Objectives unit 6<br />Explain the nature vs. nature debate<br />Explain the process of socialization and reflect on impor...
What is Human Nature?<br />The naturevs. nurture debate refers to the ongoing discussion of the respective roles of geneti...
Nature vs. Nurture debate<br />Nature <br />Nurture<br />Socio-biologists, psychologists and others in the natural science...
The process of socialization<br />is the process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our socia...
The process of socialization<br />Is a twofold process:<br />The process by which a society, culture, or group teaches ind...
2 main goals of socialization<br />It teaches members the skills necessary to satisfy basic human needs and to defend them...
Socialization, or hmm domestication?<br />
Theories of the self…<br />A collection of theories on the self<br />
What is ‘the self’?<br />The self is our experience of a distinct, real, personal identity that is separate and different ...
Sigmund Freud<br />
Id, superego and ego<br />Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic approach divides the mind into three interrelated systems. <br />...
Charles Cooley<br /> believed that one's sense of self depends on seeing one's self reflected in interactions with others....
“ Each to each a looking-glass,<br /> reflects the other that doth pass”<br />We imagine how we look to others<br />We ima...
How many looking glasses are being portrayed here ?<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5y4b-DEkIps<br />women through the...
Mead: mind, self and society<br />
George Herbert Mead<br />Expanded Cooley's ideas about the development of the self.<br />Mead also believed that the self ...
Stages in Mead’s theory on the development of the self<br />Preparatory stage: children mimic /imitate others<br />Play st...
Erving Goffman<br />believed that meaning is constructed through interaction. <br />His approach, dramaturgy, focuses on h...
The self is a social construction<br />Each definition of a situation lends itself to a different approach, and the conseq...
Assignment: impression management<br />Please reflect on yourself and how you manage your impression in social context:<br...
Agents of socialization<br />Are the social groups, institutions, and individuals that provide structured situations in wh...
Family, schools, peers and the mass media<br />The family is the single most significant agent of socialization in and tea...
Status and roles<br />A status is a position in society that comes with a set of expectations. <br />An ascribed status is...
Emotions and personality: they have a social aspect!<br />Though we tend to believe that our emotions are highly personal ...
Virtual world is real<br />Though most sociological perspectives on interaction focus on interactions that occur in co- pr...
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Unit 6. Social Identities: The self and/in Interaction

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Unit 6. Social Identities: The self and/in Interaction

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  • can i just ask where you collected the information about Mead and Goffman, because im doing some work on the two and find the information on the slides useful. thanks
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Unit 6. Social Identities: The self and/in Interaction

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Objectives unit 6<br />Explain the nature vs. nature debate<br />Explain the process of socialization and reflect on important agents of socialization<br />Reflect on 4 theories on the self (Freud, Cooley, Mead and Goffman)<br />Work on assignment: Impression-management<br />
  3. 3. What is Human Nature?<br />The naturevs. nurture debate refers to the ongoing discussion of the respective roles of genetics and socializationin determining individual behaviors and traits. Ultimately both sides do play a role in making us the people that we are<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Nature vs. Nurture debate<br />Nature <br />Nurture<br />Socio-biologists, psychologists and others in the natural sciences argue that behavior traits can be explained by genetics<br />Sociologists, anthropologists and others in the social sciences argue that human behavior is learned and shaped trough interaction<br />
  6. 6. The process of socialization<br />is the process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our social group and by which we become functioning members of society. <br />The socialization process begins in infancy and is especially productive once a child begins to understand and use language<br />but it also is a lifelong process that continues into adulthood.<br />
  7. 7. The process of socialization<br />Is a twofold process:<br />The process by which a society, culture, or group teaches individuals to become functioning members<br />The process by which we internalize the values and norms of the group<br />Works both on the individual as on the social level: we learn our society’s way of life and make it our own<br />
  8. 8. 2 main goals of socialization<br />It teaches members the skills necessary to satisfy basic human needs and to defend themselves against danger, in order to ensure that society itself will continue to exist<br />It teaches individuals the norms, values and believes associates with their culture and provides ways to ensure that members adhere to their shared way of life<br />
  9. 9. Socialization, or hmm domestication?<br />
  10. 10. Theories of the self…<br />A collection of theories on the self<br />
  11. 11. What is ‘the self’?<br />The self is our experience of a distinct, real, personal identity that is separate and different from all other people<br />Sociologists look at both the individual and society to gain a sense of where the self comes from. <br />Most believe the self is created and modified through interaction over the course of a lifetime.<br />
  12. 12. Sigmund Freud<br />
  13. 13. Id, superego and ego<br />Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic approach divides the mind into three interrelated systems. <br />The id consists of basic inborn drives that are the source of instinctive psychic energy. <br />The superego is composed of the conscience, which serves to keep us from engaging in socially undesirable behavior, and the ego-ideal, which upholds our vision of who we believe we should ideally be. The superego represents the internalized demands of society. <br />The ego is the realistic aspect of the mind that balances the forces of the id and superego.<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Charles Cooley<br /> believed that one's sense of self depends on seeing one's self reflected in interactions with others. <br />The looking-glass self refers to the notion that the self develops through our perception of others' evaluations and appraisals of us.<br />
  16. 16. “ Each to each a looking-glass,<br /> reflects the other that doth pass”<br />We imagine how we look to others<br />We imagine other people’s judgments of us<br />We experience some kind of feeling about<br />ourselves based on our perception of other people<br />We respond to judgments that we believe<br />Others make about of us, without really knowing<br />For sure what they think. And we are not <br />always right<br />We all act like mirrors to each other<br />
  17. 17. How many looking glasses are being portrayed here ?<br />http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5y4b-DEkIps<br />women through the looking glass of the men, through the looking glass of advertizing <br />what advertizing thinks how women want to see them selves through their own eyes.<br /> whose eyes are these?<br />
  18. 18. Mead: mind, self and society<br />
  19. 19. George Herbert Mead<br />Expanded Cooley's ideas about the development of the self.<br />Mead also believed that the self was created through social interaction and that this process started in childhood, with children beginning to develop a sense of self at about the same time that they began to learn language. <br />Mead argued that one of the key developments was the ability to think of ourselves as separate and distinctand to see ourselves in relationship to others. <br />When children can take the perspective of the generalized other, rather than specific individuals, they have passed through the final stage of development.<br />
  20. 20. Stages in Mead’s theory on the development of the self<br />Preparatory stage: children mimic /imitate others<br />Play stage: children pretend to play the role of a particular or a significant other. The particular or significant other are the perspectives and particular role that a child learns and internalizes<br />Game stage: children play organized games and take on the perspective of the generalized other<br />Generalized other: the perspectives and expectations of a network of others (or a society in general) that a child learns and then takes into account when shaping his/her own behavior<br />Dual nature of the self: the believe that we experience the self as both subject and object, the “I” and “me”<br />
  21. 21. Erving Goffman<br />believed that meaning is constructed through interaction. <br />His approach, dramaturgy, focuses on how individuals take on roles and act them out to present a favorable impression to their "audience." <br />Goffman argues that people are concerned with controlling how others view them, a process he called impression management<br />
  22. 22. The self is a social construction<br />Each definition of a situation lends itself to a different approach, and the consequences are real.<br />Goffman identifies the following components in his theory of impression management:<br />Region<br />Backstage<br />Front stage<br />The self is a Social construction dependent of the situation<br />
  23. 23. Assignment: impression management<br />Please reflect on yourself and how you manage your impression in social context:<br />How do you portray yourself to your family members, your friends, your co-workers, strangers you meet for the first time, in class, on face book? <br />Make a distinction between your different selves in all these areas, put this information in a matrix<br />What peculiarities and patterns do you see in your analysis?<br />
  24. 24. Agents of socialization<br />Are the social groups, institutions, and individuals that provide structured situations in which socialization takes place. <br />Name 4 different agents of socialization?<br />The four predominant agents of socialization are:<br />the family<br />Schools<br />peers<br />the mass media. <br />
  25. 25. Family, schools, peers and the mass media<br />The family is the single most significant agent of socialization in and teaches us the basic values and norms that shape our identity. <br />Schools provide education and socialize us through a direct as well as a hidden curriculum (a set of behavioral traits such as punctuality, neatness, discipline, hard work, competition, and obedience) that teaches many of the behaviors that will be important later in life. <br />Peers provide very different social skills and can become more immediately significant than the family, especially as children move through adolescence. <br />The media has become an important agent of socialization, often overriding the family and other institutions in instilling values and norms.<br />
  26. 26. Status and roles<br />A status is a position in society that comes with a set of expectations. <br />An ascribed status is one we are born with that is unlikely to change. <br />An achieved status is one we have earned through individual effort or that is imposed by others. <br />One's master status is a status that seems to override all others and affects all other statuses that one possesses. <br />Roles are the behaviors expected from a particular status. <br />Role conflict occurs when the roles associated with one status clash with the roles associated with a different status. <br />Role strain occurs when roles associated with a single status clash. Either of these may lead to role exit.<br />
  27. 27. Emotions and personality: they have a social aspect!<br />Though we tend to believe that our emotions are highly personal and individual, there are social patterns in our emotional responses. <br />Role-taking emotions are emotions like sympathy, embarrassment, or shame, which require that we assume the perspective of another person and respond from that person's point of view. <br />Feeling rules are socially constructed norms regarding the expression and display of emotions and include expectations about the acceptable or desirable feelings in a given situation. <br />Emotion work refers to the process of evoking, suppressing, or otherwise managing feelings to create a publicly observable display of emotion.<br />
  28. 28. Virtual world is real<br />Though most sociological perspectives on interaction focus on interactions that occur in co- presence (when individuals are in one another's physical presence)<br /> Modern technology enables us to interact with people very far away. <br />Postmodern theorists claim that the role of technology in interaction is one of the primary features of postmodern life.<br />
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