Trial flip approachProvidepowerpoint plus voice over in advanceAsk participants to think about application problems and bring 3 issues identified to class. Also to bring session plan, module guidegrouping: use balloons, pre-decide team leaders – put their names into the balloons (team leaders will then pick their teams)in class: 1.5h series of activities (session design, module review/redesign – draft) – re-inforce and apply content1h TEL team – technology-enhanced teaching and learning plus activity: activity re-design30min Chris – what happens after the module design?
Different purposes and different people believe different things, e.g. the Government sees it in economics terms and future knowledge economy jobs.
Students don’t always know how to learn effectively and we need to help them.Feedback is crucial
Where do we start?
Essential – the basics, must be covered in teaching sessions?Links to threshold conceptsShould – broader, directed reading etc. essential & should will be enough for a student to do well.Could – further breadth & depthNice - everthing
In the 1950s, Bloom found that 95% of the test questions developed to assess student learning required them only to think at the lowest level of learning, the recall of information. Recognizing that there are different levels of thinking behaviours important to learning, Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues developed a classification system which has served educators since 1956.The inclusion of higher level thinking skills with information skills activities is a valuable tool and model for teachers seeking to provide challenges for their students.
activity? use the ‘Sky is Blue’ as an example.
Could also link in here the planned v experienced curriculum
Use a card board box and a little person (windows, doors…) inside, outside, break the box in piecesFlexibility: design, content, delivery, assessment, review
Course Design in Higher Education with narration
Designing<br />PGCAP Programme Team<br />
Intended learning outcomes<br />By the end of the session, participants attending and engaging in the session will have had the opportunity to:<br />discuss and critically evaluate own design process and approaches used<br />explore innovative student-centred methods and active learning approaches when planning lectures, seminars, workshops and tutorials to maximise engagement <br />develop a better understanding of technology-enhanced curriculum design processes and explore applications in own context <br />
purpose of HE<br />disseminate knowledge<br />develop the capacity to use ideas and information<br />develop the ability to test ideas and evidence<br />develop the ability to generate ideas and evidence<br />personal development<br />develop the capacity to plan and manage one’s own learning<br />source Bourner and Flowers (1998)<br />
helping students learn<br />experiential and collaborative learning<br />guidance<br />processing and application activities<br />structure<br />feedback on learning<br />resources<br />support<br />(Butcher et. al, 2006, p. 71-72)<br />
McKimm, J. et al. BMJ 2003;326:870-873<br />http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/326/7394/870/Fu7<br />
What is a good aim?<br />“A teaching aim is couched in terms of what the teaching is trying to do, grounded in what the subject demands” Laurillard (1993:184)<br />"...expressed in terms of what you, the teacher, will be presenting to the learner.“ Rowntree (1990:44) <br />
Intended Learning Outcomes<br />Describe what learners will know and be able to do when they have completed a session, module or programme.<br />“What a learner knows or can do as a result of learning” Otter (1992:i)<br />“Descriptors of the ways that students will be expected to demonstrate the results of their learning.” Race (2000:10)<br />
A well-written learning outcome statement:<br />Active verbs<br />Identify important learning requirements: knowledge, skills, attitudes.<br />Be achievable and measurable.<br />Use clear language.<br />Explicit statements of achievement.<br />
Content & Intended learning outcomes: minimum requirements<br />Butcher et al (2006) Designing Learning. From Module outline to effective teaching, Oxon: Routledge. p. 59<br />
The Cognitive Domain and Bloom’s Taxonomy<br />Video – Bloom’s Taxonomy via Pirates of the Caribbean http://bit.ly/9lmm4C<br />Bloom’s Taxonomoy (1956)<br />Educational Psychology Interactive: The Cognitive Domain<br />
Bloom reconfigured (slightly)<br />Anderson and Krathwohl Revision (2001)<br />
Constructive alignment (Biggs 1999)<br /><ul><li>Students construct meaning from what they do to learn.
The teacher aligns the planned learning activities with the learning outcomes.</li></li></ul><li>Application: How can I do it???<br />Know my students<br />Build-in variety<br />Active approaches<br />Assessment for learning<br />Acknowledge contributions<br />Be creative and flexible<br />"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." <br />Aristotle<br />
Planning – Things to consider<br />Your learners<br />Group size<br />Title<br />Time/duration<br />Day/date, location <br />Aims and Learning Outcomes<br />Structure and Content<br />Methods/Activities<br />Aids and Resources<br />Assessment<br />Differentiation<br />Reflection/Evaluation<br />“If you fail to plan, you plan to fail!”<br />
Modes of delivery - traditionally<br />Lectures<br />Seminars<br />Tutorials<br />What do these mean? Do we deliver these and plan these differently? How do these labels affect how we plan and deliver these modes of delivery? What can we do about it?<br />
How to deliver<br />From transmission to reception.<br />What is more important:<br />That we transmit content? Or<br />That students receive content?<br />Should we be focussing on how to get our students receive (and process) content and how we facilitate this?<br />NB: “receive” in this context is 'decoding' (reconstructing) the message / content transmitted.<br />
Moving away from the didactic / transmissive mode – different approaches<br />Problem Based Learning<br />Individualised Instruction (not to be confused with one to one tutoring)<br />Podcasts with tutorials<br />…<br />Key message: Students are actively involved in learning the content based on tasks we provide to help them do that.<br />
What to deliver<br />What Content?<br />Essential, Should, Could.<br />Threshold Concepts?<br />What Skills?<br />
Threshold Concepts?<br />Certain concepts are held to be central to the mastery of a subject<br />They have the following features:<br />Transformative: Once understood, a threshold concept changes the way in which the student views the discipline.<br />Troublesome: Threshold concepts are likely to be troublesome for the student. e.g when it is counter−intuitive.<br />Irreversible: They are difficult to unlearn.<br />Integrative: Threshold concepts, once learned, are likely to bring together different aspects of the subject that previously did not appear, to the student, to be related.<br />Bounded: A threshold concept will probably delineate a particular conceptual space, serving a specific and limited purpose.<br />Discursive: Crossing of a threshold will incorporate an enhanced and extended use of language.<br />
References<br />Anderson, L.W. & Krathwohl, D.R. (2001) A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Longman: New York<br />Biggs, J. (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University SRHE/OUP<br />Bloom, B.S. et al, Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive Domain New York: McKay<br />Bourner, T & Flowers, S (1998) Teaching and Learning Methods in Higher Education: A Glimpse of the Future. Reflections on HE, pp. 77-102.<br />Butcher, Davies & Highton (2006) Designing Learning: From Module Outline to Effective Teaching, Abingdon: Routledge<br />Laurillard, D. (2002) Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Educational Technology London: Routledge<br />Meyer JHF and Land R (2003) Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge (1) Linkages to Ways of Thinking and Practising in Improving Student Learning Ten Years On. Rust, C (ed), OCSLD, Oxford<br />Otter, S. (1992) Learning Outcomes in Higher Education London:UDACE<br />Rowntree, D. (1990) Teaching Through Self-Instruction Abingdon: Routledge<br />
Resources:<br />Guide for Busy Academics: Using Learning Outcomes to Design a Course and Assess Learning<br />http://www.itslifejimbutnotasweknowit.org.uk/files/CPLHE/Learnng%20outcomes%20for%20busy%20academics.rtf<br />