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Climate justice ten_session[1]

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  • 1. Climate justice and tourism © EED Tourism Watch
  • 2. Disaster prevention, climate change and tourism as a follow-up of the Tsunami 2004 in Southeast Asia accompanying lobby and advocacy activities on ECOTs „Disaster prevention, protection and management programme on behalf of German Church Development Service (EED) - TOURISM WATCH - and their partner the ECUMENICAL COALITION ON TOURISM
  • 3. Climate change and tourism • Tourism is not just a potential victim of climate change. It also contributes to its causes.
  • 4. Climate impact of tourism • UNWTO: 5% of global emissions caused by tourism, calculating that aviation causes 3% of global emissions • Scientific evidence points towards more serious impacts. Aviation causes up to 14 % of global emissions (Lee et al, 2009) • On long-haul trips: 97% emissions are caused only by the flight • Air travel has massive growth rates: By 2050 air travel is expected to contribute 25% of global emissions if business as usual • Massive expansion of airports and low-cost carrier
  • 5. UNWTO Forecast: Tourism 2020 Vision
  • 6. Global Tourism Emissions in 2005: CO2 Sub-Sectors CO2 (Mt) Air transport * 522 40% Transportation Car transport 418 32% of Tourists = 75% of Sector Emissions Other transport 39 3% Accommodation 274 21% Activities 52 4% * - does not include TOTAL 1,307 non-CO2 emissions Total World and impact on climate (IPCC 2007) 26,400 Tourism Contribution 4.95% Source: UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008
  • 7. ‘Business as Usual’ Projection of Future CO2 Emissions from Tourism 3500 3000 2500 Air Transport 52% Car Transport Mt CO2 2000 Other Transport 1500 16% Accommodation 1000 40% Activities 32% 25% 500 21% 4% 7% 0 2005 2035 * Excluding same-day visitors Source: UNWTO-UNEP-WMO 2008
  • 8. The impact of climate change on developing countries Developing countries do not have the possibilities and funds to adapt to climate change We are drifting into a world of 'adaptation apartheid'. (Desmond Tutu, Archbishop Emeritus of Cape Town, South Africa.) Climate Justice in Numbers: • Oxfam estimates: Developing countries need 50 billion US-Dollars p/a only for adaptation if emissions are not reduced • NGO Treaty Group: To help developing countries adapt to climate change, the 'treaty' calls for new and additional finance of the magnitude of at least $160 billion p/a (between 2013-2017) • Copenhagen Accord: kick off with $US10 billion p/a (2010-2012) 2012 -2020 climbing up to $US100 billion
  • 9. The injustice of climate change and tourism • 98% of the world population does not fly • Most flights are taken for holiday reasons • Our concerns: – the sector becomes increasingly more energy intense. – Tourism might increase conflicts in developing countries re land use, water consumption etc (small islands, arid areas)
  • 10. Actions taken by the industry „Much will eventually come from the private sector with its appetite for innovation“ UNWTO • Mitigation → no change in travel behaviour, growing flight numbers • Adaptation → tourism adapts to new climate • Inventing new technologies → new technology will not reduce carbon emissions • Carbon offsetting in tourism → on a voluntary market, air passengers pay the equivalent money to compensate the emissions caused by a flight by donating into renewable energy projects (less than 1 % of all air travellers) Conclusion: Industry did not show much appetite up to now on voluntary basis
  • 11. Tackling emissions on policy level • Global emissions are addressed by the UNFCCC • Emissions from global tourism are not addressed, but only from aviation and shipping (so called bunker fuels, account for approx. 10% of global emissions) • While the largest carbon emissions are legaly regulated in the Kyoto Protocol, the bunker emissions do not underlie legal regulations • Under the Kyoto Protocol, responsibility for bunker emissions handed to ICAO and IMO, Article 2.2. • Miserable failure of IMO and ICAO
  • 12. Tourism and the UNFCCC • Tourism within the UNFCCC process • Appears when negotiating the bunkers (emission from aviation and shipping) • ´Spill-over effects` – binding climate policies have not to derogate tourism as a development motor for poor countries (argument by UNWTO and tourism depending countries) → undifferentiated debate about the profit of poor countries from international tourism → reason for tourism critical groups to get involved into the UNFCCC process
  • 13. Myths spill-over effects • If growth rate of British air travel till 2025 would stagnate on 2009 level, it would mean eg for Kenya a lost of 0,09% of GNP p/a. (Plane truths - Do the economic arguments for aviation growth really fly? (2008) World Development Movements)
  • 14. UNWTO within UNFCCC • Official position: Tourism will be at the leading edge of the global response to climate change, coherent with the Millennium Development Goals. • UNWTO is taking questionable role within UNFCCC • UNWTOs main argument and focus is to avoid „spill over effects“ • Critical debate is missing: →Tourism - a development motor for poor countries? • New concerns about UNWTOs climate policies and requests: “Some Clean Development Mechanism and Emissions Trading projects and trading revenues to be earmarked for specified allotment to related aviation and tourism projects, including financial and other incentives for the earliest possible global introduction of sustainable aviation biofuels”
  • 15. About sustainable aviation biofuels If tourism uses agrofuels on high commercial level, new problems will occur re land use, water shortage, food security
  • 16. Tourism critical groups involved • 09/2008, World Tourism Day, Lima workshop „changing the atmosphere in tourism“ • 04/2009 – Mailinggroup: "climate change, tourism and development" <tourismclimate@li sten.jpberlin.de>
  • 17. Tourism critical groups involved Copenhagen process • 07/2009, Berlin, meeting with a working group from the North • 10/2009, South Consultative Meeting by Ecumenical Coalition On Tourism during the UNFCCC Climate Talks, Bangkok • 12/2009, Side event „Climate justice and tourism“ during UNFCCC, COP 15, Copenhagen
  • 18. NGOs demand.. • Continue the process with tourism critical groups and voices • Enhance the debate around climate protection in tourism beyond CO2-reduction measures • No increasing growth rates, but fair distribution of revenues • Reducing flow of foreign exchange, diversified economies etc. • Binding regulations for emissions from aviation and shipping • Avoid that tourism is used as an excuse against climate protection measures! • Beyond binding regulations, promote climate protection measures as part of holistic CSR strategies Conclusion: → Tourism is debated on a very low level → It is essential to bring tourism critical groups into the UNFCCC process
  • 19. Other groups and networks • Climate Action Network is a worldwide network of roughly 500 Non- Governmental Organizations (NGOs) working to promote government and individual action • Third World Network (not part of CAN)- is an independent non-profit international network of organisations and individuals involved in issues relating to development, Third World and North-South affairs. • GenderCC - Women for Climate Justice is a global network of women and gender activists and experts from all world regions working for gender and climate justice • The Climate Alliance of European Cities with the Indigenous Rainforest Peoples / Alianza del Clima e. V. is Europe's largest city network • Climate Justice Now - A network of organisations and movements from across the globe committed to the fight for social, ecological and gender justice (part of CAN) • Climate Justice Action - is a new global network of people and groups committed to take the urgent actions needed to avoid catastrophic climate change (open network, not CAN).
  • 20. Thank you!

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