0
Why games light up your
hippocampus and exams do not
Presenter: Natalie Denmeade
MoodleMoot AU 2013
The Hippocampus?
http://blog.superbetter.com/show-me-the-science-
resilience-games-post-traumatic-growth-and-more/
The hip...
What lights up your hippocampus?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AzLjXF--G1w
The more the
hippocampus is lit
up the more li...
What can we borrow from games?
Intheflow
Build resilience by balancing positive and
negative emotions
A feeling of continu...
Negative vs Positive emotions
http://www.mrtoledano.com/gamers/04
A feeling of continuous progression
What is a game?
When you strip
away the genre
differences and
the technological
complexities, all
games share four
definin...
Four Common Elements
Element Angry
Birds
Tetris Linked In
(a non-game
example)
Goals Kill Pigs Fill an entire row Online R...
Four Elements – applied in LMS
Element Course Core Moodle
LMS
Moodle
Plugins
Goals What activities do I
have to do?
(Eleme...
Moodle for Motivation Guide
http://bit.ly/106ZMmV
a) I will give a Moodle for Motivation Guide
poster to anyone who tweets a question
@moodlemuse
b) What questions do you h...
Interacting
Players Acting
Bartle Player Types
Explorers
Players like interacting
with the environment.
They try to find o...
Interacting
Players Acting
Journals
Killer
Socialiser
Explorer
Achiever
Which assessment method LEAST suits each player ty...
Interacting
Players Acting
Lesson -
Interactice
branched
learning
Quiz - Multiple choice
Discussion
Forums
Killer
Socialis...
Initial Survey analysis
Disclaimer:
• Not everyone likes taking surveys – need to broaden the sample population
and survey...
Essays and Journals
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Least Motivating Assessment Types
Socializer
Explorer
Achiever
http://bit.ly/...
Quizzes, Interactive Branched
Lessons & Practical
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Most Motivating Assessment Types Socializer
Explorer
...
Course planning starts
with the gradebook
The gradebook
tells your learners
what the goal
and standards
are and how they
a...
Why your totals are not working
• Scales MUST go from
lowest to highest (DCBA)
• Match a three level scale
in assignments ...
Quick tips for non-maths fans
• Hide what you don‟t need
(Categories and items >
select the eye icon)
• Ask Admin to set s...
For the Math fans
• Every grade is converted into
percentages - show real (% )
until it becomes clearer
• Set up grade cat...
Rubrics and Custom Scales
• In Rubrics your score out of the maximum possible result
is converted into a percentage e.g. 1...
Demo courses in gamification
http://www.md.moojoo.com.au/
– Moodle Gradebook
configuration
– Custom scales
– Progress Bar ...
Social >Explore >Achieve
Make it
social, make it
meaningful and
give people some
freedom.
Then, integrate a
well thought o...
Pitfalls of Gamification Design
The introduction of
carefully selected
extrinsic rewards, built
around a design that
speak...
Summary
But real gamification
lies not in the
scattershot application
of points (or badges, or
whatever) but in the
design...
Key points: What can we
borrow from games?
Intheflow
Build resilience by balancing positive
and negative emotions
A feelin...
Further Information
Linked in Group
“Moodle For Motivation”
Share ideas and resources
Natalie Denmeade
@moodlemuse
natalie...
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Gamification and the Moodle gradebook

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This presentation will be of interest to Moodle Course Creators and educators interested in gamification. The Moodle Gradebook is a very powerful, and often neglected, gamification element.
Interactive computer games stimulate the hippocampus part of our brain, which is essential for learning new information, and invoke positive emotions. The same cannot be said for exams! People generally find the learning and assessment process daunting. A well configured gradebook can provide essential feedback to keep students motivated and positive.
Becoming an e-Learner shouldn't require having a combination of Einstein intelligence and Steve Irwin bravery. If you have been an online Student you probably were thinking ... What do I have to do? Did I pass that assignment? Have I finished yet? It's been months since I have been here .. I can't remember where I was up to.
Full presentation with voice-over: http://bit.ly/18hwzPP . This presentation demonstrates the flexibility of the Moodle LMS gradebook to be configured for all scenarios .. even the Vocational Education (VET) sector! Sample courses will be shown for competency based assessment (graded and ungraded). Rubrics, outcomes, custom scales and progress bars are all Gamification elements that can provide learners with rewards, feedback, levels, progression loops, boss fights, leader boards and achievement badges.

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  • This presentation will be of interest to Moodle Course Creators and educators interested in gamification. The Moodle Gradebook is a very powerful, and often neglected, gamification element. Interactive computer games stimulate the hippocampus part of our brain, which is essential for learning new information, and invoke positive emotions. The same cannot be said for exams! People generally find the learning and assessment process daunting. A well configured gradebook can provide essential feedback to keep students motivated and positive.Becoming an e-Learner shouldn't require having a combination of Einstein intelligence and Steve Irwin bravery. If you have been an online Student you probably were thinking ... What do I have to do? Did I pass that assignment? Have I finished yet? It's been months since I have been here .. I can't remember where I was up to.This presentation demonstrates the flexibility of the Moodle LMS gradebook to be configured for all scenarios .. even the Vocational Education (VET) sector! Sample courses will be shown for competency based assessment (graded and ungraded). Rubrics, outcomes, custom scales and progress bars are all Gamification elements that can provide learners with rewards, feedback, levels, progression loops, boss fights, leader boards and achievement badges.
  • The caudate and thalamus are parts of our brain associated with simple rewards, pleasure and motivation – think Gambling. The hippocampus is of more interest to educators who have the goal of behaviour change.
  • MRI brain imaging shows that interactive game play actually stimulates the parts of the brain - the caudate and thalamus - associated with reward and motivation, as well as the hippocampus, which is associated with learning and long-term memory. SRI meta-study finds there is a potential of 25% increase in learning outcome when using simulations, and 12% increase when using Digital Games
  • Having seen the evidence that games increase learning outcomes substantially, many educators are asking: “What can we borrow from games?”. Game Designers refer to the state of total absorption while playing a game as being “In the flow”As teachers we love that feeling when the learners are focused on the task and enjoying it – “In the flow”. We know how to achieve that in face-to-face learning, but how can a Learning Management System like Moodle assist? This presentation will cover 5 key areas to keep learners engaged and motivated: 1.Build resilience by balancing positive and negative emotions 2.A feeling of continuous progression3.Clear goals, rules, feedback and choices4.Use extrinsic motivation to build intrinsic motivation5.Offer status, access, power and stuff - in that order
  • Anxiety around exams and assessments is often tied to a fear of an epic fail, or fear of past failures. Yet in games people will keep on attempting a daunting task – up to 80% of interactions in games are failures! The key seems to be the balance of positive and negative emotions achieved by game designers. The number one positive emotion experienced in games is creativity. Educators can learn from this by providing more of the positive emotions throughout the process, and planning failures to be small and private. Feedback needs to given more frequently and faster through formative assessment. One badge at the end of a course is not going to be effective as a reward system built in to levels of mastery throughout the process.“Gamification offers the promise of resilience in the face of failure, by reframing failure as a necessary part of learning. Gamification can shorten feedback cycles, give learners low-stakes ways to assess their own capabilities, and create an environment in which effort, not mastery, is rewarded. Students, in turn, can learn to see failure as an opportunity, instead of becoming helpless, fearful or overwhelmed” Lee, J. J. & Hammer, J. (2011). Gamification in Education: What, How, Why Bother? Academic Exchange Quarterly
  • Frequent rewards not only build resilience they keep small achievable goals in sight. Many learners will quit before even attempting an exam. They see the goal as insurmountable. In the game world a series of levels is used to maintain player interest. In designing your course offer the reward, state what is required to achieve the standard, and then give the reward as quickly as possible and invite them to move up to the next level, this is otherwise known as bribery – it works!
  • There are many types of games. “When you strip away the genre differences and the technological complexities, all games share four defining traits: a goal, rules, a feedback system, and voluntary participation.”
  • Linked in is a good example for educators as a gamified system. There are four elements – Goals, rules, feedback, and voluntary participation yet it is a professional space – there is nothing frivolous or childish involved. Linked in has the goal of collecting your information and joining in discussions. There are rules about membership, commenting, advertising and connecting. The introduction of a progress bar was very effective in increasing the amount of information in each member’s profile. Simple communication… this is the goal, this is how far you have come.
  • The Moodle Learning Management System has built in gamification elements and plugins that offer additional functionality.
  • Learners are motivated in different ways. The Moodle for Motivation Guide uses gamification to map elements from games to eLearning activities in Moodle LMS. The goal is higher engagement, increased productivity and completion of Moodle courses.This poster is based on Bartle’s Player Types. You will play multiple roles and will change the roles you play over time, but will have dominant methods of interacting.
  • This graph has different colours to show how each player type responded. Essays and Journals are not very motivating across all player types.
  • The Achiever type really likes quizzes, but so do the explorers and socialisers. Socialisers seemed most versatile in their preferred mode. Explorers enjoy debates and roleplays.
  • The first step is to decide how totals will be calculated and the grading /scoring system you will be using. Group the activities into required or optional. It is worth getting some advice or training on this before you start making the course.
  • If you have tried using the Moodle gradebook and it appears as if it the totals don’t work. Here are some common issues: Set up your scales (either at site level or course level) to be from lowest to highest – D,C,B, A, or - Not Yet Competent, Competentor - Pass, Credit, Distinction, Using a scale with 3 possible choices to mark an activity will be best matched up by using the same scale to calculate totals, or at least a scale with the same number of choices. You could assess each task as- Not Satisfactory, Satisfactory then you should use a scale with two choices to calculate the total eg Not Yet Competent, Competent
  • The gradebook offers options for many different academic needs. Hide whatever doesn’t apply to you. This makes it easier for learners to see what they must complete and understand their results. If your scores are equal divisions use Scales. If you would like to set your own cut off to move up to the next band use custom ‘letters’.In a competency based system you can use custom scales (Not Satisfactory, Satisfactory) for each activity. To calculate the total as being either Not Yet Competent, Competent set the aggregation ( a fancy word for total) to be the LOWEST GRADE. If a learner is satisfactory in ALL tasks the result will be Competent. If one , or more tasks is Not Satisfactory the learner will receive Not Yet Competent. The same principle works for graded competency – choose LOWEST GRADE, but the teacher may manually apply a credit or distinction to the final result as an exception. You do have the choice in the gradebook of calculate total based on every activity or to calculate totals only those activities that have been attempted.
  • Understanding the maths behind the calculations reminds me of the little coloured blocks I used to learn maths when I was a child. The largest orange blocks represent 10 and each of the smaller blocks in different colours can be matched up against the orange block. In the Moodle gradebook Scales will always use equal divisions of 100%, where as the Letters of unequal divisions. If you want more flexibility in how the total is calculated through out your course you can make new grade categories and set different scales for each one.
  • Confused?Just download the sample course with pre-configured scales, letters, and demonstration of gamification strategies. Modify this course to meet your own needs
  • If you do it this way around, you are not creating a system that relies on the rewards to run. That way, you get the intrinsically motivated people anyway and those that are there for rewards are catered for.
  • Tweet your personal goal of what tips from this presentation you intend to try in the Moodle Gradebook
  • Transcript of "Gamification and the Moodle gradebook"

    1. 1. Why games light up your hippocampus and exams do not Presenter: Natalie Denmeade MoodleMoot AU 2013
    2. 2. The Hippocampus? http://blog.superbetter.com/show-me-the-science- resilience-games-post-traumatic-growth-and-more/ The hippocampus is the part of our brain used when committing something to long term memory “
    3. 3. What lights up your hippocampus? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AzLjXF--G1w The more the hippocampus is lit up the more likely we are to repeat a new behaviour … 400% improvements in long term behaviour change. Jane McGonigal “
    4. 4. What can we borrow from games? Intheflow Build resilience by balancing positive and negative emotions A feeling of continuous progression Clear goals, rules, feedback and choices Use extrinsic motivation to build intrinsic motivation Offer status, access, power and stuff - in that order Digital Games Boost Test Scores
    5. 5. Negative vs Positive emotions http://www.mrtoledano.com/gamers/04
    6. 6. A feeling of continuous progression
    7. 7. What is a game? When you strip away the genre differences and the technological complexities, all games share four defining traits: a goal, rules, a feedback system, and voluntary participation. Jane McGonigal, Reality is Broken http://janemcgonigal.com/my-book/ 10 million Minecrafters 241,920,000 logins per month 1,000 logins per hour 2,000,000,000 downloads “
    8. 8. Four Common Elements Element Angry Birds Tetris Linked In (a non-game example) Goals Kill Pigs Fill an entire row Online Resume - join discussions Rules Have to fling the birds in the right direction Within the time given turn the blocks to build up rows Only members can see. Try to connect to as many people as possible Feedback Pigs die (audio/animation) Points, Score, Game ends when top is reached Progress Bar Leaderboard – Most popular discussion Voluntary Participation Choose your level of achievement within each level Choose to beat your own score e.g. 12,000 points Optional subscription to discussions
    9. 9. Four Elements – applied in LMS Element Course Core Moodle LMS Moodle Plugins Goals What activities do I have to do? (Elements of Competence) • Mark as complete Check boxes • Gradebook Progress Bar Rules/ Challenges/ Obstacles When are they due? How can I submit my work? (Assignments) • Due Dates (My Home) • Lesson • Groups Collapsed Topic course format Feedback Did I meet the standard? Am I finished yet? (Gradebook) • Completion Block • Gradebook, Scales • Permissions • Badges Moodle 2.5 Moo Profile Voluntary Participation Self-directed, self- assessment, self- paced (RPL) • Groups • Conditional Activities • Lesson pathways • Flexible Rubrics Self enrol groups based on choice
    10. 10. Moodle for Motivation Guide http://bit.ly/106ZMmV
    11. 11. a) I will give a Moodle for Motivation Guide poster to anyone who tweets a question @moodlemuse b) What questions do you have about gamification and education? c) I bet you can't ask me a question about gamification that I can't answer! d) I will feel really sad if no-one asks any questions about gamification :( Which statement most motivates you? It's not what you do, but why you do it
    12. 12. Interacting Players Acting Bartle Player Types Explorers Players like interacting with the environment. They try to find out as much as they can about the world around them. Socialisers Players like interacting. They use communicative facilities as a context in which to interact with their fellow players. Killers Players like acting on other players. They are Politicians. They kill with kindness (Mother Hen) or unkindness (tease, heckle). They like to dominate. Achievers Players like acting in the environment to be successful. They give themselves game- related goals, and vigorously set out to achieve them.
    13. 13. Interacting Players Acting Journals Killer Socialiser Explorer Achiever Which assessment method LEAST suits each player type? Learners will disengage if they can not adapt to the assessment method http://bit.ly/bartlex Take a 3 question quiz Debates Essays Quiz - Multiple choice JournalsEssays Peer Assessment Role Play Essays Essays Journals
    14. 14. Interacting Players Acting Lesson - Interactice branched learning Quiz - Multiple choice Discussion Forums Killer Socialiser Explorer Achiever Which assessment method BEST suits each player type? http://bit.ly/bartlex Take a 3 question quiz Debates Lesson – Interactice branched learning DebatesPractical Lesson - Interactice branched learning Quiz - Multiple choice
    15. 15. Initial Survey analysis Disclaimer: • Not everyone likes taking surveys – need to broaden the sample population and survey method. At least this brief survey has shown that Bartle‟s Player types are relevant to assessment methods. Surprises so far: • Quizzes made it to the list of most motivating, despite their bad reputation as „traditional‟ • Essays are journals are strongly disliked across the board
    16. 16. Essays and Journals 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Least Motivating Assessment Types Socializer Explorer Achiever http://bit.ly/bartlex Please note this survey is a work in progress - DRAFT ONLY
    17. 17. Quizzes, Interactive Branched Lessons & Practical 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Most Motivating Assessment Types Socializer Explorer Achiever http://bit.ly/bartlex Please note this survey is a work in progress - DRAFT ONLY
    18. 18. Course planning starts with the gradebook The gradebook tells your learners what the goal and standards are and how they are progressing toward that goal. www.klevar.com “
    19. 19. Why your totals are not working • Scales MUST go from lowest to highest (DCBA) • Match a three level scale in assignments with a three level scale in total (or four, or five, …just make sure they have the same number of levels)
    20. 20. Quick tips for non-maths fans • Hide what you don‟t need (Categories and items > select the eye icon) • Ask Admin to set site level for your needs (e.g. hide email) • Customise „Letters‟ or Scales within your course to use the words you prefer – e.g. Satisfactory/ Excellent • VET Tip - Use LOWEST GRADE to calculate totals
    21. 21. For the Math fans • Every grade is converted into percentages - show real (% ) until it becomes clearer • Set up grade categories for flexible totals __________________ Apprentice < 90% __________________ Novice < 70% _________________ Observer < 20 % __________________ Master < 100% Letters use unequal divisionsScales use equal divisions
    22. 22. Rubrics and Custom Scales • In Rubrics your score out of the maximum possible result is converted into a percentage e.g. 18/24 75% • Use scales or letters to show if these scores are acceptable to pass • Make a custom scale and use your own names e.g. Observer (0-33%) Novice (33-66%) Master (66-100%) Gamification Custom Scale with four levels • Level Four (75-100%) • Level Three (50 -75%) • Level Two (25-50%) • Level One (0-25%)
    23. 23. Demo courses in gamification http://www.md.moojoo.com.au/ – Moodle Gradebook configuration – Custom scales – Progress Bar with stars download customised version – Collapsed topic multi- column layout – Group self-selection – Profile Block
    24. 24. Social >Explore >Achieve Make it social, make it meaningful and give people some freedom. Then, integrate a well thought out reward system (points, badges e.t.c). „For the Win‟ Kevin Werbach http://marczewski.me.uk/user-types/ “
    25. 25. Pitfalls of Gamification Design The introduction of carefully selected extrinsic rewards, built around a design that speaks to intrinsic motivational states (sometimes not the ones most closely aligned with the behaviour we seek to change), is the most powerful design model we have today. Status – we do it because other people will think we‟re cool Access – to something special that other people don‟t have Power – able to do certain things Stuff – tangible rewards: Awards, Badges, Certif icates, Virtual Goods, Points, Levels, S cores http://www.gamification.co/2011/10/27/intrinsic-and- extrinsic-motivation-in-gamification/ “ Gabe Zichermann
    26. 26. Summary But real gamification lies not in the scattershot application of points (or badges, or whatever) but in the design of a learning experience that engages (and delights!) learners and helps them to see where they are going and how they are doing at any one time (feedback). http://mozuku.edublogs.org/2013/02/08/efl- gamification-1/ “
    27. 27. Key points: What can we borrow from games? Intheflow Build resilience by balancing positive and negative emotions A feeling of continuous progression Clear goals, rules, feedback and choices Use extrinsic motivation to build intrinsic motivation Offer status, access, power and stuff - in that order http://www.md.moojoo.com.au/
    28. 28. Further Information Linked in Group “Moodle For Motivation” Share ideas and resources Natalie Denmeade @moodlemuse natalie@moojoo.com.au Credits Hippo artwork: Gabe Cunnett gabe@klevar.com Photos of gamers: Mr Toledano Unless noted all images public domain from wikimedia www.klevar.com
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