Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was born at Ulm, in Württemberg, Germany, on March 14, 1879. Six weeks later the family moved to Munich and he began his schooling there at the Luitpold Gymnasium. Later, they moved to Italy and Albert continued his education at Aarau, Switzerland. In 1896 he entered the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zurich to be trained as a teacher in physics and mathematics. In 1901, the year he gained his diploma, he acquired Swiss citizenship and, as he was unable to find a teaching post, he accepted a position as technical assistant in the Swiss Patent Office. In 1905 he obtained his doctor's degree. ~ 11 ~
    • During his stay at the Patent Office, and in his spare time, he produced much of his remarkable work and in 1908 he was appointed Privatdozent in Berne. In 1909 he became Professor Extraordinary at Zurich, in 1911 Professor of Theoretical Physics at Prague, returning to Zurich in the following year to fill a similar post. In 1914 he was appointed Director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Physical Institute and Professor in the University of Berlin. He became a German citizen in 1914 and remained in Berlin until 1933 when he renounced his citizenship for political reasons and emigrated to America to take the position of Professor of Theoretical Physics at Princeton. He became a United States citizen in 1940 and retired from his post in 1945. After World War II, Einstein was a leading figure in the World Government Movement, he was offered the Presidency of the State of Israel, which he declined, and he collaborated with Dr. Chaim Weizmann in establishing the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Einstein always appeared to have a clear view of the problems of physics and the determination to solve them. He had a strategy of his own and was able to visualize the main stages on the way to his goal. He regarded his major achievements as mere stepping-stones for the next advance. At the start of his scientific work, Einstein realized the inadequacies of Newtonian mechanics and his special theory of relativity stemmed from an attempt to reconcile the laws of mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. He dealt with classical problems of statistical mechanics and problems in which they were merged with quantum theory: this led to an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules. He investigated the thermal properties of light with a low radiation density and his observations laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. 
In his early days in Berlin, Einstein postulated that the correct interpretation of the special theory of relativity must also furnish a theory of gravitation and in 1916 he published his paper on the general theory of relativity. During this time he also contributed to the problems of the theory of radiation and statistical mechanics. In the 1920's, Einstein embarked on the construction of unified field theories, although he continued to work on the probabilistic interpretation of quantum theory, and he persevered with this work in America. He contributed to statistical mechanics by his development of the quantum theory of a monatomic gas and he has also accomplished valuable work in connection with atomic transition probabilities and ~ 12 ~
    • relativistic cosmology. After his retirement he continued to work towards the unification of the basic concepts of physics, taking the opposite approach, geometrisation, to the majority of physicists. Einstein's researches are, of course, well chronicled and his more important works include Special Theory of Relativity (1905), Relativity (English translations, 1920 and 1950), General Theory of Relativity (1916), Investigations on Theory of Brownian Movement (1926), and The Evolution of Physics (1938). Among his non-scientific works, About Zionism (1930), Why War? (1933), My Philosophy (1934), and Out of My Later Years (1950) are perhaps the most important. Albert Einstein received honorary doctorate degrees in science, medicine and philosophy from many European and American universities. During the 1920's he lectured in Europe, America and the Far East and he was awarded Fellowships or Memberships of all the leading scientific academies throughout the world. He gained numerous awards in recognition of his work, including the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London in 1925, and the Franklin Medal of the Franklin Institute in 1935. Einstein's gifts inevitably resulted in his dwelling much in intellectual solitude and, for relaxation, music played an important part in his life. He married Mileva Maritsch in 1901 and they had two sons; their marriage was dissolved and in 1917 he married his cousin, Elsa Einstein, who died in 1936. He died on April 18, 1955 at Princeton, New Jersey. (http://skumar.mitindia.net/success/albert.htm) Simone de Beauvoir 1908 -- 1986 We best remember Simone de Beauvoir for her 1949 study entitled The Second Sex, which quickly turned into a feminist compendium for women all around the world. Over the years, as women have improved their situation, some of Beauvoir's ideas have come under attack while others apply as much today as they did 50 years ago. With ~ 13 ~
    • less emphasis now being placed on The Second Sex, critics have begun to reassess Beauvoir's many other works of fiction and nonfiction. Many of Beauvoir's works deal with her own experiences, sometimes concealed in fictional terms, sometimes revealed in her autobiography. This is how, in Memoirs of a Dutiful Daughter, we learn of her growing up in a bourgeois Parisian family. Her childhood and adolescence seem to have been quite happy although she does not share any intimate details, only that she commanded her younger sister Helène (called Poupette) and her other playmates. Her attachment to Elizabeth Le Coin--called Zaza in her memoirs--set a pattern for the many important friendships with women Beauvoir would maintain throughout her life. Beauvoir excelled in school, and her father at first supported her intellectual aspirations. Later he resented her success, and Beauvoir eventually began to rebel against the constraints of her bourgeois upbringing. She also rejected her mother's Catholicism. Her parents expected Beauvoir to get married as other girls from her social class did, but she insisted on attending university and becoming a teacher so that she would be able to support herself. While preparing for her final examinations, she met Jean-Paul Sartre and associated with his friends, a group of young philosophers who appreciated Beauvoir's specialization on Leibniz. As Toril Moi points out, Beauvoir was "a pioneering woman in her own time" when, as only the ninth woman and the youngest student ever, she completed the impressive final examination in philosophy. She passed the exam with flying colors and took second place to Sartre. Her professors admitted that they arrived at this final ranking only with great difficulty. After graduation, Beauvoir began a teaching career at various lycées, where she was much admired by her students for her unconventional approach and fascinating lectures. She, thus, established her professional independence by working outside the home. All her life she cherished her individuality and travelled extensively. While the extent of her impact on contemporary women may be disputed, Beauvoir, nonetheless, managed to model the persona of a successful, professional woman writer. She also believed that such work constituted a valid alternative to motherhood. Beauvoir's writing was first published during the 1940s and elaborated her philosophical ideas in fictional form. Otherwise uninvolved in the political events of the day, in Letters to Sartre she describes, in detail, the German Occupation and displays her fears for Sartre's safety during his internment as a prisoner-of-war in Germany. It was only after the war that her thinking became more politicized. ~ 14 ~
    • In The Ethics of Ambiguity, Beauvoir would clarify various points of Sartre's existentialism for a post-war world. As Kate and Edward Fullbrook argue in Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre: The Remaking of a 20th-Century Legend (1994), Sartre may actually have been influenced by Beauvoir's ideas before he formulated his philosophy. Soon after the war, Beauvoir also went on a long lecture tour of the United States where she met the novelist Nelson Algren, with whom she had a long-distance relationship for nearly 15 years. Both Beauvoir and Sartre, despite their lifelong "essential" relationship, continued to see other people in "contingent" relationships, because they rejected marriage as an outdated and oppressive bourgeois institution. Her long novel, The Mandarins--usually considered a key to understanding the leftist intelligentsia's experience of the postwar years--features characters reminiscent of Beauvoir, Sartre, Algren, and Albert Camus. In great detail, Beauvoir describes how various characters try to reconfigure their lives and relationships after the war. Focusing on two characters, Henri Perron and Anne Dubreuilh, Beauvoir alternates their accounts of the events, letting them overlap at times and, thus, affording the reader two perspectives of the same incident. Despite some stylistic flaws, the novel received the Prix Goncourt because of its philosophical depth and political and historical significance. Despite her literary success, Beauvoir suddenly became aware of her situation as a woman in a male world and decided to explore this idea in The Second Sex. The study employs existentialist philosophy and an historical approach in an effort to explain women's secondary social status. Man sees woman as "a sexual being" and imposes many of his ideas and dreams on his image of woman, making her his other. Beauvoir explains that woman "is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to her." Thus, all women, become "The Second Sex." She traces this evolution from prehistory and classical antiquity, through the Middle Ages and the Enlightenment into our own time. Particularly interesting are her insights into mythology and her close analysis of images of women in the works of Montherlant, D. H. Lawrence, Claudel, Breton, and Stendhal. The work's greatest significance rests on the premise that woman is not biologically predetermined to become mother and wife but free to determine her own fate. Contemporary critics point to flaws in Beauvoir's argument: hasty generalization resulting from insufficient and dated evidence, for instance. They also deplore her negative attitude toward the female body and motherhood. Furthermore, many have deemed her whole approach Eurocentric and phallocentric. ~ 15 ~
    • Although Beauvoir had previously described women in her novels, The Second Sex marked a turning point in her writing career: The Woman Destroyed and Les Belles Images would discuss women's issue even more overtly. Until her death in 1986, Beauvoir continued her political and philosophical pursuits. A lifelong opponent of colonialism, she supported the independence of both French Indochina and Algeria. In Djamila Boupacha (1962), she exposed the torture of an Algerian girl by the French military. The Long March is a detailed account of Communist China in the late 1950s. Several of her last works discussed the impact of old age and death. Despite her many other accomplishments, we remember Beauvoir as a pioneering feminist. This reputation originated in The Second Sex and continued with her involvement in the French women's struggle for equal rights and greater participation in the politic arena. She also took a firm stand in favor of abortion. Due to the current interest in post-structural and post-modern criticism and dismissal of existentialist ideas, French feminists such as Julia Kristeva and Hélène Cixous have dismissed Beauvoir's ideas as well. Publication of Beauvoir's correspondence and notebooks has, however, opened up new possibilities for the study of the Sartre-Beauvoir relationship and Beauvoir's gender identity. A survey of recent feminist writing reveals that many authors, indeed, owe a great deal to Simone de Beauvoir--even if it is only their efforts in rejecting her ideas. (http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/biographies/MainBiographies/D/ DeBeauvoir/DeBeauvoir.htm) ~ 16 ~
    • Glossary Absinthe, 3. An alcoholic liqueur originally distilled from wine mixed with wormwood, but said now often to contain none. Also used of a colour resembling the green of absinthe. (OED) Axiom, 1. A proposition that commends itself to general acceptance; a well-established or universally-conceded principle; a maxim, rule, law. (OED) Benedictine, 1. One of the order of monks, also known, from the colour of their dress, as ‘Black Monks,’ founded by St. Benedict about the year 529. (OED) Chicanery, 1. Legal trickery, pettifogging, abuse of legal forms; the use of subterfuge and trickery in debate or action; quibbling, sophistry, trickery. (OED) De Humani Corporis Fabrica, De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (On the fabric of the human body in seven books) is a textbook of human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) in 1543. (Wikipedia) Echinacea, or purple coneflower, is a perennial herb of the Composite family, commonly known as the daisy family. Most often referred to as the purple coneflower, this hardy plant also known as Sampson root, Missouri snakeroot, and rudbeckia. The prominent, bristly seed head inspired the generic name of the plant, taken from the Greek word echinos meaning hedgehog. (Enotes.com) Epicycle, 1. A small circle, having its centre on the circumference of a greater circle. (OED) Etymologically, (etymology), 1. a. The process of tracing out and describing the elements of a word with their modifications of form and sense. (OED) Freud, Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856–September 23, 1939; was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology. (Wikipedia) Geostatics pl., ‘the statics of rigid bodies’ (OED) Heliocentric, 1. Referred to the sun as centre; considered as viewed from the centre of the sun: as the heliocentric latitude, longitude, place, etc. of ~ 17 ~
    • a planet, i.e. that in which it would appear to an observer placed at the centre of the sun. (OED) Heretic, 1. One who maintains theological or religious opinions at variance with the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, that of any church or religious system, considered as orthodox. Also transf. with reference to non-Christian religions. (OED) Humor, b. spec. In ancient and mediæval physiology, one of the four chief fluids (cardinal humours) of the body (blood, phlegm, choler, and melancholy or black choler), by the relative proportions of which a person's physical and mental qualities and disposition were held to be determined (OED) Iota, The least, or a very small, particle or quantity; an atom. (OED) Jung, Carl Gustav Jung (July 26, 1875 – June 6, 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. (Wikipedia) Little Commentary, Narratia Prima or Little Commentary included these 7 axioms: 1. There is no one center in the universe. 2. The Earth's center is not the center of the universe. 3. The center of the universe is near the Sun. 4. The distance from the Earth to the Sun is imperceptible compared with the distance to the stars. 5. The rotation of the Earth accounts for the apparent daily rotation of the stars. 6. The apparent annual cycle of movements of the Sun is caused by the Earth revolving round it. 7. The apparent retrograde motion of the planets is caused by the motion of the Earth from which one observes. (http://www.op97.k12.il.us/LAB/mm/astronomy/copernicus.html) Luminary, 3. fig. A source of intellectual, moral, or spiritual light (now only of persons, formerly also occas. of things); a person of ‘light and leading’. (OED) Machiavelli, Niccolò di Bernado dei Machiavelli (May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) Florentine political philosopher, musician, poet, and romantic comedic playwright. Machiavelli was also a key figure in the Renaissance and the development of realist political theory. (Wikipedia) ~ 18 ~
    • Melanchthon, Philipp Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerd) (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German professor and theologian, a key leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and a friend and associate of Martin Luther. (Wikipedia) Papacy, 2. The system of ecclesiastical or political government headed by the Pope; the papal government or administration. (OED) Parallax, 1. a. Difference or change in the apparent position or direction of an object as seen from two different points; (Astron.) such a difference or change in the position of a celestial object as seen from different points on the earth's surface or from opposite points in the earth's orbit around the sun. Also: (half of) the angular amount of such a difference or change; (Astron.) the angle subtended at a celestial object by the radius of the earth's orbit, giving a measure of its distance from the earth; any of various similar measures of distance calculated by methods incorporating the motion of the sun relative to the local region of the galaxy, the proper motion of the observed body, the motions of a cluster of bodies having similar distances and speeds, etc. (OED) Phrenology, 2. The theory that the mental powers or characteristics of an individual consist of separate faculties, each of which has its location in an organ found in a definite region of the surface of the brain, the size or development of which is commensurate with the development of the particular faculty; the study of the external conformation of the cranium as an index to the position and degree of development of the various faculties. Cf. earlier CRANIOLOGY n. Now hist. (OED) Pragmatic, 5. Practical; dealing with practice; matter-of-fact (OED) Predilection, A mental preference or partiality; a favourable predisposition or prepossession. (OED) Ptolmic (Ptolemaic), 1. Of or pertaining to Ptolemy, a celebrated astronomer who lived at Alexandria in the second century A.D. (OED) Reticent, Reserved; disinclined to speak freely; given to silence or concealment. (OED) Rhetoric, 1. a. The art of using language so as to persuade or influence others; the body of rules to be observed by a speaker or writer in order that he may express himself with eloquence. (OED) Jean-Paul Sartre, Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April ~ 19 ~
    • 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. Traipse, 1. a. intr. To walk in a trailing or untidy way; e.g. to walk or ‘trail’ through the mud; to walk with the dress trailing or bedraggled; to walk about aimlessly or needlessly. (Usually said of a woman or child.) Also in gen. use, to tramp or trudge, to go about. (OED) Trencher, 3. A slice of bread used instead of a plate or platter. 4. a. A trencher and that which it bears; a supply of food; Vasari, Giorgio Vasari (July 30, 1511 - June 27, 1574) was an Italian painter and architect, known for his famous biographies of Italian artists. (Wikipedia) Woolf, Virginia Woolf (née Stephen) (25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) is by reputation one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. Though she is commonly regarded by many as feminist, it should be noted that she herself deplored the term, as she felt it suggested an obsession with women and womens' concerns. She preferred to be referred to as a "humanist" (see Three Guineas). (Wikipedia) ~ 20 ~
    • Polish History A Brief History of Poland Renaissance culture was reaching Poland since the late 15th century, through trips by young noblemen for studies, diplomatic contacts, dynastic relations and trade. The 16th century saw a particularly great development of the Polish Renaissance. It had a fairly large audience made up of well- educated noblemen and burghers. That development was further assisted by the patronage of the king and magnates. Krakow remained the hub of Polish culture as the city hosted the royal court and the University, had good printers, sculpture shops and architectural studios. The Krakow Renaissance, radiating all over the land was developing under the influence of the Italian one. The Wawel Royal Castle was reconstructed by the Italians in the years 1507-1536. The Renaissance Chapel of the Sigismunds and the tombstones of Sigismund the Old and Sigismund Augustus became the examples to follow for similar tombstones throughout the Republic. Renaissance townhalls were being erected in towns. New towns were developed according to the ideas of the Renaissance. The most excellent example was Zamosc, built by Bernardo Morando for Jan Zamoyski. The northern Renaissance prevailed in Royal Prussia, where it was brought thanks to the numerous trade contacts between Gdansk, Torun and Elblag with the Netherlands. A unique synthesis of Polish, Ruthenian and Armenian cultures was created in Lwow. A similar function of an ethnic-cultural conglomerate was played by Wilno [now called Vilnius]. ~ 21 ~
    • The best achievements of literature were the works by Jan Kochanowski (1530- 1584), his epigrams (fraszki), Songs and Threnodies after the death of his daughter. The Reformation stimulated the development of political literature. Lutheranism spread primarily in Royal Prussia, while Calvinism became the religion of part of the gentry in Little Poland and Lithuania. However, the majority of Polish and Lithuanian gentry remained Catholic, with Orthodox religion prevailing in Ruthenia. King Sigismund Augustus used to say, "I do not want to be the master of your conscience." Polish religious tolerance of the time allowed for the emergence of radical movements: the Arians--Polish and Bohemian brethren. Each of those religions tried to expand its influence through schooling and propaganda. Hence, there was development of education and printing, as well as several translations of the Bible into Polish. Counter-Reformation also used education, especially Jesuit, for its purpose. The first gymnasiums were founded by the Jesuits in the 1560s and 1570s. The teaching at their secondary schools was on a very high level. The Jesuit College in Wilno developed into a university (1576) thanks to the financial support of King Stefan Batory. A university, which became the center of Lutheranism, was established in Krolewiec (Koenigsberg). Polish science developed in close contact with that of Europe. Especially advanced was astronomy, to mention only Mikolaj Kopernik (Nicholas Copernicus, 1473-1543), the author of "De revolutionibus orbium coelestium" [On the Revolution of the Earth and Sky"]. Also developing were cartography, surveying, medicine, law, and natural and agricultural sciences. The greatest accomplishment of political science was Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski's "Commentarium de republica emendanda" ["Commentary on Reforms of the Polish Republic"]. The sermons in the Sejm [Parliament] by the royal preacher, Piotr Skarga, in a fine way combined propaganda and literary style. Interest in national and world history resulted in numerous works, such as the Polish-language "Chronicle of the World" by Marcin Bielski (1556) and "De duabus Sarmatiis" by Maciej Miechowita (1517). The latter work reflected the growing conviction of the gentry that their ancestors differed from those of the peasants and burghers. According to their viewpoint, they, the nobles, traced their descent to the ancient tribe of ~ 22 ~
    • the Sarmatas. That view gained particular currency in the latter half of the 16th century and in the 17th century. The attractiveness of the nobility's culture exerted much influence upon the rest of the social strata in the Republic. It was also attractive to their neighbors. (http://www.poloniatoday.com/history6.htm) A Brief History of Church in Poland Poland was christianized in 966, as the Prince Mieszko the First (baptized onApril 14th, 996) ruled Poland. A few years later the first archdiocese has been established in Gniezno, on the grave of the bishop martyr Saint Wojciech who died as a missionary in Prussia on April 23rd, 997, The first archbishop of Gniezno was his brother, Blessed Radzim-Gaudenty. 
 Church played an important role in the integration of the country and in its spiritual, economical, administrative and scientific development. Church institutions founded primary schools and universities (e.g. the first university in central, northern and eastern Europe: the Cracow - later Jagellonian - University, 1364, and later the University of Vilnus), taught the peasants (by-that-time) modern methods of farming. Church administration of the country was a model for modern state administration. The Church sponsored scientific research in mathematics and natural sciences: just to mention Mikol`aj Kopernik, Marcin Polak from Opawa, Witelo Ciol`ek from Wrocl`aw. 
Also arts were supported by the Church, both builders of beautiful churches and composers like Wacl`aw from Szamotul`y, Marcin Lwowczyk, and Mikol`aj Gomo`l`ka. 
 Rulers of Poland recognized the importance of Catholicism for spiritual and economical development of Poland, though they frequently didn't want to subordinate themselves to Christian teaching of morality. This gave rise to various conflicts between kings and the Church, killing of the bishop of Cracow, Saint Stanislaw, XIth century, by a king who couldn't stand the criticism of his unfaithfulness towards his wife, was one of prominent examples.
 In 12th century the bishops of Poland made strong statements in defence of peasants threthening with excommunication to those big land owners that oppressed the peasants. The office of Primate of Poland (bound to archbishops of Gniezno), established in the XVth century, has been the symbol of continuity of Polish state, especially in the time of elected kings, as the Primate was the interreggio after the death of a king and before the next one has been elected. 
Intrinsic Catholicism in Poland protected the country from religious wars and religious intolerance. The teaching on unconditional love of the neighbour resulted in intrinsically equal treatment of all the nations living in the multinational state, including various national ~ 23 ~
    • minorities escaping from western Europe because of their prosecution in those countries. In 1410, Polish army defeated a united west european army of fanatics that wanted to exterminate prussian and lithuanian tribes because they were still not baptised. Polish bishops insisted on and passed through the doctrine that the christian faith can only be spread by peaceful means of arguments and not using military force (during Trident Council, 1545-1543). 
Two priests acting in Poland after that Council are worth mentioning: Jakub Wujek, the first translator of the whole Bible into Polish, and Piotr Skarga, engaged in improving moral qualities of the politicians of that time. 
The spirit of intrinsic christianity in Poland caused that even after the first partition of Poland (XVIIIth century) Jews were running away from Austrian, German and Russian occupation zones to the still free part of Poland because Poland offered them religious freedom. 
It is worth mentioning that the Pope Klemens XIV protested against the partition of Poland. During partition of Poland (1795-1918), as Poland stopped existing on the maps of the wworld, the office of the Primate of Poland was retained by the Holy See making the occupying powers angry. Polish has been retained as the language of prayers in churches and of religious teaching in partitioned Poland. The occupying powers considered Catholic Church as the main enemy and numerous priests and even bishops were imprisoned, sent to Siberia. Churches were closed or destroyed. Ordinary people were ill-treated to force them to change their confession, at least hundreds have been murdered for holding to Catholic Church (one example are the martyrs of Pratulin 1874). Publication of religious books was hampered and sometimes forbidden. 
The Church was one of major factors in reunification of Poland in 1918 after defeat of occupying powers in world war one. 
The Catholic Church in Poland had to suffer most during the second world war from the German nazi state. In many dioeceses more than 90% of all Catholic priests have been killed - in German death camps and in the street. Symbols of that time are martyrs Blessed bishop Michal` Kozal and the Saint priest Maksymilian Kolbe. Still, under these terror conditions, the oppressed Church made tremendous efforts to save life of hundreds of thousands of oppressed people, especially Jews, who got from the Church new identity papers (hiding their Jewish origin) or even found shelter in monasteries and priest schools - all at risk of losing life by clergymen. The people found spiritual strength to survive psychologically that awful time only by attending Church services and by prayers. It has been reported that on Christmas Eves during the war some people went to occupant soldiers in the street with Christmas wafers wishing them merry and peaceful Christmas. Germans were both surprised and moved by this gesture of a Christian nation. 
The importance of the Church for Polish identity grew in ~ 24 ~
    • communist times (1945-1989). Countless priests have been murdered and numerous bishops (including Stefan Cardinal Wyszyn`ski, the Primate of Poland) have been imprisoned in 1950s. Publication of Catholic journals and newspapers was banned. Catholic organizations were dissolved. Bishops were not allowed to do their job as diocese shepherds. Catholics were not allowed to hold any higher ranking administrative positions, to be military officers, factory directors etc. Though later Poland had a prominent period of religious freedom, several more priests have been murdered (The case of priest Jerzy Popiel`uszko is best known, but not the only one). 
After 1989, the Catholic Church remains a sign of contradiction. Dozens of priests have been killed and their murderers never found. Hundreds of Catholic cemeteries are being destroyed, churches robbed out, profaned, set on fire, and the bandits are never punished. It should be mentioned that not only Poland benefited from teachings of Catholic Church, but it also contributed much in support of universal mission of the Church. Polish army defended the freedom of faith of Catholics all over Europe by stopping Tartar (Battle of Legnica, 1241), Swedish (Defense of Jasna Gora, 1656), Turkish (Battle of Vienna, 1683) and Soviet (Battle of Vistula, 1920) floods.
Polish Catholics made efforts, though with partial success only, to reunite the splitted christianity: they started religious dialog both with the protestant churches and the orthodox churches. In 1596, the so-called Brzes`c`/Brest Union was achieved between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church (the Greek Catholic Church has been established). Many orthodox bishops and large numbers of parishes in Poland, Lithuania and Russia joined the Catholic Church by recognizing the Pope as the head of the Church while keeping their liturgic and legal traditions. Regrettedly ambitions of politicians who used even military force to prevent people from joining the Catholic Church made the further progress of reuniting christianity impossible.
Also in the 17th century a union of Ormians living in Poland with the Catholic Church was achieved. Over the last two centuries Polish missionaries carried the Good News to the nations of Africa, Asia, and America. They brought there also general and professional education, health care, frequently sacrificing their lives killed by enemies of the church and by illnesses the people suffered from in those poor countries. 
The missionary engagement outside of Europe started already in the 17th century with jesuit friars Andrzej Rudomin, Mikol`aj Smogulecki and Michal` Boym, and the martyr Wojciech Me`cin`ski worked in the Far East. This engagement is continued till present day. On of the outstanding examples is the recently nominated Adam Cardinal Kozlowiecki , who acts as a missionary in Zambia for ~ 25 ~
    • several decades now. 
Poland gave the Church many Saints, martyrs for the faith. 
The current Pope, John Paul II, the great Pope of this century, grew up in Poland and suffered here from the "strengths" of capitalism (during the big economical crisis of 1930ies) the hitlerian socialism (during nazi occupation 1939-45) and the stalinist socialism (1940ies and 1950ies) and experienced the strong Catholic faith the people here had as the only weapon to handle these dreadful times. Whenever His Holiness writes encyclicals in defense of human dignity, against poverty and mishandling of people, calling for conversion to Catholic faith, for praying and trusting God, He is not making any political propaganda, but is speaking from His personal experience.
The Church benevolent organization Caritas Poland, legalized anew after 1989, is engaged in bringing relief to many nations plagued by hunger and shortage of medical care all over the world. 
Poland was the place of several Church events of world-wide importance and with world-wide attendance. Jasna Go`ra, the major Marian sanctuary of Poland, for centuries already visited by pilgrims from countless European countries, hosted in 1991 the World Youth Day, attended by the Pope. Wrocl`aw, a city in western part of Poland, is the place of the 46th International Eucharistic Congress in the year 1997. Nowadays the administrative structure of the Catholic Church in Poland (since 1993) consists of 13 archdioceses and of 29 dioceses. There is a field diocese and an archdiocese and a diocese for Bysanthic-Ukrainian Rythus. We have over 150 bishops and archbishops, some 20,000 priests, more than 90% of the population has been baptized in Catholic Church. More than 20% of people go to church regularly (every Sunday). In this world of hatred against the Church, vicious capaigns against various sections of the society, against other nations, the Church holds firm to the teaching of Jesus Christ, preaches love and forgiving of crimes of others against us, teaches us how to love our country, teaches to shake hands in a gesture of peace and forgiveness with our neighbours both from the west, and the east, and the south and the north. She teaches us on Christian common roots of all the Europe, but also not to restrict our love to the white race but rather lets us care for the well- being of all the mankind. (http://beatchen.www1.50megs.com/ksjacek/rcc_in_p.htm#History) ~ 26 ~
    • Astronomy Medieval & Renaissance Astronomy Medieval Astronomy Contrary to common misconception the period between the end of the classical era and the start of the Renaissance was not devoid of scientific progress. Islamic scholars translated many of the surviving writings from Greek or Syriac into Arabic from the late 700's onwards. These translations in turn were transported into Islamic Spain where they eventually fell into Christian hands and were translated into Latin. Islamic astronomers such as Muhammad al-Battani (c. 850 - 929) refined Ptolemy's model and their published works and tables were later used by Western astronomers. Even today the influence of Islamic astronomers is found in the names of many of the bright stars such as Betelgeuse (α Ori), Alnitak (ζ Ori) and Zubenelgenubi (α Lib). Nicole Oresme As Western scholars studied the Latin translations of the classical philosophers they incorporated many aspects of their work into the prevailing theology and world view. Aristotle's physics described the motion of objects and the refined model of Ptolemy was used to study the night sky. The Frenchman, Nicole Oresme (1320 - 82) applied an early concept of the centre of gravity, used mathematics to argue against astrology and even suggested the existence of other inhabited worlds in space. Nicolas of Cusa (born c. 1401) supported this idea and rejected the concept of a static Earth at the centre of all motions. Georg Puerbach (1423 - 61) refined the Almagest and wrote a popular textbook on it. This prompted a renewal of interest in the need for accurate observations. His pupil, Regiomontanus (1436 - 76) highlighted problems with Ptolemy's work based on observations made at his purpose-built observatory. He published his own and other writings on astronomy and the increasing availability of printed books did much to spread ideas among scholars. In 1482 he observed a bright comet that was later identified as one of the visits of Comet Halley and was most likely working towards a heliocentric model influenced by Aristarchus at the time of his death. ~ 27 ~
    • The Renaissance Nicolaus Copernicus (1473 - 1543) Copernicus studied classics and mathematics at Krakow in his native Poland, canon law in Bologna and Ferrara and medicine at Padua in Italy. His keen interest in astronomy was fostered in Italy and developed back in Poland where he was canon at the cathedral in Frauenberg (now Frombeck) where he spent most of his life. A conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn in 1504 was observed to differ by 10 days from the predictions of tables based on Ptolemy's work. This, combined with Copernicus' abhorrence of the equant drove him to develop an improved model. Influenced by the work of Regiomontanus (thus also Aristarchus) and neoplatonism (which viewed the Sun as the Godhead and source of all knowledge) he produced his own model. He withheld publication due to his conservative nature and fear of ridicule but was eventually persuaded by Rheticus. Allegedly he received the first copy of his work De revolutionibus orbium (On the revolution of the heavenly spheres) on his deathbed in 1543. Manuscript example of Copernicus' model. In Copernicus' model a spherical Earth rotates daily on it axis whilst it and the other planets each orbit the Sun. The period of the planets' orbits increases with increasing distance from the Sun. The Sun was not exactly at the centre of the planetary orbits thus strictly speaking the model is heliostatic rather than heliocentric. ~ 28 ~
    • There were several advantages of Copernicus' model over that of Ptolemy: 1.It could predict planetary positions to within 2°, the same as that of Ptolemy. 2.Retrograde motion of planets was explained by the relative motion between them and the Earth. 3.Distances between planets and the Sun could be accurately determined in units of the Earth-Sun distance (ie Astronomical Units). 4.Orbital periods could be accurately determined. 5.It explained the difference between the inferior planets (Mercury and Venus) that were always observed close to the Sun and the superior ones (Mars, Jupiter and Saturn). 6.It preserved the concept of uniform circular motion without the need for equants. 7.It preserved Aristotle's concept of real spheres nestled inside one another. 8.Unlike Ptolemy's model it did not require the Moon to change in size. Copernicus' model also had several problems which contributed to its failure to immediately supplant Ptolemy's model: No annual stellar parallax could be detected. Copernicus explained this as due to the fact that the stars were a vast distance hence any parallax would be very small and difficult to detect. It required a moving Earth, This would contradict Aristotelian physics and Copernicus presented no new laws of motion to replace Aristotle. By removing the Earth from its natural place it was philosophically and theologically unacceptable to many scholars. It was no more accurate than Ptolemy's in predicting planetary positions. It was actually more complicated then Ptolemy's model. In his efforts to avoid the equant but retain uniform circular motion he had to introduce more devices to fit his observations. Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) Tycho Brahe, of Danish noble stock, was probably the greatest astronomical observer of the pre-telescope era. Early observations in the 560's revealed inaccuracies with existing tables and spurred him onto making systematic, long-term observations and records. This task would occupy the rest of his life. With generous funding from the King of ~ 29 ~
    • Denmark he established a dedicated observatory, Uraniborg, on the island of Hven (now Ven). He built large instruments such as quadrants from wood and brass that improved on earlier designs. The measurements he made were up to ten times more accurate than any preceding ones and were at the limit of that obtainable by the unaided eye. The investment by the Danish King amounted to 5% of his total income, still a record for investment on scientific research. Brahe eventually fell out with the Danish court and moved to Prague for his final years. In November 1572 a new star appeared in the constellation Cassiopeia. Brahe's observations showed that it was motionless relative to nearby stars suggesting to him that it was in fact a star and not a tail-less comet. Five years later he observed a bright comet and discerned no parallax and placed it at least six times further from Earth than the Moon. Both of these observations challenged the Aristotelian orthodoxy. The stars were supposed to be changeless and perfect whilst comets were supposed to be confined to the sub-lunary sphere, that is between the Earth and Moon. Further observations revealed that the comet would move through the solid crystalline spheres of an Aristotelian Universe. To reconcile his observations with his philosophy Brahe developed his own model, incorporating some aspects of Copernicus' but rejecting the idea of a moving Earth. Although his hybrid model enjoyed a brief period of popularity it was soon replaced by the work of his assistant, Johannes Kepler. ~ 30 ~
    • Brahe's Model: Brahe's model was somewhat of a hybrid and drew upon Herakleide's earlier concepts. It had a static Earth at the centre of the Universe with the Moon orbiting it. A rotating sphere of fixed stars also revolved around the Earth once every 24 hours. The planets however orbited about the Sun which itself orbited the Earth. It utilised epicycles, deferents and equants. In his model there is no need for stellar parallax. The diagram above shows a simplified representation. Brahe's lasting legacy was his long-term and meticulous observations of planetary motions, especially those of Mars. This data was used after his death by Kepler, who worked as his assistant during Brahe's last year. Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1630) Johannes Kepler Best known for his key works on astronomy, Johannes Kepler made valuable contributions in other fields. In his works on optics he examined the refraction of light, correctly explained the working of the eye for the first time and provided a theoretical basis for telescopes with suggested means of improving them. His explanation on the new Napierian logarithms did much to encourage their wide acceptance. Given a challenge to calculate volumes of wine casks he ended up developing an approach to infinitesimal calculus well ahead of the ideas of Liebniz and Newton. Kepler had studied under the renowned astronomer Michael Maestlin, one of the first proponents of Copernicus' work. ~ 31 ~
    • In his first astronomical work, Mysterium cosmographicum (The cosmic mystery) in 1596, Kepler upheld his belief in the Copernican system. He also discovered a geometrical relationship for the orbits of the planets around the Sun. Between the sphere of each planet's orbit he found he could place one of the five regular solids, for example a cube between Jupiter and Saturn, so that the six planets were separated by five regular solids. This system reflects the influence on Kepler of the Platonic- Pythagorean tradition of matching order in nature with the regularities of mathematics. Of greater long-term importance however was his suggestion that the Sun somehow affected the orbits of the planets, perhaps by magnetism. Kepler's geometrical relationship in the Solar System as shown in his Mysterium cosmographicum of 1596. Kepler tried to fit Brahe's data to the Copernican model but consistently arrived at errors of at least eight seconds of arc, small but not insignificant. He was finally forced to abandon the concept of uniform circular orbital paths but it was to take him several years of painstaking, methodical calculations before he arrived at an alternate model that fitted Brahe's 20 years of data on Mars. The results were published in 1609 in his work Astronomica nova (New Astronomy). In it he explained what are now known as his first two laws of planetary motion. ~ 32 ~
    • Kepler's 1st Law: The Law of Ellipses. All planets orbit the Sun in elliptical orbits with the Sun as one common focus. Note the eccentricity of the ellipse has been greatly exaggerated in the above diagram. For most planets their orbits are almost circular. Kepler's 2nd Law: The Law of Equal Areas. The line between a planet and the Sun (the radius vector) sweeps out equal areas in equal periods of time. In the diagram, the time interval t2-t1 = t4-t3 so the areas swept through in equal times are equal, that is A1 = A2. This effect is very noticeable in comets such as Comet Halley that have highly elliptical orbits. When in the inner Solar System, close to the Sun at perihelion, they move much faster than when far from the Sun at aphelion. Kepler actually formulated the law of equal areas first and it then led him to the law of ellipses. His third law was not published until 1618 in Harmonice mundi (The Harmony of the World). This resulted from his attempts to find a relationship between the distance of a planet from the Sun and its orbital period. ~ 33 ~
    • Kepler's Third Law: The Law of Periods or the Harmonic Law*.
The square of a planet's period, T, is directly proportional to the cube of its average distance from the Sun, r. Mathematically this can be expressed as: T2 r3 or T2/r3 = k (1.1) where k is a constant and the same for all planets or orbital bodies (such as comets) in a given system. If T is measured in Earth years and r in astronomical units (AU) then for the Earth, T = 1 and r = 1 so: T2/r3 = k 1/1 = k ie. k =1 The implication of Kepler's Third Law is that planets more distant from the Sun take longer to orbit the Sun. Let us see how this can be used to determine the mean distance of Mars from the Sun if its orbital period is 1.88 Earth years. If T2/r3 = k (1.1) Then rewriting for r r3 = T2/k r = ((1.88)2/1)1/3 so r = 1.524 AU So Mars is 1.524 astronomical units from the Sun. Kepler's laws of planetary motion were empirical, they could predict what would occur but could not account for why planets behaved in such a manner. His Rudolphine tables of planetary motion published in 1627 were more accurate than nay previous ones. He came close to uncovering the concept of gravitation and corresponded with Galileo and was aware of his telescopic discoveries. (http://outreach.atnf.csiro.au/education/senior/cosmicengine/ renaissanceastro.html) Copernican Astronomy The Copernican Model: A Sun-Centered Solar System ~ 34 ~
    • The Earth-centered Universe of Aristotle and Ptolemy held sway on Western thinking for almost 2000 years. Then, in the 16th century a new idea was proposed by the Polish astronomer Nicolai Copernicus (1473- 1543). The Heliocentric System In a book called On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies (that was published as Copernicus lay on his deathbed), Copernicus proposed that the Sun, not the Earth, was the center of the Solar System. Such a model is called a heliocentric system. The ordering of the planets known to Copernicus in this new system is illustrated in the following figure, which we recognize as the modern ordering of those planets. The Copernican Universe In this new ordering the Earth is just another planet (the third outward from the Sun), and the Moon is in orbit around the Earth, not the Sun. The stars are distant objects that do not revolve around the Sun. Instead, the Earth is assumed to rotate once in 24 hours, causing the stars to appear to revolve around the Earth in the opposite direction. Retrograde Motion and Varying Brightness of the Planets The Copernican system by banishing the idea that the Earth was the ~ 35 ~
    • center of the Solar System, immediately led to a simple explanation of both the varying brightness of the planets and retrograde motion: The planets in such a system naturally vary in brightness because they are not always the same distance from the Earth. Copernicus and the Need for Epicycles There is a common misconception that the Copernican model did away with the need for epicycles. This is not true, because Copernicus was able to rid himself of the long-held notion that the Earth was the center of the Solar system, but he did not question the assumption of uniform circular motion. Thus, in the Copernican model the Sun was at the center, but the planets still executed uniform circular motion about it. As we shall see later, the orbits of the planets are not circles, they are actually ellipses. As a consequence, the Copernican model, with it assumption of uniform circular motion, still could not explain all the details of planetary motion on the celestial sphere without epicycles. The difference was that the Copernican system required many fewer epicycles than the Ptolemaic system because it moved the Sun to the center. The Copernican Revolution We noted earlier that 3 incorrect ideas held back the development of modern astronomy from the time of Aristotle until the 16th and 17th centuries: (1) the assumption that the Earth was the center of the Universe, (2) the assumption of uniform circular motion in the heavens, and (3) the assumption that objects in the heavens were made from a perfect, unchanging substance not found on the Earth. Copernicus challenged assumption 1, but not assumption 2. We may also note that the Copernican model implicitly questions the third tenet that the objects in the sky were made of special unchanging stuff. Since the Earth is just another planet, there will eventually be a natural progression to the idea that the planets are made from the same stuff that we find on the Earth. Copernicus was an unlikely revolutionary. It is believed by many that his book was only published at the end of his life because he feared ridicule and disfavor: by his peers and by the Church, which had elevated the ideas of Aristotle to the level of religious dogma. However, this reluctant revolutionary set in motion a chain of events that would eventually (long after his lifetime) produce the greatest revolution in thinking that Western civilization has seen. His ideas remained rather obscure for about 100 ~ 36 ~
    • years after his death. But, in the 17th century the work of Kepler, Galileo, and Newton would build on the heliocentric Universe of Copernicus and produce the revolution that would sweep away completely the ideas of Aristotle and replace them with the modern view of astronomy and natural science. This sequence is commonly called the Copernican Revolution. Been There, Done That: Aristarchus of Samos The idea of Copernicus was not really new! A sun-centered Solar System had been proposed as early as about 200 B.C. by Aristarchus of Samos (Samos is an island off the coast of what is now Turkey). However, it did not survive long under the weight of Aristotle's influence and "common sense": (1)If the Earth actually spun on an axis (as required in a heliocentric system to explain the diurnal motion of the sky), why didn't objects fly off the spinning Earth? (2)If the Earth was in motion around the sun, why didn't it leave behind the birds flying in the air? (3)If the Earth were actually on an orbit around the sun, why wasn't a parallax effect observed? That is, as illustrated in the adjacent figure, stars should appear to change their position with the respect to the other background stars as the Earth moved about its orbit, because of viewing them from a different perspective (just as viewing an object first with one eye, and then the other, causes the apparent position of the object to change with respect to the background). The first two objections were not valid because they represent an inadequate understanding of the physics of motion that would only be corrected in the 17th century. The third objection is valid, but failed to account for what we now know to be the enormous distances to the stars. As illustrated in the following figure, the amount of parallax decreases with distance. ~ 37 ~
    • Parallax is larger for closer objects The parallax effect is there, but it is very small because the stars are so far away that their parallax can only be observed with very precise instruments. Indeed, the parallax of stars was not measured conclusively until the year 1838. Thus, the heliocentric idea of Aristarchus was quickly forgotten and Western thought stagnated for almost 2000 years as it waited for Copernicus to revive the heliocentric theory. (http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/retrograde/ copernican.html) Galileo and Astronomy Galileo Galilei There was another man, working at around the same time as Kepler, who made an even greater contribution to the dawn of modern astronomy and single-handedly pioneered modern mathematical physics. This was a man who laid down virtually all the groundwork for Newton and his name was Galileo Galilei (usually referred to only as Galileo). He has been called by some as the father of both modern astronomy and modern physics and certainly his role as a pivotal figure in the development of both these sciences is beyond question. On top of this he was also the pioneer of modern experimental scientific method. It was Galileo that finally provided proof of the Copernican theory, and thus confirming Kepler's work to be correct.
He also had time to lay down the foundations of correct understanding of dynamics and of gravity.
But we are getting ahead of ourselves here. ~ 38 ~
    • Galileo's Telescope Before Galileo began so much of his ground breaking work in astronomy an invention was to come along and help him out, that invention was the telescope and in the arms of Galileo it was the instrument that was to revolutionise the science of astronomy, allowing Galileo to peer into the heavens and see at a magnification many times what any human had seen before. The discovery of the telescope is usually credited to Hans Lippershey in 1608, although there is some evidence that there was one or possibly even two people before him to invent a telescope, but this evidence remains very much inconclusive, so we shall not break from tradition here! Galileo and Astronomy So back to Galileo, in 1609 (about the same time as Kepler was about to publish his first two laws) from only simple reports of this new invention, Galileo, using his skills, was able to construct a vastly superior model to Lippershey's telescope and is said to be the first to use the refracting telescope. Some of his early observations included: ➢The Moon was not smooth but actually covered in mountains and craters. ➢The planets were discs not points of light. ➢The Milky Way was composed of an enormous number of stars (agreeing with Copernicus' idea of the universe being much vaster than previously thought, also destroying the only argument for the Taychoic system, by providing reason for why, in a heliocentric system there would appear to be no stellar parallax). As a collective what these observations did was to raise the issue of the credibility of the Ptolemaic system, how could Aristotle and Ptolemy's work be trusted to be correct when there was so much of the universe they didn't know? 
Galileo's early observations convinced him of the accuracy of the Copernican system and he began to argue strongly for it, basing his arguments on his observations with his telescope. In this work there are 3 further observations in particular that deserve special mention: ~ 39 ~
    • His observations of the Moons of Jupiter Galileo used the so called Galilean moons to prove a major argument against the Copernican system was incorrect. The argument suggested that given the moon orbited the Earth, if the Earth then orbited the Sun, the Moon would be left behind. With the discovery of the moons around Jupiter it was clear that a planet could orbit a body without leaving behind any moons that were in turn orbiting it. Observations of Sunspots With the observation of Sunspots not only did Galileo prove that the Sun was not perfect (remember at the time the held ideas continued to be Aristotle's theory that God made all the celestial bodies and so they must be perfect) but he also observed that these imperfections were moving. This implied that the Sun was rotating on an axis which meant it was more feasible for the earth to be rotating (the idea of the Earth rotating in the Copernican model was one of the greatest arguments against it as such rotation could not be felt). Galileo's view of Sunspots A 2001 view of Sunspots From Galileo's own sketches Courtesy of SOHO/MDI Observations of the Phases of Venus Galileo's most important achievement in astronomy was demonstrating that the planet Venus, as seen from the Earth, went through a complete set of phases just like the Moon, which he first noticed in 1610. This wasn't just ground breaking it was earth shattering, it provided conclusive evidence that was consistent with the Copernican model but not with the Ptolemaic model. ~ 40 ~
    • How? Well if the Earth was the centre of the Universe then due to the position of the Earth, Venus and the Sun, we would only ever see Venus in crescent phases because Venus would always be between the Earth and the Sun (see Ptolemaic system below). The Ptolemaic System The Copernican System Galileo identified that Venus went through a full cycle of phases, as viewed from the Earth, which meant that sometimes Venus must be on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth (see the Copernican system above), thus disproving the Geocentric theory of the Universe. So long after Copernicus' discovery finally there was empirical evidence to allow a definitive test, which proved Copernicus' and Kepler's work to be correct and the Ptolemaic model that had been held to be correct for 1500 years to be wrong! Galileo Publishes His Work In 1632 Galileo published his work Dialogue Concerning The Two Greatest World Systems. This latest work, supporting the Copernican model and proving the geocentric system wrong was not received well by the Roman Catholic Church! Indeed they were incensed by this work as it was contrary to scripture, contrary to the very foundations of religion. Of course a century before Copernicus himself and delayed the publication of his work for fear of the reprisal of the church, and it appears that his fear was justified.
 In 1633 Galileo was summoned to Rome and quickly convicted of hearsay, he was forced to make a public confession of his error in judgement and withdraw his support for the Copernican model, he was also forbidden to publish any further work and sentenced to life imprisonment. Due to his age, however, he was permitted to serve his sentence under house arrest. Galileo's 'Ears of Saturn' ~ 41 ~
    • As a point of interest Galileo also discovered what he called the 'ears' of Saturn (of course we now know these to be rings but Galileo's telescope was not powerful enough to determine this). A chronology of how Galileo saw the rings of Saturn All images are original Galileo sketches (http://www.thespacesite.com/space_galileo_astronomy.html) Tycho Brahe's Observations It is important to remember that Tycho Brahe lived before the invention of the telescope. Astronomical observation were made by the naked eye. Galilei invents the telescope 9 years after Tycho Brahe's death. The devices Tycho Brahe used and constructed are therefore mainly devices for measuring angles and positions. Also clocks were very limited at that time, the pendulum clock was not invented either, so to measure time, Tycho usually chose to use the movements of the stars and planets, with admirably accurate results. In the evening of the 11th of November 1572, Tycho Brahe for the first time sees a new star in the constellation Cassiopeia. Tycho Brahe observes it carefully, and publishes his findings about the "new star", Stella Nova in latin, and becomes known as a respected astronomer.
 ~ 42 ~
    • Drawing of Cassipeia, with the position of the stars. "Nova Stella", the brightest is marked as "I". 
Two of Tycho Brahe's instruments. The world system according to Tycho Brahe Tycho believed that the earth was fixed in the center of the world. Around the earth circulated the moon and the sun. Around the sun orbited the rest of the planets. He based this view mostly on measurements of the apparent movement of Mars, and he did not think it was explained by the traditional ptolemaic geocentric world system, where the earth was in the center and everything orbited around the earth.
Tycho Brahe was born three years after Copernicus had publishes his revolutionary work, "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium", which put the sun in the center of the world, and all planets including the earth orbit around it. This is called a heliocentric world system. Tycho Brahe thought Copernicus was a brilliant astronomer, but he did not accept his world system, primarily for religious reasons. The church stipulated that the earth was the center of the universe. 
Even if Tycho's world system was not widely accepted, it can be said to be important in such a way, that when Tycho Brahe tried to prove his world system by observations, he made a table of planetary movements. These tables were later completed and used by his assistant Kepler to make his famous planetary laws, which showed that Copernicus was right, the sun was the center and the planets moved around the sun. ~ 43 ~
    • But the planetary movements were elliptical not circular, something which Kepler first thought was absurd, but he to had to accept it, since Tycho's accurate measurements confirmed this theory. Picture of the Tychonic World System, including the known planets of the time, with Saturnus being the furthest from the Sun. Inside the stars are the twelve signs of the zodiac. (http://www.nada.kth.se/~fred/tycho/index.html) ~ 44 ~
    • Existentialism Existentialism I INTRODUCTION Existentialism, philosophical movement or tendency, emphasizing individual existence, freedom, and choice, that influenced many diverse writers in the 19th and 20th centuries. II MAJOR THEMES Because of the diversity of positions associated with existentialism, the term is impossible to define precisely. Certain themes common to virtually all existentialist writers can, however, be identified. The term itself suggests one major theme: the stress on concrete individual existence and, consequently, on subjectivity, individual freedom, and choice. A Moral Individualism Most philosophers since Plato have held that the highest ethical good is the same for everyone; insofar as one approaches moral perfection, one resembles other morally perfect individuals. The 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard, who was the first writer to call himself existential, reacted against this tradition by insisting that the highest good for the individual is to find his or her own unique vocation. As he wrote in his journal, “I must find a truth that is true for me . . . the idea for which I can live or die.” Other existentialist writers have echoed Kierkegaard's belief that one must choose one's own way without the aid of universal, objective standards. Against the traditional view that moral choice involves an objective judgment of right and wrong, existentialists have argued that no objective, rational basis can be found for moral decisions. The 19th-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche further contended that the individual must decide which situations are to count as moral situations. B Subjectivity All existentialists have followed Kierkegaard in stressing the importance of passionate individual action in deciding questions of both morality and truth. They have insisted, accordingly, that personal experience and acting on one's own convictions are essential in arriving at the truth. Thus, the understanding of a situation by someone involved in that ~ 45 ~
    • situation is superior to that of a detached, objective observer. This emphasis on the perspective of the individual agent has also made existentialists suspicious of systematic reasoning. Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and other existentialist writers have been deliberately unsystematic in the exposition of their philosophies, preferring to express themselves in aphorisms, dialogues, parables, and other literary forms. Despite their antirationalist position, however, most existentialists cannot be said to be irrationalists in the sense of denying all validity to rational thought. They have held that rational clarity is desirable wherever possible, but that the most important questions in life are not accessible to reason or science. Furthermore, they have argued that even science is not as rational as is commonly supposed. Nietzsche, for instance, asserted that the scientific assumption of an orderly universe is for the most part a useful fiction. C Choice and Commitment Perhaps the most prominent theme in existentialist writing is that of choice. Humanity's primary distinction, in the view of most existentialists, is the freedom to choose. Existentialists have held that human beings do not have a fixed nature, or essence, as other animals and plants do; each human being makes choices that create his or her own nature. In the formulation of the 20th-century French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, existence precedes essence. Choice is therefore central to human existence, and it is inescapable; even the refusal to choose is a choice. Freedom of choice entails commitment and responsibility. Because individuals are free to choose their own path, existentialists have argued, they must accept the risk and responsibility of following their commitment wherever it leads. D Dread and Anxiety Kierkegaard held that it is spiritually crucial to recognize that one experiences not only a fear of specific objects but also a feeling of general apprehension, which he called dread. He interpreted it as God's way of calling each individual to make a commitment to a personally valid way of life. The word anxiety (German Angst) has a similarly crucial role in the work of the 20th-century German philosopher Martin Heidegger; anxiety leads to the individual's confrontation with nothingness and with the impossibility of finding ultimate justification for the choices he or she must make. In the philosophy of Sartre, the word nausea is used for the individual's recognition of the pure contingency of the universe, and the word anguish is used for the recognition of the total freedom of choice ~ 46 ~
    • that confronts the individual at every moment. III HISTORY Existentialism as a distinct philosophical and literary movement belongs to the 19th and 20th centuries, but elements of existentialism can be found in the thought (and life) of Socrates, in the Bible, and in the work of many premodern philosophers and writers. A Pascal The first to anticipate the major concerns of modern existentialism was the 17th-century French philosopher Blaise Pascal. Pascal rejected the rigorous rationalism of his contemporary René Descartes, asserting, in his Pensées (1670), that a systematic philosophy that presumes to explain God and humanity is a form of pride. Like later existentialist writers, he saw human life in terms of paradoxes: The human self, which combines mind and body, is itself a paradox and contradiction. B Kierkegaard Kierkegaard, generally regarded as the founder of modern existentialism, reacted against the systematic absolute idealism of the 19th-century German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, who claimed to have worked out a total rational understanding of humanity and history. Kierkegaard, on the contrary, stressed the ambiguity and absurdity of the human situation. The individual's response to this situation must be to live a totally committed life, and this commitment can only be understood by the individual who has made it. The individual therefore must always be prepared to defy the norms of society for the sake of the higher authority of a personally valid way of life. Kierkegaard ultimately advocated a “leap of faith” into a Christian way of life, which, although incomprehensible and full of risk, was the only commitment he believed could save the individual from despair. C Nietzsche Nietzsche, who was not acquainted with the work of Kierkegaard, influenced subsequent existentialist thought through his criticism of traditional metaphysical and moral assumptions and through his espousal of tragic pessimism and the life-affirming individual will that opposes itself to the moral conformity of the majority. In contrast to Kierkegaard, whose attack on conventional morality led him to advocate a radically individualistic Christianity, Nietzsche proclaimed the “death of God” and ~ 47 ~
    • went on to reject the entire Judeo-Christian moral tradition in favor of a heroic pagan ideal. D Heidegger Heidegger, like Pascal and Kierkegaard, reacted against an attempt to put philosophy on a conclusive rationalistic basis—in this case the phenomenology of the 20th-century German philosopher Edmund Husserl. Heidegger argued that humanity finds itself in an incomprehensible, indifferent world. Human beings can never hope to understand why they are here; instead, each individual must choose a goal and follow it with passionate conviction, aware of the certainty of death and the ultimate meaninglessness of one's life. Heidegger contributed to existentialist thought an original emphasis on being and ontology (see Metaphysics) as well as on language. E Sartre Sartre first gave the term existentialism general currency by using it for his own philosophy and by becoming the leading figure of a distinct movement in France that became internationally influential after World War II. Sartre's philosophy is explicitly atheistic and pessimistic; he declared that human beings require a rational basis for their lives but are unable to achieve one, and thus human life is a “futile passion.” Sartre nevertheless insisted that his existentialism is a form of humanism, and he strongly emphasized human freedom, choice, and responsibility. He eventually tried to reconcile these existentialist concepts with a Marxist analysis of society and history. F Existentialism and Theology Although existentialist thought encompasses the uncompromising atheism of Nietzsche and Sartre and the agnosticism of Heidegger, its origin in the intensely religious philosophies of Pascal and Kierkegaard foreshadowed its profound influence on 20th-century theology. The 20th-century German philosopher Karl Jaspers, although he rejected explicit religious doctrines, influenced contemporary theology through his preoccupation with transcendence and the limits of human experience. The German Protestant theologians Paul Tillich and Rudolf Bultmann, the French Roman Catholic theologian Gabriel Marcel, the Russian Orthodox philosopher Nikolay Berdyayev, and the German Jewish philosopher Martin Buber inherited many of Kierkegaard's concerns, especially that a personal sense of authenticity and commitment is ~ 48 ~
    • essential to religious faith. G Existentialism and Literature A number of existentialist philosophers used literary forms to convey their thought, and existentialism has been as vital and as extensive a movement in literature as in philosophy. The 19th-century Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky is probably the greatest existentialist literary figure. In Notes from the Underground (1864), the alienated antihero rages against the optimistic assumptions of rationalist humanism. The view of human nature that emerges in this and other novels of Dostoyevsky is that it is unpredictable and perversely self-destructive; only Christian love can save humanity from itself, but such love cannot be understood philosophically. As the character Alyosha says in The Brothers Karamazov (1879-80), “We must love life more than the meaning of it.” In the 20th century, the novels of the Austrian Jewish writer Franz Kafka, such as The Trial (1925; trans. 1937) and The Castle (1926; trans. 1930), present isolated men confronting vast, elusive, menacing bureaucracies; Kafka's themes of anxiety, guilt, and solitude reflect the influence of Kierkegaard, Dostoyevsky, and Nietzsche. The influence of Nietzsche is also discernible in the novels of the French writers André Malraux and in the plays of Sartre. The work of the French writer Albert Camus is usually associated with existentialism because of the prominence in it of such themes as the apparent absurdity and futility of life, the indifference of the universe, and the necessity of engagement in a just cause. Existentialist themes are also reflected in the theater of the absurd, notably in the plays of Samuel Beckett and Eugène Ionesco. In the United States, the influence of existentialism on literature has been more indirect and diffuse, but traces of Kierkegaard's thought can be found in the novels of Walker Percy and John Updike, and various existentialist themes are apparent in the work of such diverse writers as Norman Mailer, John Barth, and Arthur Miller. (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761555530/Existentialism.html) Simone de Beauvoir, Philosopher of the Self Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86) had been almost totally excluded from the philosophical canon until the 1980's, when a revival and reinterpretation of her work by mainly feminist philosophers began. For example, she is not mentioned in Walter Kaufmann's Existentialism from Dostoevsky to ~ 49 ~
    • Sartre (1956) (nor is Maurice Merleau-Ponty, though Albert Camus* is mentioned). In Paul Edwards' comprehensive philosophical encyclopaedia, The Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (1967), the only mention is of her Ethics of Ambiguity (1948), which is said to be important in its own right but in relation to Jean Paul Sartre. Yet there is no further amplification or discussion in that source of what is said to be an important work and how it was related to Sartre – a crucial issue. In general her putative philosophical works are subsumed under or said to be derivative from those of Sartre, or they are recorded as "a kind of footnote to Sartre" (Kruks, 1990:84). In Christina Howells' (1995) The Cambridge Companion to Sartre, she is mentioned once only and that for providing biographical material on Sartre's reading of Husserl. Hazel Barnes, however, is a major and early exception: "De Beauvoir is more than Sartre's interpreter" (1959:4). She is also more than a novelist. For biographical details see Claude Francis and Simone Gontier (1989) and Deidre Bair (1990). It would seem that until her death in 1986 Beauvoir aided and abetted in this general interpretation, and in a number of sources. Some feminists maintain that she created a myth about her own philosophical contributions to existentialism (for papers on this see the edited collection of Simons, 1995). But this received position on the interpretation of her philosophical work was not reopened until the publication posthumously, by her adopted daughter Sylvie le Bon de Beauvoir in 1990, of her Letters to Sartre. Possibly it needed the publication of these letters to question the received position. The issue as to whether or not she was an original philosopher seems to hinge upon whether she had identified and articulated certain key ideas which Sartre was later to present as his, especially in the opening pages of Being and Nothingness (1943), or whether she merely contributed to Sartre's ideas and work. Arguably this is the case on the notion of the self. This issue can be pursued initially by a careful reading of her letters to Sartre, and their war diaries during the period between October 1939 and January 1941, when she was writing L'Inviteé (translated as She Came to Stay). This, her first published novel, was completed in 1941 but not published until 1943. What must also be considered is the philosophical import of the first three chapters, especially the first eight pages of She Came to Stay. Her second novel Le Sang des Autres (The Blood of Others) is also important here. She should be considered in her own right, not as an appendage to Sartre. We will look therefore look at some of the philosophical ideas in her early novels – particularly the notions of self and Other and freedom - and her approach to doing philosophy. Beauvoir did not write academic philosophy. She had passed her ~ 50 ~
    • aggrégation and commenced teaching in lycées in 1929 (Latin initially, then literature, but philosophy by 1932 [Bair 1990:180]) but as early as age 18 she had began to write fiction. Some of this early fiction was to be published later (Beauvoir 1968;1982). Unlike Sartre, whose philosophical works (though not his philosophical novels and plays) were written abstractly, and who was seeking a grand totalising philosophical system, Beauvoir did not want to write so as to present philosophical ideas in either an abstract manner or as divorced from actual or possible human experience. For her, literature presented and provided a way of relating philosophical ideas to experience (cf. Camus), particularly as it presented a way of expressing her own experiences as part of a general philosophical framework. Her novels can be seen as metaphysical novels, as presenting a fictional narrative in which her own experience is drawn heavily upon, but through a philosophical or metaphysical grill (see further, Pilardi, 1999). There can be little doubt that she did not abandon her philosophical background and grounding, for she even extended it - for example, she notes her "discovery" and extended reading of Hegel in 1940 in her letters to Sartre (eg, 13,14,16,19,24, 29 July; 29 October) to whom she would explain Hegel in return for him reminding her of Husserl (13 July). The frontispiece of She Came to Stay features a quotation from Hegel (`Each consciousness pursues the death of the other'.) and she uses some of his ideas in The Second Sex, first published in 1949 ( eg, part I). However she expresses early doubts on Hegel for by 8 January 1941, he "no longer consoles me", though she begins to teach his ideas (23 January). But without Sartre to talk to on such issues as Hegel, she says (ibid): "If I were condemned for long never to talk, I'd end up writing philosophy, from the need to express myself." So doing philosophy was still important at a time when She Came to Stay was completed; philosophy in an oral dialogue was acceptable but writing it - as academic philosophy - was for her a last resort. Writing it in some other form, however, was far from being a last resort. For Beauvoir this meant insight into her own life. As Hazel Barnes says of She Came to Stay (1959:122): ...the analysis of human relationships and personalities is more philosophical than psychological. Perhaps de Beauvoir and her fictional counterpart [Françoise] are accustomed to think in this way about themselves and their reactions, but most people are not as metaphysically acute. Beauvoir believed then that human experience and problems of personal life should be presented to exemplify, or to show, philosophical ideas. Although she features or appears at points in her own novels, as do her ~ 51 ~
    • close friends, confidants and lovers, her narrative is not presented from one personal viewpoint. The experiences and personal views of the major characters are seen also from each of their viewpoints. In She Came to Stay whilst her personal experiences form part of the viewpoint of Françoise (Beauvoir) she is not necessarily writing the novel from one personal viewpoint, for the viewpoint of each of the main characters is presented in the first person. In The Blood of Others however whilst all of the viewpoints of the main characters are presented, only the viewpoint of the main character, Jean Blomart, is presented in the first person, and this was probably for stylistic reasons. Nevertheless in both novels the viewpoints of the Others are necessary for each character to be a self or subject. The philosophical point is that the Other is necessary for the constitution of the self or subject. Beauvoir is to reject the notion of a solipsistic isolated self. Writing just prior to the outbreak of WW II she says: Little by little I had abandoned the quasi-solipsism and illusionary autonomy I cherished as a girl of twenty; though I had come to recognise the fact of other people's existence, it was still my individual relationships with separate people that mattered most to me, and I still yearned fiercely for freedom. Then suddenly, History burst over me, and I dissolved into fragments. I woke to find myself scattered over the four corners of the globe, linked by every nerve in me to each and every other individual (Beauvoir, 1965: 369) In She Came to Stay the body is not a mere object or thing but is always experienced reality -"my heart is beating - I am here". Elsewhere and some years later she is to say explicitly: "It is not the body-object described by biologists that actually exists but the body as lived in by the subject" (Beauvoir, 1989: 38). So a human being exists not merely in a body as an object, but as a body subject to human institutions and constraints so that the subject is both conscious of itself as a subject and obtains fulfilment. For her one can never be a mere biological body as there is always a dimension of meaning. Thus: ...we must view the facts of biology in the light of an ontological, economic, social and psychological context...there is no true living reality except as manifested by the conscious individual through activities and in the bosom of society (Beauvoir, 1989: 36f.). In a nightclub scene in She Came to Stay she explores various possibilities for "experiencing" the body. First we can identify the notion of consciousness of the body as lived in by the subject when Xavière does things to her arm and, whilst touching her eyelashes, talks to herself. Then there is the body of a young women in feathers as perceived by her ~ 52 ~
    • male companion who has pounced on her hand, ie, the body as an object for the other subject. Her body is perceived by the other, the man, but she rejects this "objectification" of her body as being part of her experience of her body because it becomes a thing. And a young woman talking about flirting is perceiving the body of the man - she is staring at him - but at the same time rejecting the notion of her body as potential object for the other subjectivity. This is again the body as object for a subject. Now the reality of the subject's lived experience must include both the experience of the lived body as part of one's own subjectivity, and the experience of the lived body as object of another subjectivity. To dissociate or to deny this dual aspect of experience was to be in bad faith for Beauvoir. (Sartre is later to use the girl in the feathers example as an illustration of bad faith, unacknowledged, in Being and Nothingnes). The ideal coordination for the exemplification of good faith would take place when there was an identity between the two subjectivities - the body as lived in and as part of one's own subjectivity, and the body as an object belonging to another subjectivity. The young woman in feathers presents an example of a severe disjunction between the two subjectivities. For Beauvoir the self is a fusion of mind and body and consciousness is prereflective and intentional, directed to objects in the external world, including her body. But this consciousness does not require talk between subjects. The subject is aware of the other body as object and is aware from the look of the other that her or his body is an object of the other subject. The social Other sees both subjectivity and objectivity in the other as a reciprocal relationship.This is not the Other as alienated from the self as in the early Sartre. In The Blood of Others Beauvoir develops similar themes on the self but the situation of this novel is heightened because of the involvement of the main characters in the resistance. Beauvoir was disappointed that this, her second published novel, was to be interpreted as a resistance novel. In other words, from my reading, the philosophical content on the self and the other was not seen as important. This is a metaphysical novel but one which progresses from her first novel because the notion of identity must now include some political commitment which is not merely intellectual and inert, for there must be some active participation in accordance with that intellectual commitment. At the end of the novel Hélène, the lover of Jean Blomart is dying from wounds suffered in a resistance attack upon the German forces occupying Paris. As Jean sits with her in almost total silence as she is dying, he not only recognises his love for her but also recognises from her, and in her silence, that in order to establish his own identity he must commit ~ 53 ~
    • himself to the next planned resistance operation, that is, that he must abandon forever his own intellectual but non-participatory stance towards political matters, held because of a fatal accident caused to a friend in an earlier demonstration. In realising that her approbation of him is so important for his own identity, and for her identity too, as he recognises both his love for her and what he has to become, Jean defines himself as both politically committed and actively involved in the resistance, even though the activities of the resistance will lead to pointless reprisals upon innocent French people. To a certain extent this represents existentialist angst, and to that extent the novel can be seen as both existentialist and philosophical. But any such restricted reading ignores the metaphysical aspects in this novel which impinge upon the definition of the self and the other. Was it Beauvoir then who had laid out some of the crucial philosophical concepts of "Sartrean" existentialism by at least 1940, for it is in the first opening pages of her first novel that her own philosophical ideas are to be found and outlined? And these ideas are repeated and further developed in her second novel – The Blood of Others, and they continue into The Mandarins and All Men are Mortal. No doubt it can be countered that it was Sartre's ideas that were developed for they had collaborated for several years by then, and Sartre had read and commented upon the drafts her manuscript. And they were discussing Sartre's philosophical ideas (eg, The Prime of Life [Beauvoir, 1965:434). In any case it might be argued that what Beauvoir was later to develop in The Second Sex was a notion of the gendered self. (http://www.vusst.hr/ENCYCLOPAEDIA/beauvoir.htm) Existential Primer: Jean-Paul Sartre Commentaries Before commenting upon Jean-Paul Sartre's published works, it is important to offer some background information. Sartre's philosophical position evolved, along with his politics. Any attempt to place Sartre's works in context is likely to fail in the limited space available, due to his complex nature. Further complicating matters, Sartre, like most philosophers, developed his own lexicon. While Sartre might use the same terms as another writer, he often intended a unique definition. The most important term promoted by Sartre was "existentialism," a term borrowed from Karl Jaspers. Walter Kaufmann recognized Sartre's occasional lack of clarity, stating ~ 54 ~
    • that "at times he is misled by words and writes what is no longer meaningful." Maybe Sartre tried too hard to express his views in some instances, in part due to an enthusiasm for philosophical debate. Being misled is one matter. Misleading others is quite different. It is important to understand that Sartre alternately valued intentions, actions, and results; at least in his writings and lectures. Evidence exists, however, demonstrating a personal profound lack of respect for intentions and, at times, even the truth. Sartre found nothing wrong in lying or intentionally misrepresenting the theories of others. Among the victims of Sartre's willingness to avoid facts were Martin Heidegger, Karl Jaspers, and other philosophers. Sartre stated Jaspers was a Catholic, which he wasn't, and that Heidegger was an existential atheist, which Heidegger denied in a series of angry letters. Sartre wanted so much to solidify his own positions, that truth was sometimes sacrificed. If he was not always honest, it was partly because honesty was a luxury he could not afford.
- Sartre; Hayman, p. 13 Why was, and is, Sartre influential? As biographer Ronald Hayman explains, it was not due to the quality of his literary works, even though Sartre is usually considered a "writer" by most scholars. As a playwright Sartre was highly successful but less innovative and less significant than Beckett or Ionesco. As a novelist Sartre completed only one work, Nausea, his other three novels being parts of an unfinished tetralogy. The bulk of his writing time was devoted to political journalism and biography, but he can hardly be called a journalist, while his biographies of Baudelaire, Genet, and Flaubert are not biographies in the usual sense of the term.... he had to earn his living as a schoolteacher until 1944, when he was almost forty.
- Sartre; Hayman, p. 16 Sartre's fame and influence are the result of self-promotion. He was a celebrity, especially in France. The Core of Sartre's Existentialism Trying to define the core of Jean-Paul Sartre's existentialism is beyond my abilities. Instead, I have chosen to rely upon the efforts of others. As previously mentioned, I place the confusion concerning Sartre's works at the philosopher's own feet -- I could easily tangle his various definitions of "existentialism" into an incoherent mass of words. Still, Sartre popularized the term. Sartre's influence upon the school of philosophy broadly known as "existentialism" has been summarized by professor Walter Kaufmann as follows: ~ 55 ~
    • It is mainly through the work of Jean-Paul Sartre that existentialism has come to the attention of a wide international audience. Even Heidegger's great prestige in Germany after the second World War is due, in no small part, to his tremendous impact on French Thought. Nevertheless, Sartre is widely considered a mere littérateur, and in the nineteen hundred and fifties is has become much more fashionable to criticize him, or rather dismiss him, than to take him seriously, let alone praise him. Oddly, it is widely argued against him that he is in some way strikingly unacademic, as it academic existentialism were not a contradiction in terms.
- Existentialism; Kaufmann, p. 40 What often troubles academic audiences is that Sartre defined existentialism in a simplistic manner. One must question if something must be complex to be accepted by this audience. However, the over- simplification of Sartre's own philosophical system is often apparent: Existentialism maintains that in man, and in man alone, existence preceded essence. This simply means that man first is, and only subsequently is this or that. In a word, man must create his own essence: it is in throwing himself into the world, suffering there, struggling there, that he gradually defines himself. And the definition always remains open ended: we cannot say what this man is before he dies, or what mankind is before it has disappeared.
- From "A propos de l'existentialisme: Mise au point," Action Magazine, December 29, 1944 Many people wrongly quote "existence precedes essence" as if that summarizes existentialism. Sartre was merely stating that man, as the only sentient being on earth, was forced to define who he was through living, while objects are what they are until destroyed. With our ability to think, grow, and change, mankind is in the unique position of defining itself. We are each in charge of defining our own lives. In a certain sense, Sartre's definition of existentialism simply radicalizes a view that is very common among most social scientists: that there are no instincts that cause specific actions. There are always alternatives to anything that counts as human action. For Sartre, this is always true, even when we feel that there are no alternatives.
- Sartre for Beginners; Palmer, p. 26 In today's world of "New Age" beliefs and enthusiasm for Eastern philosophies, it is interesting that in 1956 Kaufmann compared Sartre's existentialism to the teachings of the Buddha. Not that the two personalities are alike, Kaufmann carefully noted. Sartre was never at peace; he challenged anything and thought an existentialist must pursue ~ 56 ~
    • life. The Buddha's teachings are more disposed toward accepting life and adapting to it. Nevertheless, the Buddha, too, opposed any reliance on the divine because he wanted men to realize their complete responsibility. His final, and perhaps most characteristic, words, according to tradition were: "Work out your own salvation with diligence." And if the diligence is rather uncharacteristic of the existentialists, the Buddha's still more radical dictum with which the Dhammapada opens is nothing less than the quintessence of Sartre's thought: "All that we are is the result of what we have thought." Few words in world literature equal the impact of this saying. All man's alibis are unacceptable: no gods are responsible for his condition; no original sin; no heredity and no environment....
- Existentialism; Kaufmann, p. 46 If you can think, you have free will. Sartre viewed this as the human condition. While concerned primarily with human beings -- or at least sentient beings -- Sartre's existentialism does address other creatures and objects. It is obvious that to understand humans one must first understand other objects. Sartre's study of the universe grew from the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. Take Sartre's notion that "in man, and in man alone" there is first the body, then an essence is defined through actions. Now, reverse this for all other objects and Sartre's view of the universe is clear: essence precedes existence for all objects; they have meaning then form. (http://www.tameri.com/csw/exist/sartre.shtml) ~ 57 ~
    • Fun Stuff Ten Obscure Factoids Concerning Albert Einstein 1. He Liked His Feet Naked "When I was young, I found out that the big toe always ends up making a hole in the sock," he once said. "So I stopped wearing socks." Einstein was also a fanatical slob, refusing to "dress properly" for anyone. Either people knew him or they didn't, he reasoned - so it didn't matter either way. 2. He Hated Scrabble Aside from his favourite past-time sailing ("the sport which demands the least energy"), Einstein shunned any recreational activity that required mental agility. As he told the New York Times, "When I get through with work I don't want anything that requires the working of the mind." 3. He Was A Rotten Speller Although he lived for many years in the United States and was fully bilingual, Einstein claimed never to be able to write in English because of "the treacherous spelling". He never lost his distinctive German accent either, summed up by his catch-phrase "I vill a little t'ink". 4. He Loathed Science Fiction Lest it distort pure science and give people the false illusion of scientific understanding, he recommended complete abstinence from any type of science fiction. "I never think of the future. It comes soon enough." He also thought people who claimed to have seen flying saucers should keep it to themselves. 5. He Smoked Like A Chimney A life member of the Montreal Pipe Smokers Club, Einstein was quoted as saying: "Pipe smoking contributes to a somewhat calm and objective judgment of human affairs." He once fell into the water during a boating expedition but managed heroically to hold on to his pipe. 6. He Wasn't Much Of A Musician Einstein would relax in his kitchen with his trusty violin, stubbornly trying ~ 58 ~
    • to improvise something of a tune. When that didn't work, he'd have a crack at Mozart. 7. Alcohol Was Not His Preferred Drug At a press conference upon his arrival to New York in 1930, he said jokingly of Prohibition: "I don't drink, so it's all the same to me." In fact, Einstein had been an outspoken critic of "passing laws which cannot be enforced". 8. He Equated Monogamy With Monotony "All marriages are dangerous," he once told an interviewer. "Marriage is the unsuccessful attempt to make something lasting out of an incident." He was notoriously unfaithful as a husband, prone to falling in love with somebody else directly after the exchanging of vows. 9. His Memory Was Shot Believing that birthdays were for children, his attitude is summed up in a letter he wrote to his girlfriend Mileva Maric: "My dear little sweetheart ... first, my belated cordial congratulations on your birthday yesterday, which I forgot once again." 10. His Cat Suffered Depression Fond of animals, Einstein kept a housecat which tended to get depressed whenever it rained. Ernst Straus recalls him saying to the melancholy cat: "I know what's wrong, dear fellow, but I don't know how to turn it off." (http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/19980907140525data_trunc_sys.s html) Tycho Brahe's Nose And The Story Of His Pet Moose Since the autumn 1566 Tycho Brahe was studying at the university of Rostock in Germany. Here happened an accident that is very famous. A part of the bridge of his nose was cut off in a duel by rapiers, and he had a metal piece attached in its place. This gave Tycho Brahe a very special look for the rest of his life. ~ 59 ~
    • A detailed account of the nose incident can also be found in the book "Tycho Brahe, the man and his work" (original in latin), by Pierre Gassendi 1654. This book was translated to swedish and commented by Wilhelm Norlind, 1951. Gassendi writes: "The 10th of december 1566 there was a dance at Lucas Bacmeisters house in the connection to a wedding. Lucas Bacmeister was a professor of theology at the univeristy of Rostock where Tycho studied. Among the guests were Tycho Brahe and another danish nobleman, Manderup Parsberg. They started an argument and they separated in anger. The 27th of december this argument started again, and in the evening of the 29th of december a duel was held. It was around 7 in the evening and in darkness. Parsberg gives Tycho a cut over his nose that took away almost the front part of his nose. Tycho had an artificial nose made, not from wax, but from an alloy of gold and silver[*] and put it on so skillfully, that it looked like a real nose Wilhelm Janszoon Blaeu, who spent time with Tycho for nearly two years, also said that Tycho used to carry a small box with a paste or glue, with which he often would put on the nose." Gassendi also writes that Laurus (a professor in Perugia, and later protonotarius for the pope) gives the reason for the argument between Tycho and Parsberg in one of his letters. The reason should have been an argument about who was most skilled in mathmatics. However, Norlind points out that Gassendi has either received a wrong account of this letter, or misinterpreted it, because Laurus only writes that "Not so long ago, Tycho Brahe and a danish nobleman had competed in studying mathematics and other higher sciences". There is nothing mentioned however that this should have been the reason for the argument and later the duel. Gassendis statement that it was an argument about who was the most skilled mathematician has however been cited many times in later biographies. The hostility between Tycho and Parsberg was however not lasting, and Parsberg was one of Tychos supporters under the danish king Christian IV. [*] Per Sörbom adds in "Tycho Brahe - a passionate astronomer" (see links) that when Tycho Brahe's grave was opened June 24 1901, there were clear green marks at the front of his cranium, so the metal piece of his artificial nose must have had a significant amount of copper also. ~ 60 ~
    • Tycho Brahe's Pet Moose Another famous story about Tycho Brahe is about his tame moose. Gassendi is one of the biographers who writes about this. The following is an edited translation from Gassendi. Lantgrave Wilhelm of Kassel in Germany, with whom Tycho Brahe had an extensive mail correspondence and astronomical discussions, asked Tycho in a letter 1591 about an animal he had heard about called "Rix", which was faster than a deer, but with smaller horns. Tycho replied that such an animal did not exist, but maybe he meant the norwegian animal called reindeer. Tycho wrote that he would check further details about such animals and if he could perhaps send one. He wrote that he had a young moose, that he could send if the Lantgrave would like. The Lantgrave replied that he had owned reindeers before but they had died of the heat, he also had a moose, which was tame and followed him like a dog. He would gladly accept a tame moose from Tycho, and would in such case reward Tycho with a riding horse for the trouble. Tycho replies that he would order additional moose, and he would have sent his tame one, had it not died shortly before. It had been transported to the castle of Landskrona, a city close to Hven, to entertain a nobleman there. But it had happened that during the dinner, the moose had ascended the castle stairs and drunk of the beer in such amounts, that it had fallen down the stairs, and broken a leg. Despite the best care, the moose had died shortly thereafter. (http://www.nada.kth.se/~fred/tycho/index.html) Fun Astronomy Facts Humans have watched the skies since ancient times, engaging in an early form of astronomy since at least 2000 B.C.E. The earliest astronomers came from Babylon, China, Greece, Italy, India, and Egypt, and observed the skies solely with the naked eye. Astronomers thought our solar system was the center of the universe until 1918, when American astronomer Harlow Shapley determined this was false by studying the distribution of star clusters. The existence of other galaxies was not proved until 1924, when American astronomer Edwin Powell Hubble identified the Andromeda galaxy, and others, with the aid of a powerful 100-inch telescope. ~ 61 ~
    • A star begins as a cloud of dust and gas, which condenses to form a single star, a two-star system also known as a binary star, or a star cluster. The first telescope was built in the early 1600s, by Dutch lens-grinder Hans Lipperhey. The first asteroid to be discovered was Ceres, in 1801. It is believed there are millions of asteroids in our solar system, but only about 264,000 have been identified, and only about 12,136 of those have been named. A comet looks like a dirty snowball until it approaches the Sun--a comet’s nucleus only shines when reflecting the Sun’s light, and the comet’s head and tail don’t form until the Sun’s heat causes dust and gas to evaporate. According to some estimates, approximately 19,000 meteorites weighing about 3.5 ounces each shower the Earth every day, but only about 10 are recovered each year. The first solar flares were recorded on Sept. 1, 1859, by scientists Richard C. Carrington and Richard Hodgson. The Sun is the largest object in the solar system, and constitutes over 99 percent of the solar system’s mass. A star’s color depends on its temperature: blue stars have the highest temperatures, followed by yellow-white stars, and finally by red stars, which have the coolest temperatures. (http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art42856.asp) Quotes by Galileo ➢ I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use. ➢ Wine is sunlight, held together by water. ➢ I have never met a man so ignorant that I couldn't learn something from him. ➢ In questions of science, the authority of a thousand is not worth the humble reasoning of a single individual. ~ 62 ~
    • ➢ All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them. ➢ I would say here something that was heard from an ecclesiastic of the most eminent degree; 'That the intention of the Holy Ghost is to teach us how one goes to heaven, not how the heaven goes.' ➢ And yet ... it moves. Galileo (Attributed after signing a recantation of the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the solar system. ➢ Philosophy is written in this grand book - I mean the universe - which stands continually open to our gaze, but it cannot be understood unless one first learns to comprehend the language and interpret the characters in which it is written. It is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters are triangles, circles, and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it. (http://chatna.com/author/galileo.htm) Quotes by Simone de Beauvoir ➢ If her functioning as a female is not enough to define woman, if we decline also to explain her through 'the eternal feminine', and if nevertheless we admit, provisionally, that women do exist, then we must face the question "what is a woman"? ➢ Thus it is that no group ever sets itself up as the One without at once setting up the Other over against itself. If three travellers chance to occupy the same compartment, that is enough to make vaguely hostile 'others' out of all the rest of the passengers on the train. In small-town eyes all persons not belonging to the village are 'strangers' and suspect; to the native of a country all who inhabit other countries are 'foreigners'; Jews are 'different' for the anti-Semite, Negroes are 'inferior' for American racists, aborigines are 'natives' for colonists, proletarians are the 'lower class' for the privileged. ➢ The parallel drawn by Bebel between women and the proletariat is valid in that neither ever formed a minority or a separate collective unit of mankind. And instead of a single historical event it is in both cases a historical development that explains their status as a class and accounts for the membership of particular individuals in that class. But proletarians have not always existed, whereas there have always been ~ 63 ~
    • women. They are women in virtue of their anatomy and physiology. Throughout history they have always been subordinated to men, and hence their dependency is not the result of a historical event or a social change - it was not something that occurred. The reason why otherness in this case seems to be an absolute is in part that it lacks the contingent or incidental nature of historical facts. ➢ Legislators, priests, philosophers, writers, and scientists have striven to show that the subordinate position of woman is willed in heaven and advantageous on earth. The religions invented by men reflect this wish for domination. In the legends of Eve and Pandora men have taken up arms against women. They have made use of philosophy and theology, as the quotations from Aristotle and St Thomas have shown. ➢ .... yesterday night, I felt I was falling in the bottom of a dark deadly pit and I struggled for two hours in fever and anguish and a kind of dispair... ➢ Woman's brain is smaller; yes, but it is relatively larger. Christ was made a man; yes, but perhaps for his greater humility. Each argument at once suggests its opposite, and both are often fallacious.(the second sex) (http://www.thecry.com/existentialism/debeauvoir/beauquotes.html) "Einstein and Copernicus" Thomas Einstein liked to dabble in science. Although he spent his days teaching fourth graders how to do long division and understand fractions, his nights were spent in his basement where he mixed solutions, joined wires, solved 23-inch long mathematical problems, and did all the other various scientific experiments necessary to be a famous inventor. ~ 64 ~
    • Einstein was currently working on his latest project, the time travel telephone, when he heard the doorbell ring. He pushed a button, which allowed Gertrude Copernicus, his fiancé, to enter. She found him minutes later with his head draped over circuits and telephone wire. "Einstein, do stop your inventing now, dear, and take me to dinner," she said. "It is way past our agreed upon time." Einstein's head remained at the very same position, for in truth, he was seriously wrapped up in his telephone wire. "Einstein, dear, do come out from there," Copernicus insisted. With an elaborate sigh, she carefully extricated his head from the wire. She led him gently away from his basement lab and up into the world of McDonald's and food. The two enjoyed their evening out, but were startled and horrified to discover when they returned that a burglar had stolen all the plans for the almost finished time travel telephone. Einstein was calm. He tried to comfort poor Copernicus. "It's all right, dear. I don't mind," he said. "I had already solved all the telephone's problems!" He patted Copernicus' shoulder. "Actually, it's quite lucky in fact. Now I can start in at once on my spaceship capable of speed of light travel." Copernicus began to cry harder. "But darling. You forget! The time travel telephone was to have provided us with enough money to get married!" She gulped back another sob. Einstein told her excitedly about his newest research into space travel. "It will make us rich. Don't worry, my darling." At once he set to work. Poor Copernicus had to let herself out. She was upset and frustrated, but she trusted Einstein. Time passed. A man named Albert Edison invented the world's first time traveling telephone. He grew rich on the proceeds. Gertrude Copernicus grew suspicious. Meanwhile, Einstein invented his spaceship capable of traveling faster than the speed of light. Copernicus was thrilled! Now they could get married! ~ 65 ~
    • That night they celebrated. When they returned, they found that the spaceship and all its plans had disappeared! Copernicus was desolated! She knew Albert Edison was the spy who had ferreted out her beloved Einstein's plans. That night while Einstein began work on his latest invention, the world's first robotic cook, Copernicus set out to trap the horrid thief. She used one of Einstein's previous inventions, the sonic beautifier to change her hair and eye coloring and to give her that special allure that all heroines have. Then, quickly she rode her bicycle to Edison's house. When she arrived, she knocked at the door. Edison opened it, and was immediately captivated by Copernicus' beauty and style. He invited her in for lemonade. Copernicus sat down to chat. Within minutes Edison was under her spell. He could not keep his lips from dribbling out their secrets. Lost in love, he admitted to stealing the telephone and the space ship. "I have chosen the life of the villain, Sweet Copernicus," he told her. "It is true, all true." He wept on her shoulder, and then continued. "It is because, alas, I could never find a woman like you. I thought if I were rich and famous that someone wonderful would finally love me." ~ 66 ~
    • Copernicus felt sorry for Edison, but she called the police, anyway. They arrived with their sirens screaming, their lights flashing, and their officiousness in residence. A tear fell from Copernicus' eyes as they carted poor, wicked Edison off to jail. When Einstein heard the whole story, he gladly traded his spaceship and time traveling telephone to Edison in exchange for a promise that the villain would never again do evil. Due to such leniency (and the fact that all charges were dropped) Copernicus introduced Edison to her sister, Galileo, and the four of them became the best of friends (of course, the sisters were already friends). The next day Einstein sold the new robotic cook. And just as he had promised, it brought Copernicus and Einstein so much money that they were able to marry and live happily ever after. (http://www.writing.com/main/view_item/item_id/596227) ~ 67 ~