Network Basics & Internet


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  • Key Concepts: This slide defines a search engine --a tool that can search through web pages and sort them according to specified keywords. Search engines are essential for researching the Internet: they have the ability to locate and sort through millions of web pages. Activity: The facilitator may choose to generate discussion by asking students to explain what a search engine is. Click after globe appears for the answer to the title question.
  • Activity: The facilitator may ask students about they types of search engines they use. They will list many for you--Yahoo, Alta Vista, Excite, Lycos, Hotbot, Infoseek, Northern Light, Snap, Dogpile, etc. Key Concepts: Each search engine searches the web in a slightly different way. Also, companies or individuals often must register their web sites with these different search engines, so the list that comes up on Yahoo may be completely different from the one that comes up on Lycos. A wide variety of search engines may be accessed at the OWL web site, located at When researching a topic, it is also a good idea to do some brainstorming about the best places on the web to locate information. Government agencies and non-profit groups may host web sites that offer useful information. Activity: The facilitator may choose either now or after the presentation to minimize the PowerPoint presentation, access Netscape or another Internet browser, or go the the collection of search engines on the OWL web site.
  • Key concepts: This slide offers tips for using search engines. Since search engines do not all work in exactly the same way, it is a good idea to read the directions of your selected search engine prior to conducting a search. Also, using Boolean operators --words like “AND” and “OR”--can help to tailor a search to your needs. It is also a good idea to brainstorm a list of keywords that might fit your topic. The slide offers an example for a search on the tobacco lawsuits and settlements. Depending on the angle of your topic, you might choose a variety of these terms in combination with each other.
  • Key Concepts: After using search engines to locate some potentially helpful web sites, your next step is to identify the site. This involves determining the authorship, content, and purpose of the web site.
  • Network Basics & Internet

    1. 1. Basics of Networking & Internet Services Government of India Ministry of Communication & Information Technology Department of Information Technology National Informatics Centre Training Division, New Delhi
    2. 2. Lecture Plan <ul><li>Basics of Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Classification of Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Networking Services </li></ul><ul><li>What is Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Terms used in Internet </li></ul><ul><li>How to do Web Surfing </li></ul><ul><li>Web based e-mail </li></ul>
    3. 3. Networking <ul><li>A network is a group of interconnected systems which share services and interact with each other by means of a shared communication link. </li></ul><ul><li>These systems can be located anywhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Network is often classified according to its geographical size. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Classification of Network <ul><li>The most common classifications of networks are: </li></ul><ul><li>Local Area Networks (LAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Networks (WAN) </li></ul>
    5. 5. Local Area Networks <ul><li>Computer network connecting computers and other devices in a workgroup, department, building or campus. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Wide Area Networks
    7. 7. You may be connected through: <ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leased line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RF Link </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Networking Services <ul><li>Sharing of Input / Output Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of Software </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of files residing on different computers </li></ul><ul><li>Communication (Electronic Mail,Chatting, broadcasting) </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Trading (E-Commerce,EDI etc </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing of Information / Exchange of data through Web Technology over Internet </li></ul>
    9. 9. What is Internet? <ul><li>The Internet is “The Network of Networks” </li></ul><ul><li>Internet is like a phone system which </li></ul><ul><li>- connects( almost anywhere in the world) </li></ul><ul><li>-Exchanges information </li></ul><ul><li>-Acts as Global link between regional networks </li></ul><ul><li>-Allows unrestricted access </li></ul><ul><li>Used for </li></ul><ul><li>- Communication through email , Chatting </li></ul><ul><li>- News groups </li></ul><ul><li>- Files transfer </li></ul><ul><li>- Documents,data(multimedia )sharing etc </li></ul>
    10. 10. Internet: An Illustration
    11. 11. Model of Internet Setup Internet Media Finance Computers Real Estate Education Health Government Universities Business Server User Client
    12. 12. How it all works ? CGI User C L I E T HTTP TCP/IP SERVER Docs
    13. 13. Who Uses The Internet ? <ul><li>Institutions like:academic, government and commercial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-to allow their staff to collaborate with peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-to rapidly coordinate complex, dispersed worldwide activities for information gathering and sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-by interconnecting their enterprise networks via Internet backbone providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business enterprises which specialize in providing or for global trading </li></ul><ul><li>General public via local access providers and gateways to commercial public e-mail carriers and other kinds of networks </li></ul>
    14. 14. What is the World Wide Web? The World Wide Web (WWW) is a global interactive, dynamic, cross platform, graphical hypertext information system that runs on the Internet.
    15. 15. Internet Standard Domain Names <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>edu educational organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>com commercial organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gov government institutions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mil military groups </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>net major network support centres </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>org organizations other than the above </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>int international organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>country code two character identifier for a country in the geographical scheme </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. What is a Web Browser? A Web Browser is special software such as Netscape, Mosaic or Internet Explorer. These browsers allow a user to view Web pages delivered from a client server (Web Site) situated at a particular URL on the World Wide Web
    17. 17. Netscape
    18. 18. Internet Explorer
    19. 19. Basic Terminology used in Internet Technology * World Wide Web ( www ) * Web site * Portal * Uniform Resource Locater * Home page * Hyperlink * Server s/w * Browser s/w * Protocols like TCP/IP, HTTP,FTP * ISP ( Internet Service Provider )
    20. 20. A web Page is a single document written in HTML ( Hypertext Markup Language ) that includes the text of the document,its structure, any links to other documents and graphic images and other media. HTML- WWW documents are authored using the Hypertext Markup Language. Homepage is a Hypertext document a server will serve as default.
    21. 21. HYPERTEXT
    22. 22. HTML
    23. 23. Uniform Resource Locator - Method of accessing Internet Resources - URLs are used by web browsers to connect you directly to a specific document or homepage on WWW, without having to know where that resource is physically located.
    24. 24. Jargon for the Internet ... <ul><li>URL , Uniform Resource Locator. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Retrieval Method Host Address Port Path/Document (ftp,telnet,gopher)
    25. 25. What is a protocol? In networking and Communications, the formal specification that defines the procedures to be followed when transmitting and receiving data. Protocols define the format, timing, sequence and error checking used on the network. HTTP- Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the stateless protocol used for data transfer within WWW.
    26. 26. Search Engines on the WWW <ul><li>Tools on the WWW used to search and find web sites related to a particular topic </li></ul><ul><li>provide for searching using keywords and boolean operators </li></ul><ul><li>Popular ones are Alta Vista, Infoseek, HotBot,Web Crawler, Lycos and Yahoo </li></ul><ul><li>Over 600 + at present </li></ul>
    27. 27. Web surfing <ul><li>Start the Web browser, for eg. Internet Explorer </li></ul><ul><li>In the Address box type web site address of some search engine ( for eg. ). </li></ul><ul><li>In the Search box which appears,type in the topic on which You want information, then click to start search. </li></ul><ul><li>A number of websites on the topic you have selected will appear with brief description. </li></ul><ul><li>Select and double click the site which seems to be more relevant to your requirement. </li></ul>
    28. 28. What is a search engine? <ul><li>A search engine is an Internet tool that locates web pages and sorts them according to specified keywords. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Types of search engines <ul><li>Yahoo and Alta Vista are the most useful search engines for beginning searches. </li></ul><ul><li>Google, Northern Light, and Snap access the greatest percentage of the World Wide Web--only around 15-16%. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogpile will search through several search engines at once. </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of search engine links is available at the OWL web site: owl. english . purdue . edu </li></ul>
    30. 30. Limit your keyword search <ul><li>It is a good idea to read the directions for each search engine to get the most out of your search. </li></ul><ul><li>Use words like AND and OR to limit your search and get more specified information . </li></ul>Tobacco Legislation Lawsuit Smoking And Or Cancer Advertising Teenagers
    31. 31. Identify the web site <ul><li>Assess the authorship, content, and purpose of the web site. </li></ul><ul><li>This is important because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many web sources are not checked for accuracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some personal sites are used to express individual opinions about issues, but not necessarily the facts. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. List of some Search Engines <ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Creating Bookmarks <ul><li>1.Adding Current website to the desired “favourites “ folder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Favourites>>Add to favourites </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you want to keep the desired site address in a new folder then create it following the steps give below: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select New Folder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type the Folder Name </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Click OK>>OK. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2.Visiting your favourites sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Click Favourites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Click on desired folder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select the desired site address, which you had earlier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>book marked. </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Web Based Email <ul><li>Pros </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater functionality than host based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary to client based mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need only browser </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less functionality than client based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live connection </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Email application Client Server Client Email client sends message to server Message is stored on POP server Later, recipient’s email client retrieves message from server
    36. 36. Chat application Client Server Client Chat clients send user’s typing to server Chat server aggregates typing from all users and sends to all clients Other user’s clients display aggregated typing from chat server
    37. 37. Visit the World Wide Web via the Internet Come and take your first trip into Cyber Space... It won’t be your last !
    38. 38. Thank You…. For further information and suggestions please contact Training Division National Informatics Centre A-block, CGO Complex Lodhi Road, New Delhi-110003 Website: