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Ethnography for Philly CHI
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Ethnography for Philly CHI



Natalie Hanson, PhD. April 2011 presentation to the Philadelphia chapter of ACM-CHI (Association for Computing Machinery, special interest group on Computer Human Interaction).

Natalie Hanson, PhD. April 2011 presentation to the Philadelphia chapter of ACM-CHI (Association for Computing Machinery, special interest group on Computer Human Interaction).



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Ethnography for Philly CHI Ethnography for Philly CHI Presentation Transcript

  • NATALIE HANSON, PhDSenior Director, Strategic Programs & UX Consulting, SAP OperationsIndustry Fellow, Philadelphia University College of Design, Engineering, & Commerce20 April 2011
  • About MeResearch Areas AB in Religion & MA Whole MA, PhD Biblical Literature Systems Design Anthropology© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 4
  • About MeOnline http://nataliehanson.wordpress.com http://www.anthrodesign.comhttp://www.nataliehanson.com © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 5 http://www,anthrodesign.com
  • About SAPThe Facts© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 6
  • About SAPWhat is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)?© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 7
  • What is User-Centered Design?Useful and elegant: Deliveringthe simple solution business value:which helps the user does it make thecomplete their user moretask. productive, the company more profitable? ! What is technically possible, easily supported, and compatible with the existing landscape?© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 10
  • User Experience - Mapped to the Project Lifecycle PLAN BUILD RUN • Deliver insights on targeted people & • Engage with the project team regularly to • Guide and support change management processes based on prior or new research ensure end-user needs are considered in and deployment activities decision-making and prioritizationBENEFITS • Support prioritization of business & technical • Measure the current state requirements from an end-user point-of-view • Deliver user research - as well as User • Support and assist in the prioritization of Experience Strategy and best practices - to • Create early high fidelity vision prototypes continuous improvement efforts maximize ROI though high user adoption based on user research (voice of the customer) and best practices • Leverage UX expertise to deliver compelling, intuitive, expert interface design • Measure the current state • Test the planned release with end-users to • Ensure inclusion of UX services in the ensure streamlined task completion, usability remainder of the project and minimize errors prior to investing in build activitiesSERVICES © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 11
  • User Experience – Service Catalog – Overview UX Strategy UX Research UX Design Outside-In Research  Online Strategy  User Surveys  Navigation Design  Expert Review  User Value Scenarios  User Interviews  User Interface Design  Outside-In Review  User Experience  Day in the Life /  Visual Design Analytics Shadowing  Data Visualization  Usability Testing  Process Benchmarking© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 12
  • User Experience – Service Catalog – Detail User User Day in the Life / Surveys Interviews ShadowingVALUE PROPOSITION: VALUE PROPOSITON: VALUE PROPOSITION:Quick, repeatable, non-intrusive way of In-depth understanding of users‟ paint In-depth understanding of the day-to-dayunderstanding the pain points, habits and points and the factors that affect their use activities of a group of users. It helps topreferences of large numbers of users of tools and systems. Critical for validating ensure that systems and processes willacross sites. business requirements. support how users work and increase their productivity.WHAT IS IT? WHAT IS IT?An online survey is designed and By talking with users directly we gather in- WHAT IS IT?delivered to get statistically reliable data depth information about user needs in The typical activity is shadowing a userabout a user population. Often used to their own words, how they are using an for 1-2 days, with minimal interference insupplement methodologies, and /or application or website, and what value day-to-day activities.establish a baseline of understanding. they derive from it. DELIVERABLES:DELIVERABLES: DELIVERABLES: The Ethnography Report with detailThe User Survey Report summarizes The User Interview Report summarizes findings on work practices and tools andquantitative and qualitative trends derived the users‟ needs and priorities, suggests includes recommendations on how to actfrom the data collected. Results can be design ideas, and presents factors that on what was discovered.segmented by region, type of user, etc. could affect acceptance and efficiency. Average Duration:6 weeks Average Duration:4-6 weeks Average Duration:6-7 months 15 Person Days; 1 Resource 20-35 Person Days; 2 Resources 150+ Person Days; 2+ Resources © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 13
  • WHAT is Field Research? Solution Focused UX Design Expert Review 40 PDs Usability Testing Quantitative Qualitative 100 PDs Shadowing 300 PDs Interviews 8-16 PDs Survey 10 PDs Analysis Focused Size indicates relative effortVisual courtesy of S. Kirsten Gay© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 16
  • WHAT is Field Research? Some background … The term ethnography comes from the field of Anthropology, and literally means writing about groups of people. Social scientists would immerse themselves in a culture and write a „thick description‟ of that experience. Ethnography is the deliverable … Participant observation is the traditional name for the method. The term „ethnographic methods‟ has also come into common use. The research required learning a foreign language, understanding power structures, kinship patterns, social mores, food habits, etc. Truly experiencing the full cycle of that unfamiliar culture (if you think harvest to harvest, for example) could take a year or more. This is part of the reason that today people think of this type of research as being long and expensive. In reality, good participant observation is about not just observing, but actually engaging, being affected, and learning from that immersion and how it might challenge your own behaviors and assumptions. It can be inherently uncomfortable, and it should ideally generate self-reflection (which ultimately makes a stronger analysis and deeper insights). A fully trained PhD-level anthropologist has usually been exposed the four sub-disciplines, which are Biology/Genetics, Culture, Linguistics, and Archaeology. All of those ways of understanding people – combined with liberal borrowing from other social sciences like economics, political science and psychology – provide a powerful perspective on human behavior. Anthropologists trained at the MA level, often have less knowledge of the subfields and theory, but more formal methods training. Early anthropologists served the interests of colonizing forces, which is part of the reason there is such a high sensitivity in the field to public availability of findings, protection of human subjects, and so on. Anthropologists have been working in the business context since the 1920s. However, due to the concerns about co-optation, applied anthropology is a „fifth sub-discipline‟ within Anthropology – and sometimes a rejected one. In brief, it‟s not just about what happens with a device or in a certain type of transaction, which might be well suited to a lab study. This type of research is about understanding the context of interaction or decision- making – including what is influencing the person, their behavior, and their environment.© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 17
  • WHAT is Field Research?“.. [J]ust as medical diagnosis is not just talking withpatients, so ethnographic fieldwork is not just talkingwith people in the workplace … It may beoverstating the case, but we like to tell ourmanagers that competent ethnographic work is only5% visible fieldwork versus 95% preparation,analysis, synthesis, and communication, most ofwhich are invisible to outsiders.” Jordan and Dalal, Field Methods, 2006© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 18
  • WHAT is Field Research, and WHEN should you use it?DEFINITION Takes place in the natural setting rather than in a laboratory Engaged observations – usually in combination with interviews – is the primary means for collecting data The research questions are exploratory, open-ended The data is rich, complex, likely even messy! … and require time to „unpack‟ and analyze The work is ultimately about making meaning of what is observed, not just collecting and synthesizing data Insights can then be applied to a wide range of business, technical, or social problemsSOME CONSIDERATIONS Can be leveraged at any point in the product / project lifecycle (more on that shortly)  Some examples from Intel, Microsoft, Pitney Bowes, SAP Is especially powerful when used in conjunction with participatory design methods  Get your sponsor to the field!  Get members of your project team to the field – or at least to an analysis session! It can be a challenge not to get lost in the findings … make time for dialogue and stay focused on clear outcomes© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 19
  • WHEN should you use it?A product / project lifecycle perspective PLAN OBSERVE VALIDATE TEST  Identify new market  Engage with users in their  Determine whether  Evaluate product opportunities (white natural setting proposed solution experience and fit space) solves the „unmet in situ  Determine the current need‟  Explore key target usage of existing products  Ensure solution groups & solutions  Assess whether the aligns with solution fit will secure business and user  Identify alternative or  Assess self-reported requirements intended goals competitive solutions behavior relative to and / or clarify feature observed behavior gaps© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 20
  • WHEN should you use it?A CIO perspective • In an external study of 5325 end-users, 200 project sponsors & 41M managers, low end-user adoption was identified as the single most Value important factor for achieving project ROI (CIO Executive Board, Leakage 2008). • For a 100M € investment with an expected 15% return, a full 36% (41M €) of that return was not realized, 19% (22M €) of which was due to low end-user adoption. 100M 115M 74 M • Key areas where the UX team can support improvements to end-user adoption include: • Business case development • Prioritization of key functionality • Business process & UI design • User testingIT Portfolio Expected RealizedInvestment Return Return© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 21
  • WHEN should you use it?A market-focused perspective ““ A customer insight is a fresh and not-yet obvious understanding of customer beliefs, values, habits, desires, motives, emotions or needs that can become the basis for a competitive advantage.From Research that Produces Customer Insights, by Mohan Sawhney, 2003© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 22
  • HOW do we do it? W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W 10 W 11 W 12 W 13 W 14 W 15Customer Recruit & Define Schedule Participants Participants  Short Long  Work-  Work- User Experience | shop shop Conduct Findings / Build & validate observation Write Feasibility protocol Conduct observations Analyze findings reportWorkshop   (UCD w KMCC Customer) Engage & Communicate With participants Deliverables: Insights & Implications Report Presentation Deliverables: Deliverables: Deliverables: Deliverables: Deliverables: Identify Users Screening Criteria Digital Recordings/ Field Analysis Vision Initial Communications Self-Reporting Kit Photographs/ Video Lightly structured Findings Sketches Field Notes © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 25
  • HOW do we do it?PLAN / RECRUIT Ensure customer is clear about the benefits / trade-offs of using ethnographic methods Set expectations regarding research duration, roles & responsibilities Ask customer to identify target users, deliver initial communication, and recruit users (where appropriate)RESEARCH Start prepared - get to know the research domain beforehand Strive for open-ended, exploratory questions – what tools, what processes, what relationships are important Anticipate time to build rapport and allow for spontanaeity! Work in teams of 2-3 if possible (ideally one investigator, one note-taker, one videographer) Take prolific notes, discuss and analyze along the way – and engage across research teams where possible Bring your customer or research sponsor along if possible! Keep your final report in mind, while respecting the privacy of your research subjectsANALYZE / DISCUSS Commit the time to document, catalog, transcribe, organize as much as possible Actively share findings across research teams Engage project team members (including the customer) as early as possible in discovery, discussion, analysis, implications Conceptualize ways to visualize key insights while the field experience and research data is freshREPORT / PRESENT Impart a sense of curiosity and sensibility to your customers and/or sponsor Remember that business priorities may vary significantly from user priorities … and keep both in mind Challenge the team to identify the core messages, and prepare an executive briefing documentFOLLOW UP Stay engaged with your client to help them make sense of the findings Avail yourself to interpret existing findings for emerging situations © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 26
  • RESULTSWhat did we find out? Task 7 Task 6 Task 8 Based on 3% 9% ethnographic Task 1 Task 5 6% observation 11% of five 21% salespeople on two of their 23% days in the office 28% 4% Task 4 Task 2 Task 3You can learn more about this study at http://www.nataliehanson.com/present-EPIC-2008.htmlThis research report was written in collaboration with the team at Learning Worlds in NYC
  • RESULTSTypical browser homepage for salespeople
  • UX Services Timeline - Salespeople Dashboard view of user feedback on Pie chart of Industry GTM Pages outcomes from Team synthesizes shadowing findings into Team provides KPIs salespeople hypothetical for key sales calendar, based processes map on shadowing2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 LaunchEthnography UI Design User Interviews User Research Usability Testing Benchmarking Usability Testing 7 AEs Sales Connect UI Design8 AEs Industry Pages 4 AEs NNG Usability (PBG) 9 AEs For PCN Industries Industries (Global) Industries User Survey User Interviews User Personas 31 AEs 3 AEs User Research Field Enablement Usability Testing Solutions 4 AEs 7 AEs Public Sector Survey Expert Review Ethnography Launch Expert Review Collaboration 8 AEs Clearvision 360 UI Design Workspace Solutions User Interviews Benchmarking Usability Testing NA AE Foundation 12 AEs 15 AEs Vision ClearVision UI Design Market Opportunities CORE Pages Design Launch Expert Review UI Design Sales Management Information Architecture Dashboard Workshop Activities led by UX Design Activities led by UX Research © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 29
  • A Week in the Life of a salesperson KEY Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Task 6 Task 7© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 30
  • Insights from shadowing can inform …As-is versus the ideal processes Mental models for UI design Persona development… and the real tool landscape Lean Messaging w Cooper Design Directions for future research IA recommendations User requirements© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 31
  • Dashboard Layout & Design Insights provided to The proposed layout uses research findings to Customer Dashboard create meaningful, compelling and desirable Shadowing to understand how people work project team for content interfaces. and interface Visualize results recommendations. Recommend optimal layoutShadowsalespeople Tool preferences inform which information is appropriate to display How people think about toolsAE at work waiting for screen to load Prototype developedwith his notebook, on a customer call Day-to-day activatesAnalyze notes and informs adjacency ofrecordings information on the page Sample Day-In-The-Life Provided Best Practices Analysis and refined mock up Analysis groupedObservations are assembled, information by mentalgrouped, and analyzed PROTOTYPE model, which drives navigation and information organization on pages How people organize work information in UX MOCKUP Provided refined sketch that includes their own minds closer mapping to mental model and Provided color blindness best practices for usability analysis of existing prototype and refined mockup © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 32
  • Ethnographic Methods – it’s about time … With thanks to the team at Fit Associates in Pittsburgh PA for the great visual below© 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 33
  • © 2011 SAP AG. All rights reserved. 35