How to Teach ReadingWhen You Are Not a Reading Teacher
How to Teach Reading When You Are NOT a Reading Teacher<br />Let’s Begin With an Anticipation Guide! <br />Here are ten simple statements about reading. Decide if you agree or disagree with each statement (A or D). <br />Content reading strategies are only useful with printed text.<br />Many students have difficulty reading aloud and comprehending at the same time.<br />Prior knowledge is an important part of reading comprehension.<br />Reading strategies and skills should be taught explicitly and systematically to both good and poor readers.<br />Good readers examine the structure of words and use roots and affixes to help comprehend new words.<br />Learning to read, like learning spoken language, is a natural ability.<br />Comprehension is selective. Good readers focus on important information in the text, and poor readers focus on their interest in the text being read.<br />Readers must know what most of the content words mean before they can understand what they are reading.<br />Good readers know when they do not understand what they are reading in a text and have “fix-up” strategies to help them understand.<br />_____10. Only trained reading teachers can teach struggling readers to read at the middle and high school levels because it is too late to teach them how to read in their content classes.<br />What the Reading Research Tells Us:<br />The bulk of older struggling readers and writers can read but cannot understand what they read.<br />Many excellent grade three readers will falter or fail in later-grade academic tasks if the teaching of reading is neglected in the middle and secondary grades.<br />The two most critical elements needed to learn to read are vocabulary and prior knowledge/experience.<br />It is never too late to teach a student to read!<br />The Big “5” Elements of Reading<br /> Learning to Read: PreK-3 Reading to Learn: 4-12 and beyond<br />There are five essential components of effective reading instruction. To ensure that students learn to read well, explicit and systematic instruction should be provided in these five areas:<br />Phonemic Awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. <br />Phonics—the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters) that spell words. <br />Vocabulary Development—development of stored information about the meaning and pronunciation of words necessary for communication. There are four types of vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, and writing<br />Fluency—is the ability to read text accurately and quickly. Fluent readers recognize words and comprehend at the same time. Fluency provides the bridge between word recognition and comprehension.<br />Comprehension—understanding, remembering, and communicating with others about what has been read. Comprehension strategies are a set of steps that purposeful, active readers use to make sense of text when they read. <br />Reading is NOT a natural ability:<br />“That the brain learns to read at all attests to its remarkable ability to sift through seemingly confusing input and establish patterns and systems. For a few children, this process comes naturally; most have to be taught.” David Sousa, 2005<br />What is Content Area Reading OR Reading to Learn?<br />Content area reading means helping students make connections between what they already know (prior knowledge) and the new information being presented (academic vocabulary). <br />Content teachers must teach students how to use reading as a tool for thinking and learning in their specific subject since text features differ among the subject areas.<br />Content teachers do not become reading specialists! <br />Content teachers become teachers who teach their students how to read their specific content using reading strategies.<br />Remember:<br /><ul><li>Many students cannot read aloud and comprehend at the same time.
Directed, focused silent reading is essential in all content areas, and prediction helps to get students to read silently.
Assigning and telling students to read does not work.
If you want students to read in your class, ask a question about what they are to read and let them predict. They will read because they want to know if they guessed correctly.
Every content area has its own vocabulary and style of being read.
As you teach your content, make sure your students understand the words that you as a scientist, historian, mathematician, mechanic, etc. know are important to be successful in your subject.
When you have students read in your content, think of ways to help them read the text in three stages, before, during, and after the reading. </li></ul>“The challenge for the content area teacher is to determine what strategies will help students acquire the content knowledge while managing the wide range of differences in reading achievement.” David Sousa, 2005<br />If You Want Your Students to “Read to Learn” in Your Classroom, Try These “5” Instructional Strategies:<br />1. Anticipation Guides: (Tierney, Readence, Dishner) We did one!!!<br />Purpose—activate prior knowledge, encourage personal connection to the text, require active participation with the text<br />Steps:<br />List five to seven statements that:<br />Address the major topics/themes/issues of the text<br />Present important generalizations<br />Are worth discussing and will encourage thinking/debate (make them argue!)<br />Do not have clear cut or yes/no answers<br />Are experience based if possible—works best when students have some but limited knowledge about the subject <br />Before reading:<br />Students agree or disagree with the statements.<br />Share answers with a partner.<br />Ask the class with show of hands (signaling) on agree/disagree for each statement.<br />Ask students to give reasons for their opinions.<br />Do not correct answers.<br />During reading:<br />Students take notes on the topics or issues.<br />They document the location (page, column, paragraph, line) of confirming or conflicting information. <br />They read critically and with a purpose.<br />They try to examine the issues with an open mind/a fresh point of view.<br />After reading:<br />Review original responses, and see if students feel the same or have changed their thinking.<br />Use the following questions to guide discussion:<br /> What information did we learn that we did not “anticipate” before we read?<br /> What have we learned by reading this selection?<br /> What was the most interesting, surprising, or unusual information you learned?<br /> Do we still have other questions about the topic/text?<br /> Do you trust the expertise/credentials of the author? <br />2. Book/chapter/section Walk<br />Purpose—create interest, assess or activate prior knowledge, encourage personal connection to the text, require active participation with the text, expose students to critical text features, develop purpose for reading, develop key concepts, vocabulary, and general idea of text before reading<br />Steps:<br />Before students read, preview and examine the parts of a book/story/article/chapter/section by systematically examining the various visual and text features.<br />Show cover, opening page, first paragraph, or beginning section and ask students to make predictions regarding content.<br />Quickly walk through the text, pointing out key information in the text.<br />Point out text features that make the information delivery unique for your content—title, table of contents, introduction, summary, main headings, bold face or italics, first and last paragraphs, charts/pictures/graphs, source, date, author, glossary, and side bars.<br />Use key vocabulary as you do the walk.<br />Have students predict what the things you are pointing out will provide them as you go along. You may choose to record predictions.<br />Return to predictions after reading.<br />Student Sample: Reading Guide After a Book/Chapter/Section Walk<br />What is the name of your text, chapter, and section?<br />On what page does the glossary begin?<br />What is used to help you practice problems, understand new words, create interest as you read?<br />Name some lessons/ideas/words from this book that will be a review for you.<br />What is a key concept in your book?<br />Where do you find a key concept?<br />Using the Table of Contents, name three new things that you will be learning.<br />3. Eye focus—the slow teacher turn and fannies in the air<br />4. Think alouds by teacher and students—metacognition<br />5. Learning Walls—are not cute posters or letters of the alphabet. They are intentional attempts to use the power of visualization as a part of a long term memory for students.<br />Generate a list of essential words (the verbs), concepts, formulas, or whatever is critical that students know and remember in your content area<br />Include only essential words, etc. and add information gradually<br />Practice and refer to this information and how it can be used daily. <br />Make sure that what you want them to know is used and spelled correctly in their work<br />Create a chart/format/list for important information<br />Try using the same color for words that share the same concept and change colors when the theme, chapter, area of study changes. Remember: the brain research shows that the brain thinks in odd numbers, color, location, and pattern.<br />Place the information in a prominent place in your classroom. It does not have to be a wall.<br />More Ideas You Can Use To Teach Comprehension, Vocabulary, and Fluency!<br />Use chapter mapping, text structures, and vocabulary development strategies.<br />Use strategies like webs, semantic feature analysis, and structured overviews of content.<br />Involve students in reading non-fiction and other types of books/materials (cereal box, tax forms, job application, commercial writing from web sites, CD liners, DVD programming directions, etc.)<br />Use socializing needs to enhance literacy and thinking abilities—cooperative learning, peer editing, paired reading, posting writing on the internet, producing a radio play, writing a commercial.<br />Activate and use prior knowledge while learning new content and then reflect on understanding of new content.<br />Teach students to set purposes and use strategies for reading a variety of texts. (predict, clarify-reread the text, read on until meaning is clear, look for connections to life, talk about the text, question, summarize)<br />Read aloud to students from a variety of texts.<br />Scaffold—distribute plot summaries, study guides, or lists of important terms, characters, events, etc.<br />Use videos, recordings, cartoons, stories, etc. to arouse students’ interest.<br />Pause during in-class reading to predict outcomes.<br />Assign students to dramatize and perform brief scenes.<br />Organize debates on issues and moral dilemmas raised in the reading.<br />Have students keep reading or vocabulary journals and two column notes. <br />Have students create games based on the reading.<br />Have students assume the personae of characters and engage in a panel discussion of a specific topic.<br />Have students create illustrated flashcards for vocabulary/term review (card sorts).<br />After reading informational, non-fiction texts, ask 5 questions:<br />Did you find the answers to our questions or which questions did we find the answers to?<br />What “didn’t” we find the answers to?<br />What else did you learn that we “didn’t think about?<br />What is the most surprising/interesting thing we read?<br />What do we now know that we “didn’t” know before?<br />Character profiles: record 5 facts and descriptions/historical figures/concepts<br />Characterize the most important/critical word, passage, or concept and then use the text to answer 4 or 5 questions.<br />Role Plays:<br />“In the Hot Seat”—be a person from the reading and take questions—act and react as that person.<br />“Freeze Frame”—freeze an event or passage and flesh it out.<br />Let’s Review What We’ve Learned Today and use ABC Brainstorming—can be used to check background knowledge, note key elements or information, or to create a summary or review.<br />Students list letters of the alphabet down a sheet of paper (or provide them with a sheet with the alphabet boxes).<br />Students fill in words or phrases that begin with each letter (in no particular order).<br />Begin individually, then allow them to pair up <br />Share answers with the class, write a summary paragraph that includes what they think are the major points, or create a graphic organizer of what they have learned.<br />ABC Brainstorming<br />Directions: With a partner, think about what you have learned about reading and how to teach it in your content area in today’s session and write one word for each letter that reflects what you have learned.<br />ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ<br />Faber, Sharon. How To Teach Reading When You’re NOT A Reading Teacher. <br />Nashville, TN: Incentive Publications, Revised Ed. 2006.<br />Faber, Sharon. Reading Strategies: A Quick-Reference Resource for Helping Students <br />Before, During, and After Reading. Nashville, TN: Incentive Publications, 2007. <br />