Stress & Stress
Management:

DEALING WITH THE DEMANDS OF LIFE AND WORK
PREPARED FOR UHS 2062 LECTURES, UTM SKUDAI, MALAYSI...
Introduction
 Stress

influence our behaviour
and thus our relations with others
at work
 Stress has serious health
impl...
What Is Stress?
 Stress
 Physiological

disruption

and psychological state of

 Stressor
 Factors

or events, real or...
What We Will Cover

Causes of Stress
-How Stress Leads To
Disease
-Types of Stress
-Coping Techniques
-

© 2009 McGraw-Hil...
Stress Response


Physiological and psychological responses to
positive or negative events that are disruptive,
unexpecte...
Fight or Flight Response


Physiological changes that prepare the body for
confrontation or avoidance


Brain



Sympat...
Resolving Stress
Adaptive Stress Response

Chronic Stress Response

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserv...
General Adaptation
Syndrome: Three Stages of
 Alarm—the fight or flight response
Stress


Resistance—the body attempts t...
The
Stress
Response

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Physical Toll of Stress






Hypertension
Stroke
Heart disease
Kidney disorders
Depression






© 2009 McGraw-H...
Effects of Stress


Stress and immunity




Chronic stress may cause the immune system to be
under- or overactive

Stre...
Benefits of Stress


Moderate levels


Motivating



Energizing



Productive

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Al...
Yerkes-Dodson law

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Student Stressors:
Interpersonal

 Homesickness
 One

of the
most common
problems
facing college
students
 Often doesn...
Student Stressors: Balancing
Work and School

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Student Stressors:
Academic
 Test

anxiety

 Speech
 Math

anxiety

anxiety

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All r...
Student Stressors: Internal


Procrastination



Perfectionism



Problems with goal setting and time
management

© 200...
Other Stressors


Job stressors


Conflict with coworkers



Unrealistic work loads



Tight deadlines and last minute...
Stress and Gender

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
What Makes Stress Worsen

Lack of control
 Lack of predictability
 Lack of social affiliation-no one to talk with
 No o...
How Americans Cope with
Stress

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
How can one manage stress
better?
1.

Become aware of the stressors and
the emotional and physical
reactions

2.

Recogniz...
Physical Aspects of Stress
Management


Sleep



Exercise



Nutrition

© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights...
Management of Stress


Exercise



Laughter



Diet



Stop smoking



Sleep



Support network



Self empowerment...
Social Aspects of Stress
Management


Make time to have fun and play



Laughter is effective



Human contact through ...
Psychological Aspects of
Stress Management


Relaxation and deep breathing



Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)



Gu...
© 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
Environmental Aspects of
Stress Management


Reduce noise levels



Amount/type of light



Meaningful and challenging ...
Cognitive Aspects of Stress
Management


Time management


Assess your habits



Use a planner



Set goals and priori...
References :


Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational
psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA:
Thomson.



...
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  • Figure 3-1 Resolving stress
  • Figure 3-2 The stress response: physiological reactions to a stressor.
  • Image source: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Gary He, photographer
  • Figure 3-3. The Yerke-Dodson Law. Too little or too much stress bell curve model
  • Figure 3-4 Percentages of college students who also work at paying jobs. Bureau of Labor Statistics, March 2005
  • Figure 3-5 Stress and Gender (USA Today, 23 Feb 2006)
  • Figure 3-6 How Americans Cope with Stress
  • Image source: JupiterImages
  • Image source: Royalty-Free/Corbis
  • stress management

    1. 1. Stress & Stress Management: DEALING WITH THE DEMANDS OF LIFE AND WORK PREPARED FOR UHS 2062 LECTURES, UTM SKUDAI, MALAYSIA. SRSIWOK@ GMAIL.COM © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    2. 2. Introduction  Stress influence our behaviour and thus our relations with others at work  Stress has serious health implications if not properly managed.  To properly manage stress, it has to be identified, understood, and learn ways to handle it. © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    3. 3. What Is Stress?  Stress  Physiological disruption and psychological state of  Stressor  Factors or events, real or imagined, that elicit a state of stress  Eustress  Stress that enhances quality of life  Distress  Stress that diminishes quality of life © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    4. 4. What We Will Cover Causes of Stress -How Stress Leads To Disease -Types of Stress -Coping Techniques - © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    5. 5. Stress Response  Physiological and psychological responses to positive or negative events that are disruptive, unexpected, or stimulating  Learned and conditioned habits adopted early in life  Basic human survival mechanism © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    6. 6. Fight or Flight Response  Physiological changes that prepare the body for confrontation or avoidance  Brain  Sympathetic nervous system  Adrenal glands © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    7. 7. Resolving Stress Adaptive Stress Response Chronic Stress Response © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    8. 8. General Adaptation Syndrome: Three Stages of  Alarm—the fight or flight response Stress  Resistance—the body attempts to reestablish equilibrium  Exhaustion—the physical and psychological resources used to deal with stress are depleted © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    9. 9. The Stress Response © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    10. 10. Physical Toll of Stress      Hypertension Stroke Heart disease Kidney disorders Depression     © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Alcoholism Gastrointestinal problems Autoimmune disorders Sexual dysfunctions
    11. 11. Effects of Stress  Stress and immunity   Chronic stress may cause the immune system to be under- or overactive Stress and cardiovascular disease  Type A personality: Competitive, ambitious impatient   Associated with heart attacks Type B personality: Relaxed, patient © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    12. 12. Benefits of Stress  Moderate levels  Motivating  Energizing  Productive © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    13. 13. Yerkes-Dodson law © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    14. 14. Student Stressors: Interpersonal   Homesickness  One of the most common problems facing college students  Often doesn’t hit until a few weeks or a month after the big move © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Relationship problems  Very common stressor  Difficulty maintaining long-distance relationships  Loosing touch with old friends
    15. 15. Student Stressors: Balancing Work and School © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    16. 16. Student Stressors: Academic  Test anxiety  Speech  Math anxiety anxiety © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    17. 17. Student Stressors: Internal  Procrastination  Perfectionism  Problems with goal setting and time management © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    18. 18. Other Stressors  Job stressors  Conflict with coworkers  Unrealistic work loads  Tight deadlines and last minute projects  Technological stressors  Environmental stressors © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    19. 19. Stress and Gender © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    20. 20. What Makes Stress Worsen Lack of control  Lack of predictability  Lack of social affiliation-no one to talk with  No outlet for frustration caused by stressor  Interpret things as getting worse with no way to change it  University Dr. Robert Sapolsky, Stress Researcher, Stanford © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    21. 21. How Americans Cope with Stress © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    22. 22. How can one manage stress better? 1. Become aware of the stressors and the emotional and physical reactions 2. Recognizing what can be changed 3. Reduce the intensity of the emotional reactions to the stress 4. Learning to moderate our physical reserves 5. Maintaining our emotional reserves © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    23. 23. Physical Aspects of Stress Management  Sleep  Exercise  Nutrition © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    24. 24. Management of Stress  Exercise  Laughter  Diet  Stop smoking  Sleep  Support network  Self empowerment  Improve coping skills © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    25. 25. Social Aspects of Stress Management  Make time to have fun and play  Laughter is effective  Human contact through social connections  Pets can reduce stress © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    26. 26. Psychological Aspects of Stress Management  Relaxation and deep breathing  Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR)  Guided imagery and visualization  Meditation  Hypnosis  Biofeedback © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    27. 27. © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    28. 28. Environmental Aspects of Stress Management  Reduce noise levels  Amount/type of light  Meaningful and challenging experiences  Aesthetic quality of inhabited space  Color  Plants  Photos  Smell © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    29. 29. Cognitive Aspects of Stress Management  Time management  Assess your habits  Use a planner  Set goals and prioritize  Stress inoculation  Cognitive self-talk  Conquering procrastination  Combating perfectionism © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
    30. 30. References :  Aamodt, M.G (2007). Industrial /organizational psychology. An applied approach. Belmont, CA: Thomson.  Huffman, K ( 2007). Psychology in Action (8 th ed). New Jersey: Wiley  Arnold, J. (2005). Work Psychology. Understanding Human Behaviour in the WorKplace. England: Pearson Education Ltd  Kosslynn, S. M. & Rosenberg, R. S (2006). Psychology in Action (3rd. Ed). Boston: Pearson International © 2009 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
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