Unit 8 structures of inequality
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Unit 8 structures of inequality

Unit 8 structures of inequality

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  • Ad 2. is there opportunities for social mobility (vertical and horizontal) social mobility: change in one’s position in a social hierarchy.Ad 3. what is unequal and how unequal it is varies from one society to another.Ad 4. defining of arrangements as being “fair”, the explanation of why people should be unequal. (ideologies, hegemonies) Development is normative. (think of differences between neo-liberal philosophy and Marxist’s philosophy (two extremes of a continuum). Meritocracy is also an ideology!Ad.5 identity serves to mark off one social division from others, often being closely linked to different kinds of culture as well. Think of Marx’s class identities and why the class consciousness was so important
  • how intertwined our social realities are to our environmental realities. The video pairs the exploitation of low level workers in the food industry with the tragic conditions animals are raised and slaughtered in. At one point in the film someone says that corporate food producers treat workers exactly like the treat their animals. Both will be gone soon, so it just easier to design the system to acquire them quickly, use them up, and discard them.

Unit 8 structures of inequality Unit 8 structures of inequality Presentation Transcript

  • Unit 8. Structures of Inequalities
    nadiadresscher
  • Objectives unit 8
    Explain the multidimensional concepts of social stratification and social inequalities
    Explain how social stratification is sustained by certain ideologies
    The classical theories perspective on social stratification
    Relate the experience of inequalities from a development perspective: enhancing capabilities
  • An experiment in wealth distribution, or in what we consider “just”, “fair” and “equal”…
    View slide
  • This experiment is inspired by John Rawl’s theory of justice
    This is an experiment in the exploration of the following concepts: wealth, equality, fairness and justice
    (veil of ignorance/original position) You wake up one day andyou don’t have any information about particular characteristics of yourself: you don’t know your ethnicity, social status, gender and, crucially, your whole concept of what is The good dissolves. (This forces participants to select principles impartially and rationally)
    Now you have to select principles that will determine the basic structure of the society you will live in.
    View slide
  • You can choose between 2 choices:(this is the simplified and modified version of the experiment)
    3 kind of societies where social and economic inequalities are to be arranged in the following form
    The greatest benefit goes to the least advantaged
    Equality for all no matter who you are
    Wealth attached to offices and positions open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity.
  • Your choice
    What would you choose and most important why?
    This experiment shows us how values and believes about what you understand as “justice” and “equality” influences the way wealth and opportunities are being distributed in society
  • Social stratification, social divisions, process of inequality
  • What is social stratification
    A system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy
    The degree of social closure and mobility that is allowed in the society. Closed systems allow little change in social position, while open systems permit some mobility
    Degree of social inequalities
  • 5 principles organizing social stratification
    Social stratification is a characteristic of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences
    Social stratification persists over generations
    Social stratification is universal but variable
    Social stratification involves not just inequalities but believes (ideologies)
    Social stratification engenders shared identities
  • Forms of social divisions
    Social and economic divisions
    Gender and sexuality
    Ethnic and racialised divisions
    Age divisions
    Health and disablement
    Language/dialect and nationalities
  • Processes at work that sustain social stratifications
    Social exclusion and marginalization (groups are being expelled of participation in society)
    Exploitation (the transfer of results of the labour of one social group to benefit another, dehumanizing labour conditions, e.g. forced prostitutions, or jobs where you work long hours without breaks/vacation days, they threaten you that you will lose your job, if you don’t follow instructions)
    Powerlessness (people lack authority, status,power, sense of self,)
    Cultural imperialism (e.g. the experience of colonization)
    Violence
  • Intersectionality of inequalities
    The ways in which different forms of inequality and division interact with each other!
    E.g. social class and gender, gender and ethnicity, social class and education etc.
  • e.g. food, environment and social economic inequalities
    Watch trailer Food Inc.
  • e.g. not getting a job because of discrimination
  • 3 experiences of inequality in the 21st century:
  • Living on a minimum wage
  • Let’s play spent!
    http://www.playspent.org/
  • Ideologies for the explanation of social inequalities
    Meritocracy: stratification as functional
    Marxist and neo- marxist ideas on stratification
    Stratification and technology in global perspective
  • Meritocracy
  • Term coined by Micheal Young
  • Meritocracy: stratification as functional (SF theory)
    A system of social stratification based on personal merit. Talents and effort
    Davis and Moore thesis (1945)
    A pure system class would be meritocracy, rewarding everyone based on ability and effort. Such a society would have extensive social mobility, blurring social categories as individuals move up and down in the social system depending on their performance
    Are opportunities equal? Is meritocracy a fair system?
  • 21st century new social inequalities
  • Some protesters of #ows
  • We are still on time, we can still revolutionize our social reality
    Why? Or why not a Marxist revolution?
  • If Marx was alive now, these are the con’s and pro’s he would hear:
  • Global expansion of capitalism
    Watch trailer: Manufactured landscapes
  • Other theories…
    Weber identified 3 distinct dimensions of social inequality:
    Economic class
    Social status/prestige
    Power
    Taken together these 3 dimensions form a complex hierarchy of socio-economic standing
  • Other theories…
    Lensky explained that historically technological advances have been associated with more pronounced social stratification. A limited reversal of this trend occurs in advanced industrial societies, as represented by the Kuznets curve
  • Human Development perspective
  • HD video 2010
    http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid988092871?bctid=659474810001
  • Human development
    Human development is the expansion of people’s freedoms to live long, healthy and creative lives: to advance other goals they have reason to value; and to engage actively in shaping development equitability and sustainability on a shared planet. People are both the beneficiaries and drivers of human development, as individuals and in groups.
  • Extract from documentary
    “The Examined life” (29:17 - 37:11)
    Martha Nussbaum speaks about capabilities, the social contract and Rawl’s theory of Justice
  • Human development- 3 components
    Well-being: expanding people’s real freedoms, so that people can flourish
    Empowerment and agency: enabling people and groups to act, to drive valuable outcomes
    Justice: expanding equity, sustaining outcomes over time and respecting human rights and other goals of society
  • Paradigm shift: what is development?
    Move from GDP to Human Development Index
  • New discourses…
    Human development
    Human rights
    Participative culture, new forms for the expression of agency.
    E.g.Digital activism