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  • 1. Credential of Competency for Paraeducators Standard # 4: Instructional Strategies Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network (PaTTAN) March 18, 2008
  • 2. Local Policy <ul><li>Your local district’s policies regarding Paraeducator job pdescriptions, duties, and responsibilities prove the final word! </li></ul>
  • 3. Questions ?? <ul><li>Email to: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  • 4. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction, learner outcomes and definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Basic instructional and remedial strategies and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive technology for individuals with exceptional learning needs </li></ul><ul><li>How students learn reading </li></ul><ul><li>How students learn mathematics </li></ul>
  • 5. Standard # 4 Knowledge Areas <ul><li>K1 Basic instructional and remedial strategies and materials </li></ul><ul><li>K2 Basic technologies appropriate to individuals with exceptional learning needs </li></ul><ul><li>K3 How students learn reading </li></ul><ul><li>K4 How students learn mathematics </li></ul>
  • 6. Standard # 4 Skill Areas <ul><li>S1 Use strategies, equipment, materials, and technologies, as directed, to accomplish instructional objectives </li></ul><ul><li>S2 Assist in adapting instructional strategies and materials as directed </li></ul><ul><li>S3 Use strategies as directed to facilitate effective integration into various settings. </li></ul><ul><li>S4 Use strategies that promote the learner’s independence as directed. </li></ul><ul><li>S5 Use strategies as directed to increase the individual’s independence and confidence. </li></ul>
  • 7. Learner Outcomes <ul><li>Participants will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>List principles of effective instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify basic instructional strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss issues related to using appropriate assistive technology with students in special education programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the “big ideas of reading instruction.” </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how students learn mathematics. </li></ul>
  • 8. Basic Instructional and Remedial Strategies and Materials
  • 9. Basic Terms <ul><li>Instructional Strategies support students’ acquiring knowledge or skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Instruction means knowing how to approach a task, what we want to teach within that task, and the most effective ways for a student to learn. </li></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Instructional Strategies </li></ul>
  • 11. Examples of Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Antecedents </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul><ul><li>Wait time </li></ul><ul><li>Active student responding </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Prompts </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Generalization </li></ul>
  • 12. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Antecedents - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What actions or events that occur before a behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to set a child up for success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structuring the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setting clear expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoiding “triggers” for negative behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 13. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Reinforcement – </li></ul><ul><li>A consequence for a behavior or activity that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again. </li></ul><ul><li>As an instructional strategy, specific feedback increases the likelihood of another correct response or a response closer to the desired response. </li></ul>
  • 14. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Scaffolding - </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions with students in which an adult guides and supports the student’s learning by building on what the student is able to do. </li></ul>
  • 15. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Modeling – </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy of teaching a child to do something by demonstrating the task. </li></ul><ul><li>What something looks like or sounds like. </li></ul>
  • 16. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Shaping - </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy of accepting closer and closer approximations of a behavior until the correct response is demonstrated. </li></ul>
  • 17. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Wait time - </li></ul><ul><li>Providing sufficient time between when a question is asked or a request is made and when the student responds. </li></ul>
  • 18. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Active Student Responding - </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs each time a student makes a detectable response to ongoing instruction </li></ul>
  • 19. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Flexible Grouping – </li></ul><ul><li>The strategy of grouping students according to the intended outcome of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups should be flexible and changing. </li></ul>
  • 20. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Instructional Prompts – </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictorial prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestural prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial physical prompt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full physical prompt </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Instructional Prompts (cont.) </li></ul><ul><li>Fading Prompts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As the student acquires skill with prompts, decrease the level of assistance you provide. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the prompt hierarchy to gradually withdraw support until the student becomes independent. </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Skill Generalization - </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the student to use a skill in more than one setting and/or with different people. </li></ul>
  • 23. Instructional Strategies <ul><li>Skill Generalization (cont.) - </li></ul><ul><li>After the student has learned the skill in one environment : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gradually fade out reinforcement for correct skill performance. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide practice opportunities in a variety of settings and with a variety of different people. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 24. Assistive Technology For Students With Learning Needs
  • 25. Instructional vs. Assistive Technology <ul><li>Assistive Technology (AT) . . . </li></ul><ul><li>is for students who have functional access needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of need for AT tools required by IDEA. </li></ul><ul><li>If required by the student’s IEP to access his/her curriculum, AT tools are not optional . </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional Technology . . . </li></ul><ul><li>does not require an IEP. </li></ul><ul><li>may be selected by a teacher to enhance and expand the educational experience. </li></ul><ul><li>use as a teaching tool is optional. </li></ul>
  • 26. What is Assistive Technology? <ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology Device : any item, piece of equipment, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to “increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities” (IDEA ‘04, Section 602) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology Services : any service that “directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device” </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. And that means….. <ul><li>Assistive Technology can be any tool that helps to accommodate a student’s needs </li></ul>
  • 28. When does the student need to use AT?.... <ul><li>When student needs to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>communicate: question, answer, repeat, tell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>turn on, click, highlight, point to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>write, type, check off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>read, look at, see, comprehend, define </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>listen to, process, find </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>walk, change classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interact with, remember </li></ul></ul>
  • 29. AT Continuum from No/Low Tech to High Tech
  • 30. No/Low Tech
  • 31. Mid Tech
  • 32. High Tech
  • 33. When you need help with AT…. <ul><li>Tell somebody !!! </li></ul>
  • 34. <ul><li>Regular Instructional </li></ul><ul><li>Technology also comes </li></ul><ul><li>with benefits…. </li></ul>
  • 35. <ul><li>How Students Learn to Read </li></ul>
  • 36. Literacy Development <ul><li>Language and reading/writing are NOT age or grade dependent. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to teach students from where they are, building on what they know, along the steps toward where they need to be. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Language is natural; reading is not.” </li></ul>
  • 37. Building Literacy Skills <ul><li>Storybook Reading (reading, listening) </li></ul><ul><li>Print Awareness (book knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>Language Play (songs, poems) </li></ul>
  • 38. <ul><li>The Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>( 5 Big Ideas) </li></ul>
  • 39. Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction
  • 40. Phonemic Awareness <ul><li>Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words </li></ul>
  • 41. Phonemic Awareness Skills <ul><li>Less Complex to More Complex </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyming </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable Blending & Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Onset-rime blending & Segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Blending & Segmenting Individual Phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>Phoneme Deletion & Manipulation </li></ul>
  • 42. Elkonin Boxes: Hearing Sounds Activity
  • 43. Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction
  • 44. Phonics <ul><li>Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. </li></ul>
  • 45. Phonics Skills Letter-Sound Correspondence Irregular Word Reading Reading in Texts Regular Word Reading Advanced Word Analysis Skills Adapted from Reading and Language arts (2002)
  • 46. Elkonin Boxes: Words Activity
  • 47. Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction
  • 48. Fluency <ul><li>The ability to read text with speed, accuracy, and expression. </li></ul>
  • 49. Take a Deep Breath .nworb emoceb seye eht, detisoped si tnemgip elbaredisnoc fI .roloc evitinifed sti semussa siri eht ,ecafrus roiretna eht no raeppa ot snigeb tnemgip eht sA .roloc yarg-etals ro hsiulb a fo tceffe eht gnivig yllausu, eussit tneculsnart eht hguorht swohs reyal tnemgip roiretsop ehT .siri eht of ecafrus roiretna eht no tnemgip on ro elttil si ereht htrib tA.
  • 50. Fluency Skills <ul><li>Automatic recognition of words </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Expression </li></ul>
  • 51. Modeling Fluency <ul><li>What do we know of these people who lived so long ago? Today, archeologists call these people Mound Builders. This general category includes various groups of Native Americans who lived at different times and had different cultures. </li></ul>
  • 52. Sample Activities Fluency <ul><li>Repeated Reading with a purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First time reading to familiarize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second reading to identify storyline, make predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third reading to build speed, accuracy, and expression </li></ul></ul>
  • 53. Sample Activities Fluency (cont.) <ul><li>Guided Oral Reading (with corrective feedback) </li></ul><ul><li>Read Aloud (with teacher modeling) </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Reading (teacher/student) </li></ul><ul><li>Taped Reading (listening and following along with the text) </li></ul>
  • 54. Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction
  • 55. Oral and Reading Vocabulary <ul><li>Learning, as a language-based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>(Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1998) </li></ul>
  • 56. Vocabulary Activities <ul><li>Definition Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>Frayer Model </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Mapping </li></ul>
  • 57. Vocabulary: Definition Mapping What is it? Definition What is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™
  • 58. Vocabulary: Definition Mapping rodent What is it? Definition What is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™
  • 59. Vocabulary: Definition Mapping mammal rodent What is it? Definition What is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™
  • 60. Vocabulary: Definition Mapping mammal rodent 2 sharp front teeth Gnaws on hard objects Smooth, short fur What is it? Definition What is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™
  • 61. Vocabulary: Definition Mapping mammal rodent 2 sharp front teeth Gnaws on hard objects Smooth, short fur mouse rat squirrel What is it? Definition What is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™
  • 62. Vocabulary: Frayer Model Word Definition Examples Non-examples Characteristics
  • 63. Vocabulary: Frayer Model Word Polygon Definition A mathematical shape that is a closed plane Figure bounded by 3 or More line segments. Examples Hexagon Square Trapezoid Rhombus Non-examples Circle Cube Sphere Cylinder Cone Characteristics Closed Plane Figure More than 2 straight sides 2-dimensional Made of line segments
  • 64. Vocabulary: Semantic Mapping
  • 65. Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction
  • 66. Comprehension <ul><li>Comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading. It involves extracting ideas from text and integrating them with relevant prior knowledge in order to construct meaning. </li></ul>
  • 67. Comprehension Skills <ul><li>Primary Grade Skills (K-3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literal comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summarization </li></ul></ul>
  • 68. Comprehension Skills <ul><li>Skills Grades 4-12 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting ideas within the reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehending complicated sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critically reading passages </li></ul></ul>
  • 69. Comprehension Activities <ul><li>Prereading </li></ul><ul><li>During reading </li></ul><ul><li>Postreading </li></ul>
  • 70. Comprehension: Prereading Activities <ul><li>Preview the text </li></ul><ul><li>Make predictions </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to prior knowledge </li></ul>
  • 71. Comprehension: During Reading Activities <ul><li>Stop periodically and summarize what you have read. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the main idea and supporting details in each paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>Visualize </li></ul>
  • 72. Comprehension: After Reading Activities <ul><li>Delete trivial information </li></ul><ul><li>Delete redundant information </li></ul><ul><li>Use single category labels to replace a list of smaller items/actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize paragraphs </li></ul>
  • 73. Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction
  • 74. <ul><li>How Students Learn Mathematics </li></ul>
  • 75. How Students Learn Mathematics <ul><li>Goals for Students </li></ul><ul><li>Five Content Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Five Process Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Mathematics Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Five Strands of Proficiency </li></ul>
  • 76. Goals for Students <ul><li>Learn to value mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Become confident in their ability to do mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Become mathematical problem-solvers </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to communicate mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to reason mathematically </li></ul>
  • 77. Content and Process Content Process Complete Mathematics Curriculum
  • 78. Five Content Standards <ul><li>Numbers and Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Algebraic Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis and Probability </li></ul>
  • 79. Five Process Standards <ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning and Proof </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Connections </li></ul><ul><li>Representation </li></ul>
  • 80. Basic Idea in Math <ul><li>Mathematics makes sense!! </li></ul>
  • 81. What do we mean by “making sense?” <ul><li>Let’s look at Handout #13 </li></ul>
  • 82. Effective Mathematics Instruction <ul><li>Function of three elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s knowledge and use of mathematical content </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s ability to work with diverse learners </li></ul><ul><li>Students engagement in and use of mathematical tasks </li></ul>
  • 83. Effective Mathematics Instruction <ul><li>Highly Effective Teaching Strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit teacher modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring a quick pace with varied instructional activities and high levels of engagement </li></ul><ul><li>Student verbal rehearsal of strategy steps </li></ul><ul><li>Provide corrective feedback </li></ul>
  • 84. Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency <ul><li>Understanding Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Using Procedures quickly, accurately, and appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Applying Strategies to various problems and situations </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Reasoning Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing Math as Sensible, Useful and Worthwhile </li></ul>
  • 85. Learner Outcomes <ul><li>Participants will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>List principles of effective instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify basic instructional strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss issues related to using appropriate assistive technology with students in special education programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the “big ideas of reading instruction.” </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how students learn mathematics. </li></ul>
  • 86. Standard #3 Rescheduling <ul><li>Because of bad weather: </li></ul><ul><li>February 12, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>rescheduled for </li></ul><ul><li>May 13, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>YOU MUST RE-REGISTER!!!! </li></ul>

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