Gender is a social constructThe media as a important agent of socialization presents images of genderWe will look at the working of the media in a nutshellHere I chose a couple of themes to deal with…beauty, sex, male: aggressive & strong, the portrayal of “queer” in mainstream mediaI will give you a toolbox with some core questions to ask when being confronted with media images on genderNew feminism: technologies of empowerment and alternative narratives. Media/ popular cultureMass media refers collectively to all media technologies, including the Internet, television, newspapers, film and radio, which are used for mass communications, and to the organizations which control these technologiesPopular culture (commonly known as pop culture) is the totality of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, memes, images and other phenomena that are deemed preferred per an informal consensus within themainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century. Heavily influenced by mass media, this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of the society.
Bill Viola (b.1951) is internationally recognized as one of today’s leading artists. He has been instrumental in the establishment of video as a vital form of contemporary art, and in so doing has helped to greatly expand its scope in terms of technology, content, and historical reach. For 40 years he has created videotapes, architectural video installations, sound environments, electronic music performances, flat panel video pieces, and works for television broadcast. Viola’s video installations—total environments that envelop the viewer in image and sound—employ state-of-the-art technologies and are distinguished by their precision and direct simplicity. They are shown in museums and galleries worldwide and are found in many distinguished collections. His single channel videotapes have been widely broadcast and presented cinematically, while his writings have been extensively published, and translated for international readers. Viola uses video to explore the phenomena of sense perception as an avenue to self-knowledge. His works focus on universal human experiences—birth, death, the unfolding of consciousness—and have roots in both Eastern and Western art as well as spiritual traditions, including Zen Buddhism, Islamic Sufism, and Christian mysticism. Using the inner language of subjective thoughts and collective memories, his videos communicate to a wide audience, allowing viewers to experience the work directly, and in their own personal way.
Socialization is the process of learning and internalizing the values, beliefs, and norms of our social group and by which we become functioning members of society. The socialization process begins in infancy and is especially productive once a child begins to understand and use languagebut it also is a lifelong process that continues into adulthood.Media plays a crucial role herein, more than ever we consume media more than food. Media is an important agent of socialization.Agents of socialization are the social groups, institutions, and individuals that provide structured situations in which socialization takes place
Nature vs. nurture debate.Gender is a social construct, I wil use some biological metaphors.
MDT is based on the Uses and Gratifications Theory and ties into the Agenda Setting Theory. Uses and Grats identifies how people use and become dependent upon the media. People use the media for many reasons. Information, entertainment, and parasocial relationships are just a few of them. The Dependency Theory says the more a person becomes dependent on the media to fulfill these needs, the media will become more important to that individual. The media will also have much more influence and power over that individual. If someone is so dependent on the media for information, and the media is that person’s only source for information, then it is easy to set the agenda. The individual falls victim to Agenda Setting. As you can see, these three theories intertwine quite a bit.
Transposon: A segment of DNA that is capable of independently replicating itself and inserting the copy into a new position within the same or another chromosome or plasmid.Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/transposon#ixzz1dDfeD2JN
Feminist / queer theoryPatriarchy IntersectionalityQueer theory:A perspective that proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normalWe create these meanings socially (which means we can change those meanings as wellQuestions the basis of all social categories, including but not limited to those involving sexualityFeminist Theory:Is a theoretical approach that looks at gender inequalities in society and the way that gender structures the social world
Static, pushing people into a box, just because you don’t understand them…
and among other things my sexuality, my values & believes and they keep re-configuring
In order to understand we need categories and fragments…
America’s next top model
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3exzMPT4nGIJackson Katz is one of America's leading anti-sexist male activists. An educator, author and filmmaker, he is internationally recognized for his groundbreaking work in the field of gender violence prevention education with men and boys, particularly in the sports culture and the military. He has lectured on hundreds of college and high school campuses and has conducted hundreds of professional trainings, seminars, and workshops in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Australia and Japan. He is the co-founder of the Mentors In Violence Prevention (MVP) program, the leading gender violence prevention initiative in professional and college athletics. He is the director of the first worldwide domestic and sexual violence prevention program in the United States Marine Corps. He is also the creator and co-creator of educational videos for college and high school students, including Tough Guise: Violence, Media, and the Crisis in Masculinity (2000), Wrestling With Manhood (2002) and Spin the Bottle: Sex, Lies and Alcohol (2004). His book, The Macho Paradox: Why Some Men Hurt Women and How All Men Can Help, was published by Sourcebooks in 2006. Read more about Jackson Katz.Jackson Katz: Male Characters in Hollywood http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=4O1gzcVsW64
Nelson has collected some of the semiotic areas upon ehich gender is constructed commonly in society
Gender is a social constructThe media as a important agent of socialization presents images of genderWe will look at the working of the media in a nutshellHere I chose a couple of themes to deal with…beauty, sex, male: aggressive & strong, the portrayal of “queer” in mainstream mediaI will give you a toolbox with some core questions to ask when being confronted with media images on genderNew feminism: technologies of empowerment and alternative narratives.
Research on tweets of #IWD 2011. The revolution will be tweeted
Kim Kardashian (born October 21, 1980) is a reality TV star, and the daughter of late OJ Simpson attorney Robert Kardashian and former close friend of Paris Hilton. She stars in the E! reality TV series 'Keeping Up with the Kardashians,' along with her sisters Kourtney and KhloeKardashian. She has been linked to Ray J, Diddy, Nick Lachey, Nick Cannon, and The Game. Kim Kardashian divorced producer Damon Thomas in 2004. She is a co-founder of DASH, a fashion retailer in Calabasas, California, Miami and NYC, and had an on-and-off relationship with NFL star Reggie Bush, among others.
A spectacular contesting field of meaning…
Alternative title:Gender as contested memes in the media spectacle Negotiating the meaning of gender in popular mediated culture
negotiation of meaning is on- going mediation of media= experience technologies (subjective of voices filters) gender gender is amedia Literacy: time social & culture wise & construct crucial: sustaining images, media (just asrelationships, values spectacle identity) popular culture gender as mediation = important contested socialization memes agent Meaning generating devices
Creatures looking for meaning―The saturation bombing approach to life‖ (Bill Viola)
The workings of the media• Fragmented mediation• Constructed/deconstructed• Discourse and images: actors and actions• Meaning generating devices: images, stories, metaphors, myths• Strategic process (arranging and re-arranging images/actors/acts)• Carrier of values and ideologies• Frames the ‘fragment’/image/story• Sets the agenda• Mainstream vs. alternative: Power/interests involved
Recap: Five core concepts in media literacy1. All media messages are ‘constructed’ (authorship/constructedness)2. Media messages are constructed using a creative language with its own rules (format and techniques of production)3. Different people experience the same media messages differently (audience)4. Media have embedded values and points of views (content/message)5. Most media messages are organized to gain profit, convince and/or power (purpose/motive)
A now what about the meme-thing? Contested memesMeaning carriers, Meaning fighters The winner takes it all
Woman as contested meme(e.g. in the last two weeks…)
What is a Meme…• A meme is an idea, or a particular way of thinking about what an idea is.• A unit of mental information in the same way a gene is a unit of biological information• A metaphor of an idea as a transposon, a pattern of thought as a virus, a knowledge structure as a chromosome.• Memes compete to spread their information though a social population in the same ways genes compete to spread their information content through a biological population.
Gender is a social constructFeminist Theory Queer theory
So, back to socialization…or Barbie as an archetype
Playing with dolls while negotiating the meaning of personhood…
Personhood negotiation:Images of late 80s and 90‘s
Becoming biographies?Bursting some mythical bubbles…
Mediation of experience: the experience of Gender
Language and Images mediate…1. All our experience is mediated, nothing is direct, and images & language are central forms of mediation2. People can mediate our experience by the way they structure reality for us in social interactions – The ideas they stand for, their intentions, their own experiences and how they ‘see’ the world influence how they mediate (compose) this reality they want to share3. Texts, whether they are books, films or advertisement mediate our experience
Barthes‘ Myth (1972) & Entman‘s Frame (1993)• Myth is not a falsehood or a fiction, but a rhetorical figure upholding a social belief that has become so firmly entrenched it is understood as real and therefore has real effects.• To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in discourse (text, talk, images) in such a way as to promote
Meaning generating devices: Myths, metaphors,stories, frames, images They are all entwined And they do a great job in mediating experience for us
A perspective influences how you: Value & Act Analyze attitude Talk about (solutions) Identify See or (causes & understand (judge with others(pinpoint) (frames) consequences) others/see (discourse) Accept the yourself) status quo
Bursting some mythical bubbles1. The obsession with the body: culturally embodiment of gender (Butler) o Sexy for who? o You are a man, because you have a penis!? o Calorie counting freaks… o Perpetual youth! The ant-ageing movement2. Masculinity is strong, Femininity is Soft and other absurdities!3. Queer is deviant! o What I don’t understand, I will try to categorize, even if it doesn’t fit in the narrow category!
“Objects are categories of objects which tyrannically induce categories of persons. They undertake the policing of social meanings, and the significations they engender are controlled.Their proliferation, simultaneouslyarbitrary and coherent, is the best vehicle for a social order, equally arbitrary and coherent, to materialize [...]” Jean Baudrillard
Extract from:Perfect Girls, Starving Daughters: How the Quest for Perfection is Harming Young Women Courtney Martin Author, philanthropist, blogger, editor, and lecturer on topics such as feminism, activism, and philanthropy
Taking a critical stance: 5 core questions of media literacy… (new) Media as technologies of alternative voices
Technologies of liberation: WE ARE THE MEDIA & THE MSSG Mainstream is slowly dying!Alternative voices, grassroots movements, Mobilizing! Ladies & Gentlemen…the critical literate individual is awakeningand he/she or LGBT has a powerful voice
Core concepts translated in key questions1. Who created this message? (authorship/sender)2. What creative techniques are used to attract my attention (format/creative strategies for reality construction)3. How might different people understand this message differently? (audience/receiver)4. What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in, or omitted from, this message? (content)5. Why is this message being sent? (purpose)
Participatory culture (Jenkins)A participatory culture is a culture :• With relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement• With strong support for creating and sharing one’s creations with others• With some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the one with the most experienced is passed along to novices• Where members believe that their contributions matter• Where members feel some degree of social connection with one another – at the least they care what other people think about what they have created.• Not every member must contribute, but all must believe they are FREE to contribute, when ready and that what they contribute will be appropriately valued.
Joanie Croes, Aruban contemporary artist www.joaniecroes.com
The film became a movement― The average teenager spends morethan 10 hours each day consumingmedia — more than sleeping orattending school. Media is themessenger and an increasinglypowerful one. Mainstream mediabombards children and adults alikewith overwhelming messages thatwomen should be beautiful and sexy,while men should be powerful andoften violent. These messages limitchildren‘s ideas of what is possible inthe world and can have damagingeffects on their self-esteem, health,and the way they treat others‖Miss Representation org.
Taking the pledge against ―Miss representation‖ actions you can take…
What if you start conceiving your Facebook wall as a platform for change?
Voicing checklist• What am I authoring?• Does my message reflect understanding in format, creativity and technology?• Is my message engaging and compelling for my target audience?• Have I clearly and consistently framed values, lifestyles and points of view in my content?• Have I communicated my purpose effectively
Recap: Gender & the Media Spectacle:1. The negotiation of meaning is an on-going process2. Mediation of experience, mediation is never neutral3. Gender is a social construct4. Gender as contested memes5. Meaning generating devices: images, myths and stories6. Mommy and daddy can’t be around all the time, but you can always count on popular culture, it is everywhere, all the time to ‘socialize’ (with?) you7. Media play a crucial role our lives, both time wise as culturally wise: creating meanings, (of the self), strengthening relationships and pondering values8. Media as powerful technologies of voice.
Conclusion:• fluidity, diversity, identity…is so difficult to categorize in ‘cultural’ image-boxes.• We are no longer passive recipients of the media, we are the media…• “Pro-sumers”(Ritzer)/ “participative culture”(Jenskins)• Be the message
More information on the topic: www.scoop.it/t/gender-as-contested-memesInteresting media-clippings (articles, videos, etc) are being curated here.