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POETRY ANALYSIS INTO DETAIL

POETRY ANALYSIS INTO DETAIL

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  • 1. POETRY ANALYSIS Poetry analysis is focused on: THEME AND MEANING AND POETIC GENRE AND TECHNICAL DEVICES (rhyme, rhythm and meter).
  • 2. LITERAL PERIOD  Poems will carry characteristics and concerns of the time in which they were written  Having some knowledge of these characteristics and expectations will help you understand individual poems
  • 3. LITERAL PERIOD DEF…….  By a LITERARY PERIOD we mean a span of time which is thought to display some typical features which differentiate it from the periods which precede and follow it.
  • 4. LITERAL PERIOD DATES FROM WAY BACK ERAS…..  450-1066 Old English (or Anglo-Saxon) Period  1066-1500 Middle English Period  1500-1660 The Renaissance 1558-1603 Elizabethan Age 1603-1625 Jacobean Age 1625-1649 Caroline Age 1649-1660 Commonwealth Period (or Puritan Interregnum)
  • 5. LITERAL PERIOD….  1660-1785 The Neoclassical Period 1660-1700 The Restoration 1700-1745 The Augustan Age (or Age of Pope) 1745-1785 The Age of Sensibility (or Age of Johnson)  1785-1830 The Romantic Period  1832-1901 The Victorian Period 1848-1860 The Pre-Raphaelites 1880-1901 Aestheticism and Decadence (fin de siècle)
  • 6. THEME AND MEANING There are often two types of meaning: literal and figurative. The literal meaning of a poem is what actually happens in the poem, on a purely superficial level The figurative meaning is generally associated with the theme, and is usually more abstract (i.e., a concept, rather than a concrete physical description). It is the meaning behind the action
  • 7. IMAGERY WORDS CREATE PICTURES IN YOUR MIND IMAGERY IS THROUGH: • SYMBOLS • METAPHORS • SIMILE • DETAILED DESCRIPTION • PERSONIFICATION
  • 8. SYMBOLISM One chief way of conveying theme is through the use of symbolism, the concrete representation of an abstract concept. These objects are so universal that they have a meaning in themselves, For example, one commonly used symbol for peace is the dove, and so when one flies over a battlefield we may take this as a symbol of a ceasefire, that peace is on its way. If the dove is shot down, we may take this as a symbol of the shattering of hope for peace.
  • 9. SIMILE A simile is a comparison of one unlike thing to another, whereby the comparison is explicit (i.e., directly stated) using a comparative such as "like" or "as". Examples: "The clouds drifted past as lazily as swans on a summer night," "The evening smothered us like the heavy down quilt on my grandmother's bed." .
  • 10. METAPHOR A metaphor is a comparison of one unlike thing to another, whereby the comparison is implicit (i.e., not directly stated), and there is no use of a comparative. Examples: "The clouds drifted past, lazy as swans on a summer night," "The suffocating quilt of the evening descended upon us, stealing our breath and weighing us down."
  • 11. TYPES OF POEMS  BALLAD  EPIC  LYRIC  SONNET
  • 12. BALLAD A ballad is fundamentally a song that tells a story. The folk ballad is traditionally an anonymous poem that has been passed on through oral tradition (spoken aloud or sung) from generation to generation or by travelling entertainers like bards or minstrels. A literary ballad is one that is not anonymous, but it is written down by a poet as he composes it, and it is not necessarily meant to be sung
  • 13. BALLADS Most ballads tend to follow these elements: the beginning is often abrupt; the language is usually simple; the story is told through dialogue and action; and there is often a refrain, or chorus. Although there are exceptions, most ballads have four-line stanzas (not counting musical refrains) and follow an ABAB or ABCB rhyme scheme. A ballad with six lines per stanza is not uncommon.
  • 14. EPIC An epic poem is usually a very long poem of several thousand lines relating the story of a hero and his struggle against impossible odds. This is one of the oldest forms of poetry and was usually recited orally by professional storytellers or singers over several nights, often at a court or feasting table. In fact, the oldest poem in any modern European language is the Old English (Anglo-Saxon) epic Beowulf.
  • 15. LYRIC A lyric is traditionally fairly short, between four and sixty lines, and usually expresses the feelings and thoughts or a single speaker in a personal and subjective fashion. The range and variety of lyric verse is immense and lyric poetry composes the bulk of all poetry. If the poem is not narrative or dramatic (which usually follows the other genres given here), it is probably a lyric poem. Most poems fall into the general categories of love, lamentation (sadness) and the pastoral dealing with the natural world).
  • 16. SONNET A sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines in iambic pentameter (see Meter). For high school purposes, they are usually divided into two main types: Petrarchian, or Italian Sonnet and - Shakesperean or Elizabethan Sonnet
  • 17. SONNETS Petrarchan, or Italian Sonnet This sonnet consists of an octave (eight lines) rhyming ABBAABBA and a sestet (six lines) rhyming CDECDE or CDCDCD. This octave develops a thought, and the sestet is a comment on it, a completion of it, or a volta ('turn') on the idea. This is the most common type of sonnet.
  • 18. SONNETS Shakespearean, or Elizabethan Sonnet This type of sonnet derives its name from the many sonnets composed by William Shakespeare in this form. It is composed of three quatrains (four lines each) rhyming ABAB CDCD EFEF, each one with a different idea building upon the one before it, and of a couplet (two lines) rhyming GG, with the conclusion.
  • 19. TWO TYPE OF VERSES  BLANK VERSES  FREE VERSE
  • 20. BLANK VERSE Blank verse consists of unrhymed five-stress lines, properly iambic pentameter (see Meter). Much of the poetry of Milton, Wordsworth, Coleridge and the Romantics were composed in blank verse. For example: For you I'll hazard all: why, what care I? For you I'll live, and in your love I'll die.
  • 21. FREE VERSE Free verse has no regular meter, line length or rhyme, and often depends on natural speech rhythms. Although a poem can be both a lyric and free verse, this latter term is usually more apt for longer pieces, especially when elements of the narrative or the dramatic are present.
  • 22. REFFERENCE LIST  FORMER. L, IMAGERY IN POETRY TEP 424     RESOURCE, 16 NOVEMBER 2011 DU TOIT DODD. M, INTRODUCTION TO BASIS POETRY ANALYSIS AND FORMS OF POETRY, 14 JULY 2013 NAKAZAKI. C, LITERARY DEVICES AND POETRY NOTES, 21 DECEMBER 2011 SAMSON. N, BASIC ELEMENT OF POETRY, 04 FEBRUARY 2013 NARACA. A,ELEMENTS OF POETRY, 14 DECEMBER 2012
  • 23. RHYME Although most people are familiar with rhyme, it may be formally defined as the use of words in which there are similarities in an accentuated vowel and the consonants that accompany it. It is said to have two chief functions:  it echoes sounds and it is thus a source of artistic satisfaction. There is pleasure in the sound itself and in the coincidence of sounds, and this is associated with music, rhythm and beat;  it assists in the actual structure of verse, organizing it and opening and concluding the sense. It is thus used to 'bind' the verse together.
  • 24. METER It is the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables to communicate rhythm. The best way of analyzing a regular meter is to write out at least two lines, writing "/" (a sharp accent) above stressed syllables (those that carry more emphasis) and "U" (a short accent) above unstressed syllables
  • 25. METER For example, read the following line aloud and notice what syllables you pronounce more forcefully: U / U / U / U / U / The world is too much with us late and soon A line following the above pattern is common in English literature, especially in sonnets (see poetic genres), and is called iambic pentameter. "Iambic" means it follows an "unstressedstressed" pattern, and "pentameter" means that it has five sets of two syllables each, amounting to ten syllables. Be sure to note that not all stressed/unstressed syllables fall in an alternating pattern like the above.