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The Need of Sustainable Shrimp Farming In Vietnam
 

The Need of Sustainable Shrimp Farming In Vietnam

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    The Need of Sustainable Shrimp Farming In Vietnam The Need of Sustainable Shrimp Farming In Vietnam Document Transcript

    • SHRIMP FARMING IN VIETNAM: CURRENT SITUATION, ENVIRONMENTAL- ECONOMIC-SOCIAL IMPACTS AND THE NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE SHRIMP AQUACULTURE M Eng. Nguyen Dang Anh Thi Presentation at 7th Asia Pacific Roundtable for Sustainable Consumption and Production, Hanoi, Vietnam on 25 – 27 April, 2007 ABBREVIATIONS BIO SUISSE Association of Swiss Organic Farming Organization CAMIMEX Ca Mau Fisheries Import-Export Company CREB Centre for Resources, Environment and Biotechnology FAO Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations MOFI Ministry of Fisheries SIPPO Swiss Import Promotion Programme VASEP Vietnam Association of Seafood Exporters and Producers ABSTRACT The development of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has been impressive during the last decade. In 2005, about 722,000 hectares were used for shrimp farming that brought about 310,000 tonnes with more than 1.372 billion USD export turn over (compared to 163,000 tonnes in 2001) or an increase by 90% in 4 years. It is clear that shrimp production has been taking a key role in the Vietnamese economy. Depending on natural ecological and socio-economic conditions of each province, different shrimp farming systems have developed. Overall, four popular shrimp farming systems have been developed: extensive, improved extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive. Over the last years, shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has started to shift from extensive to more intensive systems, in line with government policies. According to MOFI, shrimp farming systems in Vietnam in 2003 comprised 3% semi-intensive and intensive, 22% improved extensive and 75% extensive culture. Recently, in parallel with the shrimp aquaculture development, severe adverse environmental, economic and social impacts have been reported in Vietnam. Can shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam be developed in a sustainable way? The article presents the current situation as well as the adverse environmental, economic and social impacts of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam to figure out the need of sustainable shrimp farming to meet the Millennium Development Goal on Sustainable Development in Vietnam. Three success stories of sustainable shrimp farming are also introduced in the article as possible models for dissemination. 1
    • I. THE STATUS OF SHRIMP FARMING IN VIETNAM Referring to FAO Statistics 2004, Vietnam has been listed as the 3rd shrimp producing country in the world, with 11% of world production, behind Thailand (16%) and China (38%). In 2005, 722,000 ha were used for shrimp farming, resulting in a production of 310,000 MT. The development of coastal shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has been impressive during the past 10 years. Shrimp takes the largest proportion of seafood commodities exported from Vietnam and is of great importance to the Vietnamese economy. The shrimp production development in 2001 - 2005 is showed in Figure 1. The shrimp industry in Vietnam started with shrimp seed from the wild in the 1980s. An increase in production area and level of intensification has led to a high demand for seed (post larvae). Many shrimp hatcheries have also been developed, most of them located in the central provinces. The central region produces around 70% of the total shrimp seed used in the Vietnamese Source: Nguyen Huu Dung, VASEP [16] shrimp production. 20-25% is Figure 1: The development of the shrimp production located and produced in the in Vietnam Mekong River Delta and a limited seed production is taking place in the Northern provinces [6]. The most popular shrimp species in Vietnam is P. monodon (Black tiger shrimp). In 2004, P. monodon made up 80% of the farmed shrimp production, while the newly introduced species P. vanamei (White shrimp) represented approximately 20%. The white shrimp is currently not produced in the South as it is only permitted to be cultured experimentally in the North and the Central regions, from Quang Ninh province to Binh Thuan province and only under control of the Vietnamese government. Significant production is from the south of Vietnam but there is also a considerable production from central and north Vietnam [6] (Figures 2 & 3). Figure 2: Shrimp species distribution Figure 3: Shrimp production distribution in Vietnam in Vietnam Source: Nguyen Huu Dung, VASEP [16] Source: VASEP [6] The Mekong Delta is considered as the most important region to the development of aquaculture in Viet Nam, especially shrimp culture. Shrimp cultured area of Mekong 2
    • River Delta region were 535,145 ha, occupying 88.5% of total shrimp production area of the whole country, of which, Ca Mau province has the largest shrimp cultured area with 236,255 ha in 2005 [6]. Depending on natural ecological and socio-economic conditions of each province, different shrimp farming systems have developed by province. Overall, four popular shrimp farming systems have been developed in the Vietnamese coastal areas. They are: extensive, improved extensive, semi-intensive, and intensive systems. Sandy land shrimp farming is popular in the central provinces while rotation rice-shrimp farming is specific in the Mekong Delta. Over the last years, shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has started to shift from extensive to more intensive systems. According to MOFI [11], shrimp farming systems in Vietnam in 2003 comprised 3% semi-intensive and intensive, 22% improved extensive and 75% extensive culture. Of the total production (MT) the intensive culture produced around 10% and extensive culture produce 60% of total shrimp production. The productivity of improved extensive, semi-intensive and intensive shrimp farming were 0.25-0.30 MT/ha/crop, 2.5-3 MT/ha/crop and 5-7 MT/ha/crop, respectively [12]. Export value of Vietnamese frozen shrimp has been increasing in recent years and is getting significant importance for Vietnam economy (Figure 4). Referring to the Socio- Economic Development Plan 2006 - 2010, apart from crude oil, aquatic products overall are the 3rd VN export item (2,401 Million USD in 2004) after garment (4,386 Million USD) and footwear (2,692 Million USD). In 2004, Vietnamese frozen shrimp has been exported to nearly 70 markets, in which Japan, USA, EU are the biggest ones (Figure 5). Most export shrimp is originated from cultured shrimp which has big and equal sizes. Figure 4: Export value Figure 5: Market distribution of Vietnamese frozen shrimp of Vietnamese frozen shrimp Source: Nguyen Huu Dung, VASEP [16] In parallel with the shrimp aquaculture development, severe adverse environmental, economic and social impacts have been reported recently in Vietnam. II. ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACTS OF SHRIMP AQUACULTURE IN VIETNAM II.1. The adverse environmental impacts II.1.1. Deforestation The rapid development of shrimp aquaculture has had a very serious impact on Vietnam’s mangrove forests. According to FAO (2003), the mangrove forest area in Vietnam in 1980 was 227,000 ha; in 1990, it was 165,000 ha and in 2000, 104,000 ha. 3
    • This means that over 54% of mangrove forest area has been lost in 20 years. It is also estimated that 75,000 ha of mangrove forest have disappeared from 1975 to 1990 because of fuel exploitation and rural and aquaculture development in Mekong Delta [18]. In the Central provinces, the sandy land based shrimp farming is the main cause of the destruction of the coastal protective forests [4]. The consequences of the deforestation have been reported to be biodiversity reduction, coastal erosion, salt intrusion. Deforestation also seriously threatens the sustainable development of shrimp farming. II.1.2. Exhaustion of ground water resources Shrimp farming needs huge amounts of water. A 2002 estimation by Ms. Nguyen Thi Phuong Lan, a senior expert of MOFI, showed that between 16,380 m3 and 27,300 m3 fresh water are needed per ha per season to mix with sea water in the sandy land based farming [17]. In the Central provinces, most of the fresh water is coming from ground water. As ground water reserves are limited in the region, their overexploitation may quickly lead to difficulties in water supply for domestic and rural activities. II.1.3. Environmental pollution Beside the mangrove forest degradation, some environmental pollution phenomena have been recognized with the appearance of diseases and the reduction of productivity. Many shrimp farms release effluent directly into the natural environment, and the water exchange necessary in more intensive shrimp aquaculture means that chemical inputs (disinfectants, antibiotics, fertilizers, pesticides, hormones) and waste (uneaten food, faeces, ammonia, phosphorous and carbon dioxide) may reach and contaminate groundwater supplies, rivers and coastal habitats. Shrimp pond effluents containing high levels of organic matter have a high biological oxygen demand (BOD), and can cause oxygen depletion in receiving waters. Concerns surrounding pollutants include: persistence in aquatic environments; the possibility of residues in non-cultured organisms and seafood; toxicity to non-target species; possible effects on sediment bio- geochemistry; problems associated with nutrient enrichment; and possible effects on the health of farm workers [3]. There are growing concerns that the chemicals used in shrimp production may promote antibiotic resistance among microorganisms, some of which are harmful to humans or their interests. Other chemicals used in aquaculture are known or suspected to induce cancer, mutations or developmental abnormalities. Wild species, as well as humans living in the vicinity of shrimp farms, may be exposed to dangerous levels of these chemicals. In addition, the risk of disease which has potential damage to the farmers is also a pressing issue of the shrimp farming. Most of the diseases are caused by environmental pollution. Base on MOFI, shrimp disease in 1994-1995 impacted 84,858 ha and caused losses amounting to 20 Million US Dollar. Together with underdeveloped technologies and the lack of best practices, shrimp diseases are one of the main concerns in shrimp farming in Vietnam. II.1.4. Salt intrusion In Central provinces, the exhaustion of ground water resources promotes salt intrusion, which is the main cause for the death of coastal protective forests. In the Mekong Delta, the rotation rice-shrimp farming has led to salt intrusion to the rice areas, and reduced rice productivity. The conflicts in using fresh water between rice farming or other rural activities and shrimp farming thus represent a potential risk for the social and economic 4
    • development of the affected regions. A report by Tuoi Tre Newspaper on July 20, 2005 showed that in 3 districts of Ca Mau Province, the rice cultivated area is 10,000 ha but only 200 ha were remained and harvested with a productivity lower than 1 ton/ha. II.2. The adverse economic and social impacts According to MOFI, about 4 Million people are living on tide and lagoon areas in Vietnam. Shrimp farming development has brought many economic and social benefits such as job creation, income increases and infrastructures improvement. However, the development of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam is transforming from extensive towards more intensified farms, which means the poor people gradually lose their chances in shrimp farming because of high investment needed for high intensified farms. If it is not managed well, the farmers can lose their seasons. A 2001 estimation by Institute of Fisheries Economics and Planning showed that it is about 20% of farmers are lost event when the harvest is abundant [20]. Many farmers need loans from banks in order to start their business, and when they lose their seasons, they risk losing their land and their properties at the same time. Newspapers such as Thanh Nien, Tuoi Tre, Lao Dong, Sai Gon Giai Phong or Nong Thon Ngay Nay regularly report about bankruptcies of shrimp farmers in Vietnam. In Phu Yen Province, nearly 200 households of Hoa Hiep Nam Commune lost a total of 250,000 USD due to 4 consecutive poor harvests, many households went bankrupt; farmers in Hoa Tam Commune had irrecoverable debts of 437,500 USD; farmers in Ban Thach estuary had irrecoverable debts amounting to 7.5 Million USD [15]. In Ca Mau Province, 76,609 households are in debt to the Agriculture and Rural Development Bank for a total of 84.8 Million USD. In Bac Lieu province, the debt was 75 Million USD. In Duyen Hai District, Tra Vinh province, all households were in debts for a total of 31.2 Million USD. All of the debts were due to shrimp farming [19]. In addition, conflicts have been recorded in recent years between shrimp farming and other rural activities using water and land resources as well as infrastructures. In Ca Mau province, thousands of people in Dam Doi district had demolished Thay Ky, Tam Bo salt prevention dams to take brackish water from Ganh Hao river for shrimp farming [22]. In Soc Trang province, conflicts broke out between shrimp farmers and rice farmers for the use of irrigation systems and shrimp farmers had set obstacles to close salt prevention canals [8]. In Kien Giang province, the Hung-Thanh-Hoa irrigation systems invested for rice farming but the people there had used for shrimp farming [14]. Others records from NGOs such as Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF, 2003) show that increasing numbers of people have no land for agriculture. Therefore, many adverse economic and social impacts from shrimp farming such as properties lost, unemployment and resources usage conflicts have to be considered when developing shrimp aquaculture. III. THE NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE SHRIMP FARMING IN VIETNAM The fisheries sector, in which shrimp farming is dominant, has been playing a key role in economic development and poverty alleviation in Vietnam. The comprehensive strategy on development and poverty alleviation in 2002 showed that: “high and stable economic growths are the main factors affected to reduce poverty percentages; in which: agriculture, aquaculture and economic farms played an exceptional important role”. The Socio-Economic Development Plan 2006 - 2010 also highlight agricultural development: “Improve the farmers’ living standards. Completely eliminate hungry households and substantially reduce poor households by 2010... Synchronously develop fishery 5
    • products, including all stages of exploitation, aquaculture, processing and export... Ensure fast and sustainable growth of fishery...” The objectives of the Vietnamese Government in aquaculture is: “aquaculture development is to guarantee food security, produce material for exporting, create jobs, increase incomes and living standards, contribute to the social – economic development of the country”. To reach these objectives, many legal documents have been issued: − The Vietnam Law on Fisheries issued by the National Assembly on 26/11/2003 stipulates that the fisheries development should be sustainable (Article 5: Sustainable fisheries development): “The State shall issue policies to ensure the sustainable fisheries development... The State shall develop clean and healthy aquaculture... The State shall develop fisheries economy on the basis of the development master plan of fisheries sector in accordance with overall socio-economic development master plans nationwide and of specific provinces...”. − Decision 224/1998/Qð-TTg dated 08/12/1999, issued by the Prime Minister approved the Aquaculture Development Program from 1999 – 2010 (Program 224): “Development of aquaculture should follow a sustainable orientation, associated with natural resources and environmental protection, guarantee stable production and living activities”. − Resolution 09/2000/NQ-CP dated 15/06/2000 from the Goverment: “households and other economic components were allowed to transfer from salty fields, low lying fields, salt production lands and wetlands which have low productivities to aquaculture”. The shrimp farming development “exploded” after this Resolution was issued. − Decision 657/2001/Qð-BTS dated 22/08/2001, issued by the Minister of Fisheries, approved the Sustainable Aquaculture for Poverty Alleviation Strategy (SAPA Strategy): “Through aquaculture development to improve incomes and living standards of poor and unstable people. Development and receiving environmentally-friendly aquaculture technologies with low risk and investment”. − Decision 10/2006/QD-TTg dated 11/01/2006 of the Prime Minister approving the Master Plan for Fisheries Development to 2010 and orientations towards 2020: “To develop the fisheries sector in a fast and sustainable manner... and combining production with product processing, sale and eco-environmental protection”. − Decision No. 06/2006/QD-BTS dated 10/04/2006, issued by the Minister of Fisheries promulgating the Regulation on management of safe regions and establishments for shrimp farming “to meet the sustainable development of shrimp farming”. In general, the macroscopic policies of the Government always consider the harmony of economic development, social development and environmental protection to maintain high and sustainable economic grows. However, the deployments of these policies have been inadequate and difficult in each practical case. In addition, the adverse environmental-economic-social impacts of shrimp farming in Vietnam have increased alarmingly meaning that we had to pay for the explosion shrimp development. Therefore, devising how to develop the shrimp farming in Vietnam in a sustainable way is not only a requirement but also a mission in the upcoming years. IV. THREE SUCCESS STORIES The development and dissemination of success stories in shrimp farming is an urgent requirement in Vietnam. With the participation in some projects and references to other available researches related to shrimp farming, this article author suggests 3 success cases which might be appropriate to disseminate as models of sustainable shrimp farming practices. 6
    • IV.1. Sandy land intensive shrimp farming: ð c Th ng shrimp farm IV.1.1. General information and production approach The ð c Th ng shrimp farm owned by Mr Nguyen Van Sy was established in 2003, in the Cua Phu Hamlet, Bao Ninh Commune, Dong Hoi City, Quang Binh Province. It is a typical example of sandy land shrimp farming in the Central provinces. The 28.7 hectares farm produces black tiger shrimp from sandy land based intensive farming. 18 hectares (62.7%) are used for aquaculture ponds. The productivity during the 1st season reached about 6 – 7 tonnes/ha, while it didn’t exceed 4 tonnes/ha in the 2nd season. The investment capital of the farm is 1,300,000 USD, of which 1,222,875 USD for land; 69,750 USD for equipments and 7,375 USD for other costs. Post larvae are produced by the farm and used with a density of 25 - 40 PLs/m2. Feeds, chemicals and admixtures are bought from renowned suppliers. Water supply for the farm is fresh water (from ground wells) mixed with sea water to guarantee salinity within 5 – 30‰ (brackish water). Maximum 50 m3/h fresh water and 150 m3/h sea water are needed to supply for the farm. The production flow of the farm is described in Figure 6. Sedimentation and Disinfection pond Shrimp ponds Sedimentation ponds 10 m Shrimp ponds Post larvae production workshop Bio-treatment ponds (fish aquaculture, biological products) Pretreatment pond Sand Filters Pump Water recycling Stabilization ponds station Source: CREB [1] Figure 6: Production flow of ð c Th ng shrimp farm Water is pumped from wells and the sea, mixed together in the pre-treatment pond, and then pumped to the sedimentation and disinfection pond where it is treated with chlorine and iodine to kill wild shrimps, fishes and other organic matter which might cause diseases. After sedimentation, treated water is pumped into the shrimp ponds (aquaculture ponds). Initial water requirement for the 1st season was 12.000 m3/ha, while exchange water requirement for a season is 8.000 m3/ha (3 times/month with 10- 15% water volume). The wastewater from exchanging and after harvesting is treated in the sedimentation ponds, then in the bio-treatment ponds where fishes is cultured to tidy 7
    • up excess feeds. After being filtered by sand layers, water is pumped into the stabilization ponds and then recycled to the pre-treatment pond for reusing. With this cycle, water supply from outside is reduced from 360,000 m3 to 144,000 m3 (equivalent to 60%), an important figure in reducing costs and environmental impacts. Water in the shrimp ponds is aerated to ensure oxygen supply and reduce domestic pollution, as well as to prevent the degradation of organic matters. Wind energy is used for aeration instead of diesel fuel. Sludge from the farm is disinfected and mixed with lime and then applied to land. IV.1.2. Economic efficiency Land is depreciated in 10 years and equipments are depreciated in 5 years. Capital was borrowed from the bank with an interest rate of 1.1%/month or 14.03%/year and will be refunded in 5 years. Fuel consumption is reduced thanks to using wind energy for aeration. Benefits and costs calculation of the farm is shown in Table 1. Table 1: Benefits and costs calculation of Duc Thang shrimp farm 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Revenue Harvest (ton) 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 Price (USD/kg) 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 Revenue (USD) 828,000 828,000 828,000 828,000 828,000 828,000 828,000 Cost of goods sold Larvae 87,500 87,500 87,500 87,500 87,500 87,500 87,500 Feed 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 Fuel (aeration, pumping) 3,750 3,750 3,750 3,750 3,750 3,750 3,750 Chemicals & Admixtures 11,875 11,875 11,875 11,875 11,875 11,875 11,875 Labor 75,000 75,000 75,000 75,000 75,000 75,000 75,000 Cost of goods sold 198,125 198,125 198,125 198,125 198,125 198,125 198,125 Gross profit 629,875 629,875 629,875 629,875 629,875 629,875 629,875 Expenses Bank interest 182,390 145,912 109,434 72,956 36,478 0 0 Land depreciation 122,288 122,288 122,288 122,288 122,288 122,288 122,288 Equipment depreciation 13,950 13,950 13,950 13,950 13,950 0 0 Total Expenses 318,628 282,150 245,672 209,194 172,716 122,288 122,288 Net profit (USD) 311,248 347,726 384,204 420,682 457,160 507,588 507,588 Different from many conventional shrimp farms, Duc Thang farm recycles its treated wastewater. This measure brings them nearly 50,000 USD/year saving because of reducing costs in pumping and treating raw water from outside. With this current business situation, Duc Thang shrimp farm will pay its investment back within 4 years. After the loan is refunded, the farm will have 507,588 USD/year net profit. IV.1.3. Social efficiency The social efficiency of Duc Thang farm can be summarized as follows: − The farm has created 50 jobs with average 125 USD/month, double times higher than local average salary, and other related jobs that contribute to the poverty alleviation. − The farm has contributed to the improvement of infrastructures of neighbor areas. − The farm has been a symbol of success shrimp farms in central provinces, where the shrimp productivity is unstable. IV.1.4. Environmental efficiency In addition to the benefits in terms of cost savings, the use of wind energy instead of diesel for aeration contributes to the reduction of CO2 emissions. With the recycling of 8
    • wastewater, 60% of raw water is reduced, equivalent to 216,000 m3/year is saved in comparison with conventional farms which don’t recycle treated wastewater. That means the farm has reduced the environmental impacts and minimized the natural resources usage. The farm is also very effective in defending diseases which cause the loss of seasons and environmental pollution. The environmental conditions had been asssessed by the CREB in 2005: ambient air, surface water, wastewater and soil quality met the requirements of the Vietnamese environmental standards. IV.2. Community-based improved extensive shrimp farming: Vinh Hung Commune IV.2.1. General information and production approach The Vinh Hung Commune is located beside Cau Hai lagoon, Phu Loc District, Thua Thien Hue Province. It is famous for community-based shrimp farming as 1,000 households out of the total 1,600 households of the commune are engaged in shrimp aquaculture. The Village Convention on shrimp aquaculture agreed by all households and approved by the Commune People Committee is the valued legal document of the shrimp aquaculture community. The farm assessed in the commune is owned by Mr. Tran Dinh Quang with 8,000 square meters area. The investment capital of Mr. Quang’s farm is 1,250 USD, a low investment as he is using improved extensive farming. It is cultured in 1 season per year with a productivity of about 1.4 tonnes/ha. Post larvae are used with a density of 3 - 4 PLs/m2. Feeds, chemicals and admixtures are bought from renowned suppliers. Brackish water is pumped from Cau Hai lagoon by the public water system constructed by the commune. The maximum water requirement for the farm is about 8,500 m3/year, in which 5,000 m3 are maintained in the ponds and 3,500 m3 are used for exchanging. The production flow of Mr. Quang’s shrimp farm is described in Figure 7. Pump station Clean water canal Pre-treatment 2 pond, 1000 m Shrimp pond 1 2 2500 m Other Other farms farms Cau Hai Lagoon Shrimp pond 2 2 3,500 m Bio-treatment 2 pond, 1000 m Public wastewater canal Source: CREB [1] Figure 7: Production flow of Mr. Quang’s shrimp farm 9
    • As agreed in the Village Convention, all production activities of each farm should follow the guides from the self-governing team of the community. Therefore, the schedules for culturing, harvesting, water intake and wastewater discharge are always obeyed. Post larvae, chemicals, admixtures are all checked before using. Brackish water taken from public canal is treated and stabilized in the pre-treatment pond after being pumped to shrimp ponds in the Quang’ farm. Wastewater from exchanging and harvesting goes through a bio-treatment in a fish pond. The treated water is discharged to the public canal leading to Cau Hai Lagoon. In case of shrimp diseases or death, the self-governing team will be informed to have timely solutions. Sludge from the ponds are treated at the public landfill site. IV.2.2. Economic efficiency Capitals for production in Quang’s farm were self-finances. Land is also owned by Mr. Quang himself, so no depreciation is needed in his farm. Benefits and costs calculation of the farm is shown in Table 2. Table 2: Benefits and costs calculation of Quang’s shrimp farm 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Revenue Harvest (kg) 700 700 700 700 700 700 700 Price (USD/kg) 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Revenue (VND) 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 3,500 Cost of goods sold Larvae 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 Feed 625 625 625 625 625 625 625 Chemicals & Admixtures 313 313 313 313 313 313 313 Labor 438 438 438 438 438 438 438 Cost of goods sold 1,625 1,625 1,625 1,625 1,625 1,625 1,625 Gross profit 1,875 1,875 1,875 1,875 1,875 1,875 1,875 It is understood that the gross profit of 1,875 USD/year is also the net profit because no tax requirement is imposed on this small farm. Only 4 months a year are needed for the household to get a net profit 1,875 USD. This is quite an attractive business in such a poor area in Phu Loc District. But this is only possible thanks to the community-based organisation in the commune. IV.2.3. Social efficiency It is obvious that community-based shrimp farming needs high awareness of the householders to enhance social efficiency. Quang’s farm, together with other farms in the community, has high income from this business model and they are happy to develop their community. People in the community are solidary as they are aware of the common achievements, which in turn ensure the social sustainability of the community. This commune is also a specific model in poverty alleviation. IV.2.4. Environmental efficiency This is not only a community-based shrimp farming model but also a community-based environmental management model. Through self-management, the community has been very successful in preventing diseases and environmental pollution, and in maintaining high productivity. As all the wastewater is treated before being discharged, the water quality in the area is maintained clean for sustainable production. 10
    • IV.3. Organic shrimp farming: Mekong Delta IV.3.1. General information and production approach Vietnam is the first country in the world to produce organic black tiger shrimp, thus allowing the consumer to enjoy this product without any fear concerning food safety or environmental plundering. In the framework of a Cooperation programme between Vietnam and Switzerland, the MOFI, VASEP and SIPPO have financed and carried out an innovative project of organic farming of Black Tiger Shrimps and white shrimps in the Province of Ca Mau from 2000. In total, 1,022 farms belonging to the Forestry-fisheries Enterprise 184, a state owned enterprise, have joined the project with 4,000 hectares. The production of the enterprise has been organically certified by Naturland in December 2001. To obtain the organic label each farm must replant 70% of the total farm area with mangrove trees and follow the organic rules for farming. The “ECO Shrimp” is processed and packed according to the wishes of the buyers by CAMIMEX [26]. Currently, a Swiss supermarket chain named Coop Volketswil has contracted to purchase this organic shrimp through CAMIMEX and the price of the shrimp at the farm gate is 20% higher than conventional shrimp. The Enterprise 184 and CAMIMEX also received recognition as high-quality products from the BIO SUISSE in 2004 when the Swiss chain imported nearly 2 Million USD worth [7]. In November 2005, Ca Mau province launched a campaign to encourage organic shrimp farming. Areas for organic farming enlarged to 40,000 ha in Ca Mau province only and new farms established in other provinces [16]. Ca Mau had 236,255 ha of shrimp farming area in 2005, of which an estimated 110,000-190,000 ha could be converted to organic shrimp ponds. The organic farming emphasizes the protection of the mangrove forests, which a programme implemented by the Vietnamese government aims at restoring and preserving. Strict guidelines have been established to assure the preservation of the mangrove forest and environment as well as the quality of farmed shrimp and the distribution of earnings to farmers. Larvae density for organic shrimp farming is very low with maximum 2 PLs/m2, some case only 1 PL in several m2. No feed is required in this model. It is understood that the organic shrimp farming means natural shrimp farming, in which shrimps uses feeds originated from the mangrove floristic composition, algae, planktons etc. IV.3.2. Economic efficiency The organic shrimp pattern needs low investment and operation costs although it needs stringent management. Its productivity is higher than traditional extensive farming but nearly no risk happened. That means the production is guaranteed sustainability that ensures the stable incomes for farmers. As mentioned above, the price of the organic shrimp at the farm gate is 20% higher than conventional shrimp. IV.3.3. Social efficiency The success of organic shrimp farming has opened up a new approach for Vietnamese aquaculture sector. Nearly 500,000 ha of extensive shrimp farming areas have evaluated to be appropriated for organic shrimp farming. This success is not only a positive symbol in Vietnam but also in the world, when food security is so important in the globalization. Consumer awareness about food production is growing, and as a result, the organic food sector is showing strong growth in many developed country markets. The image of the Vietnamese shrimp sector in the world-eyes has been improved after the first ECO shrimp exported to Swiss. 11
    • IV.3.4. Environmental efficiency Organic shrimp farming protects the health of consumers by reducing the overall exposure to toxic chemicals since it does not use artificial feeds, chemicals and other admixtures. Organic shrimp farming also consists of a community-based environmental management system, for which mangrove forests protection is a priority. The environmental quality and biodiversity has been improved gradually after each season of culturing, as it is also a requirement to maintain the production sustainability. Conclusions and Recommendations Shrimp production has been taking a key role in the Vietnamese economy, contributing 1.372 billion USD in export turn over in 2005. 722,000 hectares of areas were used for shrimp farming in 2005, with many different farming systems. In parallel with issuing many policies to foster shrimp production, the Vietnamese Government has promulgated policies to guarantee the sustainable development of shrimp aquaculture. However, the practical implementation of these policies has been inadequate, leading to the recent apparition of many serious environmental, economic and social impacts. Shrimp aquaculture has led to deforestation, exhaustion of ground water resources, salt intrusion and environment pollution. Shrimp aquaculture also led to bankruptcies and loss of land and properties among farmers, as well as to conflicts between shrimp farming and other rural activities using the same water and land resources as well as infrastructures. The shrimp production is expected to be a livelihood for poverty alleviation in Vietnam. That means shrimp aquaculture should be developed in a sustainable way to create stable employment, ensure high incomes and improve living standards for farmers. Therefore, the development and dissemination of success models in shrimp farming is an urgent requirement in Vietnam. Because many different shrimp farming systems have been developed depending on natural ecological and socio-economic conditions, the applications of appropriate systems to the specific regions are very important. The article has introduced 3 success cases that are considered to be sustainable. The Duc Thang shrimp farming pattern is suitable for intensive aquacultures while the Vinh Hung community-based shrimp farming and organic shrimp farming patterns are suitable for extensive aquacultures, in which integrated mangrove-shrimp farming or rotation rice-shrimp farming have high potential. It is time to have a comprehensive evaluation of shrimp farming development in Vietnam, which should be focused on the environmental, economic and social impacts to know clearly what has been achieved and what has been lost by shrimp farming. That evaluation will be the foundation for policy making in Vietnam. To guarantee the sustainable development of shrimp production, the policies must be more practical, the awareness must be raised, the success patterns must be broadly disseminated and the infrastructures must be improved. The research, development and dissemination of suitable farming systems are an urgent task of the state management agencies, the institutes, the universities and other related organizations. Furthermore, the participation of local and international NGOs as well as the financial and technical support from international organizations are extremely important in the upcoming times. References: 1. CREB, 2005. Research on scientific and practical foundation for proposal of policies, measures on environmental protection and sustainable development of economic farming in Vietnam. Centre for Resources, Environment and Biotechnology, Hue University. 2. EJF, 2003. Risky business: Vietnamese shrimp aquaculture – Impacts & improvements. 12
    • Environmental Justice Foundation, London, UK. 3. GESAMP. 1997. Towards Safe and Effective Use of Chemicals in Coastal Aquaculture. Reports and Studies, GESAMP. No 65. Rome, FAO 1997. 4. Huynh Tien Dung, SUMA project and Nguyen Chu Hoi, Institute of Fisheries Economics and Planning. Sandy land based shrimp farming, an activity needs to be cautions. May 7, 2005. 5. Government, 2006. Decision 10/2006/QD-TTg dated 11/01/2006 of the Prime Minister approving the Master Plan for Fisheries Development to 2010 and orientations towards 2020. 6. Institute of Fisheries Management, Research Institute for Aquaculture 1, Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific, Can Tho University and World Wide Fund for Nature. Guidelines for Environmental Management of Aquaculture Investments in Vietnam. June, 2006. 7. Manh Quan (translated by Thanh Hang), Thanh nien News, 2006. Swiss supermarket chain prefers Vietnamese shrimp. January 25, 2006. http://www.thanhniennews.com/business/?catid=2&newsid=12279. 8. Minh Luan - H. Van, Tuoi Tre Newspaper. Soc Trang: Conflict between shrimp and rice again. March 21, 2005. 9. Ministry of Planning and Investment, March 2006. The Five-Year Socio-Economic Development Plan 2006 – 2010. 10. MOFI, 2001. The Decision 657/2001/Qð-BTS dated 22/08/2001 issued by Ministry of Fisheries approved the Sustainable Aquaculture for Poverty Alleviation Strategy. 11. MOFI, 2004. Progress report on aquaculture development in 2003 and solution for implementation of aquaculture development program in 2004. 12. MOFI, 2005. Progress report on aquaculture development in 2004 and solution for implementation of aquaculture development program in 2005. 13. MOFI, 2006. Decision No. 06/2006/QD-BTS dated 10/04/2006, issued by the Minister of Fisheries promulgating the Regulation on management of safe regions and establishments for shrimp farming. 14. Nguyen Thi Ky, Can Tho Newspaper, 2004. Mekong Delta, an uncertain shrimp season. March 17, 2004. 15. Nong Thon Ngay Nay Newspaper, 2005. Phu Yen: Lost in shrimp farming, a commune has 11 billion VND irrecoverable debt. May 31, 2005. 16. Nguyen Huu Dzung, VASEP, 2006. Vietnam Aquaculture, Shrimp and Pangasius Farming. Presentation at AquaVision, Stavanger, Norway. 25-27 Sep 2006. 17. Nguyen Thi Phuong Lan, Department of Science and Technology, MoFI, 2003. Status of on-sand tiger shrimp culture in the central provinces and sustainable management of the environment. 18. Phan Nguyen Hong & Hoang Thi San, 1993. Mangroves of Vietnam. IUCN. Bangkok, Thailand. 19. Tran Minh Truong, Sai Gon Giai Phong Newspaper, 2005. Economics transforming in Mekong Delta, the shrimp sector in unstable condition. July 28, 2005. 20. Tran Van Nhuong, Bui Thi Thu Ha, Research Institute for Aquaculture 1. The shrimp sustainable development issues. Updated January 3, 2006. 21. Tobias Viere, Stefan Schaltegger and Nguyen Dang Anh Thi, CSM/InWent, EMA-SEA Project, 2005. Chau Thanh Tam Shrimp Farm – Environmental Management Accounting for a small business in the Mekong River Delta Shrimp Industry, Vietnam. 22. Vietnam News Agency, 2005. Ca Mau: Irresponsible planning, billions VND of farmers have been lost. http://www.moi.gov.vn/News/detail.asp?Sub=71&id=13870. 23. Vietnam National Assembly, 2003. The Vietnam Law on Fisheries issued by National Assembly. 24. Vietnam Goverment, 1998. Decision 224/1998/Qð-TTg dated 08/12/1999 issued by Prime Minister approved Aquaculture Development Program from 1999 – 2010 (Program 224): 25. Vietnam Goverment, 2000. Resolution 09/2000/NQ-CP dated 15/06/2000 from the Goverment. 26. VASEP, CASEP, SIPPO, 2002. Presentation of the ECO Shrimp from Vietnam. European Seafood Exposition ESE 2002, Brussels, Belgium. April 23 – April 25. 13