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Game Genres: For the Design and Evaluation of Future Learning Environments

Game Genres: For the Design and Evaluation of Future Learning Environments



NCSU 2013 CRDM Symposium, Brad Mehlenbacher, Jen Riehle

NCSU 2013 CRDM Symposium, Brad Mehlenbacher, Jen Riehle



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    Game Genres: For the Design and Evaluation of Future Learning Environments Game Genres: For the Design and Evaluation of Future Learning Environments Presentation Transcript

    • GAME GENRES FOR THE DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF FUTURE LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS Brad Mehlenbacher with Jennifer Riehle, Madeline Coven, Jameson Hogan, Christopher Kampe, John Martin, Charlene Mutamba, Jessie Stellini, and Keith Wickliffe CRDM Research Symposium: Emerging Genres, Narratives, Forms in New Media 19 April 2013Friday, April 19, 13
    • GAMES & LEARNING DESIGN (EAC 795) How people design and learn from games is of enormous interest to contemporary researchers and educators given that recent surveys of Americans over 15 show that they spend about the same amount of time every day “playing games or using the computer for leisure” as they do “relaxing or thinking” (U.S. Department of Labor, 2006). U.S. Department of Labor (2006). American Time Use Survey: Leisure and Sports Activities. Bureau of Labor Statistics Report. Available online: http://www.bls.gov/tus/charts/leisure.htm.Friday, April 19, 13
    • GAME TEXT EXAMPLES Huizinga, J. (1955). Homo ludens; a study of the play-element in culture. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Caillois, R. (1958, 2001). Man, play, and games. Urbana and Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press (originally translated from the French by Meyer Barash). Sutton-Smith, B. (1997). The ambiguity of play. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (Eds.). (2006). The game design reader: A rules of play anthology. Cambridge, MA: MIT P. Gee, J. P. (2007). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy, 2nd Ed. NY, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Friday, April 19, 13
    • We have to conclude, therefore, that civilization is, in its earliest phases, played. It does not come from play like a baby detaching itself from the womb: it arises in and as play, and never leaves it. Huizinga, J. (1955). Homo ludens; a study of the play-element in culture. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. Photo credit: http://www.gamingsymmetry.com/Friday, April 19, 13
    • TRADITIONAL DEFINITIONS OF GAME GENRES “This proactive production by players of story elements, a visual-motoric-auditory-decision-making symphony, and a unique real-virtual story produces a new form of performance art coproduced by players and game designers” (p. 61). Gee, J. P. (2006). Why game studies now? Video games: A new art form. Games and Culture, 1, 58-61. “... for the sake of brevity, this article will utilize case studies of four of the more popular video game genres: simulation, strategy, action, and role-playing games” (p. 8). Apperley, T. H. (2006). Genre and game studies: Toward a critical approach to video game genres. Simulation & Gaming, 37 (1), 6-23.Friday, April 19, 13
    • TRADITIONAL DEFINITIONS OF GAME GENRES McCann (2009) echoes some of the same “broadly accepted genres around which librarians can organize their game collections.” These “genres” include: “Action, Action-Adventure, Adventure, MMORPG (Massively Multiple Online Role-Playing Games), Music, Role-Playing, Simulation, Sports, Strategy” (p. 56). McCann, S. (2009). Game genres. Library Journal, January, 56.Friday, April 19, 13
    • TRADITIONAL DEFINITIONS OF GAME GENRES “The genres covered in this list are as follows: Abstract, Adaptation, Adventure, Artificial Life, Board Games, Capturing, Card Games, Catching, Chase, Collecting, Combat, Demo, Diagnostic, Dodging, Driving, Educational (“Games which are designed to teach”), Escape, Fighting, Flying, Gambling, Interactive Movie, Management Simulation, Maze, Obstacle Course, Pencil-and-Paper Games, Pinball, Platform, Programming, Games, Puzzle, Quiz, Racing, Role Playing, Rhythm and Dance, Shoot ‘Em Up, Simulation, Sports, Strategy, Table-Top Games, Target, Text Adventure, Training Simulation, and Utility” (p. 117). Wolf, M. J. P. (Ed.). (2001). The medium of the video game. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.Friday, April 19, 13
    • TRADITIONAL DEFINITIONS OF GAME GENRES “One possible genre of applications is augmented reality simulations, simulations in which virtual data are connected to real-world locations and contexts.... By simulating a virtual investigation, educators can potentially initiate students into environmental science as a coherent social practice, as opposed to a set of disconnected procedures or body of facts” (p. 372). Squire, K., & Klopfer, E. (2007). Augmented reality simulations on handheld computers. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 16 (3), 371-413.Friday, April 19, 13
    • REDEFINING GAME GENRES “Key variables differentiating these genres might include time to completion, replayability, and degrees of open-ended problem solving (i.e., is there one right solution or are there multiple acceptable solution paths?). Notice that this is not a traditional genre grouping in that it does not distinguish by content (science fiction vs. elves and orcs, for example) (p. 171). Squire, K. (2008). Open-ended video games: A model for developing learning in the interactive age. In K. Salen (Ed.) The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning. Cambridge, MA: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Reports on Digital Media and Learning.Friday, April 19, 13
    • REDEFINING GAME GENRES “A classification of discourse will be rhetorically sound if it contributes to an understanding of how discourse works—that is, if it reflects the rhetorical experience of the people who create and interpret the discourse. A useful principle of classification for discourse, then, should have some basis in the conventions of rhetorical practice, including the ways actual rhetors and audiences have of comprehending the discourse they use” (p. 152). “... typified rhetorical actions based in recurring situations” (p. 159). Miller, C. R. (1984). Genre as social action. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70, 151-167.Friday, April 19, 13
    • THE SOCIAL LIFE OF GAME DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY 3rd-PARTY ANNOUNCEMENT TEASER/TRAILER DEMO/BETA DEVELOPMENT LAUNCH/RELEASE MODIFICATIONS EXPANSIONS SEQUELS Initial Preview of Game testing/ Cycle begins again statement of game demonstration release User community Community may develop Game may have official develops around game modifications to the game add-ons to the original play and strategy. elements, narrative, rules, game, often inspired by etc. community input. GAME GENRE SETFriday, April 19, 13
    • HALF-LIFE COMMUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT TEASER/TRAILER DEMO/BETA DEVELOPMENT LAUNCH 3rd-PARTY MODS EXPANSIONS SEQUELS Valve Software Preview at E3 Test versions for Half-Life 2 announced founded; joins conference advance release with Sierra On- (1997) Websites (gamespot.com) Counter-Strike Team Fortress Line (1996) Online forums Narbacular Drop Half-Life: Opposing Force Tutorials (YouTube) Black Mesa Half-Life: Blue Shift Half-Life:Uplink movie Half-Life:Decay Fan fiction Gatherings for gameplay (in-person and online)Friday, April 19, 13
    • ICE HOCKEY ICE HOCKEY COMMUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT TEASER/TRAILER DEMO/BETA DEVELOPMENT LAUNCH 3rd-PARTY MODS EXPANSIONS SEQUELS Dates/schedule Pre-season Pre-season games Regular season begins New season of new season tickets sales and announced promotional Websites (tsn.com) Fantasy hockey Adding teams to the events Online forums teams league Gatherings for game Hockey video and project watching arcade games Changes to divisions Minor leagues All-Star game DraftFriday, April 19, 13
    • EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH & PRACTICE • Game audiences, not only game experiences, encourage gamer engagement, participation, and collaboration surrounding game events. • Support information, communities, and instructional spaces for novice, intermediate, and expert learners develop. • Gamers negotiate similar game features and the various discourse communities that emerge via the gaming community. • Games can facilitate problem solving, creativity, reflection, collaboration, and engaged participation.Friday, April 19, 13
    • EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH & PRACTICE • Genre sets for games explicate abstract concepts such as understanding, learning, motivation, knowledge, expertise, and deep involvement. • Subject matters can be presented from various perspectives, invite increased participation, and encourage our capacity to build and share. • Game designers and players collaborate, communicate, contribute, and evaluate different game releases.Friday, April 19, 13
    • THANK YOU! QUESTIONS? Photo credit: http://synergizmo.comFriday, April 19, 13