NurseReview.Org - Study Skills and Test Strategies for the New Nursing Student

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http://NurseReview.Org - Study Skills and Test Strategies for the New Nursing Student

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  • This class was created as a project for the University of Phoenix Master’s of Science in Nursing. Two resources heavily used in the program are: Sides, M. &Kerchek, N. (1998), Successful Test taking, learning strategies for nursing students . Philadelphia, PA, Lippincott. Spring house, (2000). Studying & test taking made incredibly easy! Springhouse, PA. Springhouse.

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  • 1. Study Skills and Test Strategies for the New Nursing Student BY Caralee Bromme, RN, MSN, CCRN
  • 2. How learners learn...
    • Tell me and I will forget
    • Show me and I will remember
    • Involve me and I will understand
    • (Confucius)
  • 3. Critical thinking
    • Critical thinking is the cornerstone of one's ability to function in today's society. According to Scriven & Paul (n.d.) ,
    • it...can be seen as having two components:
      • a set of skills to process and generate information and beliefs, and
      • the habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behavior.
      • ( Scriven & Paul, nd: http://www.criticalthinking.org/University/univclass/Defining.html )
  • 4. Critical Thinking
    • Critical thinking is a mental process that uses elements of reasoning to shape choices and make sound judgements.
    A good question is never answered. It is not a bolt to be Tightened into place But seed to be planted And bear more seed... Towards the hope of greening The landscape of ideas (John Ciardi)
  • 5. Types of Learners
    • Right Brain
      • Artistic perception
      • Creativity
      • Intuitive thinking
      • Music and rhythm
      • Imagination and abstraction
      • Daydreaming
      • Reflection
      • Random thinking
    • Left Brain
      • Language and word use
      • Logic, reasoning & analysis
      • Rational thinking
      • Sequence and order
  • 6. Learning Styles
    • Visual
    • Auditory
    • Kinesthetic
    • Global
    • Detail learning
  • 7. Visual
    • Seeing is believing
      • Learn best by watching or reading
        • Resources available
          • Books
          • Demonstrations
          • Handouts
          • Internet resources
          • Personal notes
          • Periodicals
          • Videos
  • 8. Auditory
    • Sounds like…..
      • You tune into the things you hear
        • Discussions with others
        • Lectures
        • Question and answer sessions
        • Reading procedures aloud
        • Study groups
        • Tape recordings
  • 9. Kinesthetic
    • Can do…
      • If you prefer to jump right in and do something new... your motto “ Learn by doing”
        • Attend workshops
        • Give return demonstrations
        • Participate in individual or group projects
        • Take part in special or extra activities
        • Volunteer
  • 10. Global Learning
    • The big picture…
      • Find the answer by looking at the big picture
        • Sweeping theories and over all trends fill your vision
        • Like to find the conclusion after considering all the options
          • Write summaries of your notes
          • Use diagrams to show relationships
          • Develop question lists
  • 11. Detail Thinking
    • You follow instructions closely and follow logical orders and you like the teacher who follows the lessons plan closely
        • Create bullet summary lists from class notes
        • Use diagrams to connect specific ideas to larger concepts
        • Make specific to do lists before beginning study sessions
        • Write questions as they appear in the reading
        • Be prepared to illustrate specific details with examples
  • 12. The Learning Process Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge Bloom’s Learning Level (1956)
  • 13. Bloom’s Learning Levels
    • Knowledge stage of critical thinking
      • Requires memorization for recall
        • Math formulas
        • Phone numbers
    • Comprehension
      • Involves converting information from the form received to your own words
        • Making illustrations
        • Describing relationships
  • 14. Bloom’s Learning Levels
    • Application
      • You apply the information you have gained, translated or interpreted to solve problems or accomplish concrete tasks
        • Completing a project by following directions
        • Using a theory or formula to solve a problem
    • Analysis
      • You break down the concept into parts and understand how they work
        • Identify assumptions
        • Decide if data valid
  • 15. Bloom’s Learning Levels
    • Synthesis
      • You can put parts together and find a new and larger whole
        • Developing your notes into presentation
        • Writing a poem or story
    • Evaluation
      • Most complex level of cognitive functioning
        • You use all the stages to determine the value and relevance of the information
        • Springhouse 2000
  • 16. The Nursing Process Evaluation Implementation Planning Analysis Assessment
  • 17. Now critical thinking and the nursing process..
    • Assessment
      • Collect data, communicate information about assessments
    • Analysis/ Nursing Diagnosis
      • Clustering and interpreting data, identifying and communicating nursing diagnosis
    • Planning
      • Identifying goals, projecting outcomes, setting priorities, identifying interventions
    • Implementation
      • Implementing nursing care
    • Evaluation
      • Identifying patient responses, comparing outcomes to goals, modifying plan of care.
    • “ This is process of how we think about patients”
    • Now let’s apply the same process to tests
  • 18. The next step - Setting the stage…
    • An action plan gives you control over your immediate future. It helps reduce stress, anxiety, frustration, and unnecessary use of time and energy. If you don’t have a plan, you jeopardize your chance to succeed and increase your chance for failure.
    • A winner has a plan!
    • A loser has an excuse!
    • (Sides and Korchek)
  • 19. The keys for success
    • Develop the winning attitude
    • Identify motivators
    • Set short term and long term goals
    • Use time management
    • Reward yourself
  • 20. Time management Self Significant Other/ Spouse Kids School Work House How do you handle it all? Studying Laundry Clinical
  • 21. Setting the stage...
    • Make a consistent space for yourself to study
    • Insure adequate lighting, and quietness
    • Have all your supplies
    • Schedule your time
    Do Not Disturb Until 5:00pm
  • 22. Time management
    • Schedule your time
      • To study
      • For kids/ husband
      • For house
    • Develop weekly calendar
    • Set priorities
    • Make to do lists
    • Don’t procrastinate
    8am class 10am study group 3pm baseball 6pm date w/ husband Test on Friday Culture project Due 3 weeks Care study due 5 weeks get patient
  • 23. Breaking the procrastination habit
    • Identify your motivators
      • Make a list of self motivating statements
      • Recognize that negative predictions do come true
    • Set your goals
      • Establish a clear timetable
      • Break down large tasks to small ones
      • Pinpoint where your delay s typically start
      • Write reminders
    • Reward yourself
      • Also give up something if you fail
  • 24. It’s time to study …
    • What is an objective?
      • Objectives are tools for describing the intended outcomes
        • Performance
          • What your supposed to do...
        • Conditions
          • How your to do it...
        • Criterion
          • How well you have to perform to be competent ...
  • 25. An example of an objective
    • After listening to the lecture , the student will be able to
      • List in writing the three parts of an objective .
      • Identify why objectives are important.
      • Analyze the importance of objectives in future study.
    • Nursing courses are based
    • on objectives
  • 26. Study strategies for the classroom
    • Be prepared
      • Read objectives
      • Look at and read section headings
      • Look at all charts or illustrations and read captions
      • Skim main text to identify main concepts
      • Look at words in bold or Italics
      • The goal is to gain the general idea
    • During class pay attention to
      • Contents of handouts
      • Anything written on board
      • Instructor’s response to certain questions
      • Anything instructor stresses or repeats
      • How instructor presents the information
        • Big picture or details
      • In the beginning and the end of the lecture, the instructor often summarizes the major points and other points there wasn’t time to cover
  • 27. The lecture notes….
    • Taking notes may be the most crucial part of active listening during a lecture.
      • Notes trigger you memory
      • It makes you pay attention to new ideas
      • Will allow you to show your understanding by paraphrasing and condensing the notes
  • 28. Test taking strategies
    • Outline your notes to each disease
      • With info from lecture and book
    • Pathophysiology of disease/ system
    • Signs and symptoms (including labs)
      • Highlight special S&S
        • such as RLQ pain for appy
    • Nursing Diagnosis
    • Goals
    • Specific Implementation plans
    • Patient teaching
  • 29. Ideas on lecture notes
    • Shrthnd spds note tkng
      • Abbreviate common words
      • Leave out conjunctures and other words not essential for thought
      • Think before you write
      • Mark for emphasis
      • Vary handwriting to stay organized
      • Don’t write every word the lecture says...
    • After class organize you notes
      • Keep them personal
      • Copy all board work
      • Rewrite notes if illegible
      • Keep notes in loose leaf binder
      • Leave spaces to later ideas
      • Organize your notes after class
  • 30. The LISAN Method
    • L ead , don’t follow. Anticipate what the instructor is going to say.
    • I deas. What’s the main idea?
    • S ignal Words. Listen for words that tell you the direction the instructor is taking.
    • A ctively listen. Ask questions, be prepared.
    • N ote taking. Write down key points. Be selective.
  • 31. The study group
    • Set location and time
    • Have agenda
    • Everyone must follow the rules
      • Do their share
      • Be courteous
      • Attend regularly
    • Can be a great source of moral support
  • 32. It’s test time…
    • Before the test..
      • Get a good night sleep
      • Eat before the test
    • Create a study plan
      • Plan ahead; schedule study time . Don’t cram.
      • Assemble your sources. Review your material.
      • Make your own cheat/ summary sheet
      • Dress rehearse.
  • 33. At the test…
    • Take one last, leisurely look at your summary sheet
    • Be early
    • Have all your supplies
    • Let the instructions instruct
      • Mark important instructions
      • Skim the test for an overall sense and difficulty
    • Budget your time
      • Work quickly
      • If you can’t answer the question right away move to the next question
  • 34. The Objective Test
    • Types
      • Multiple choice
      • True/ false
      • Short- answer
      • Sentence - completion
      • Problem solving
    • Only one possible answer
    • Tests your ability to recall information.
  • 35.
    • Three parts of a question are
      • The background statement
        • Is a brief scenario that provided necessary information for answering the question
        • May provide a framework for the stem
      • A stem
        • Contains the specific problem or intent of the item
      • And a list of options
        • Are the possible answers to the questions
        • The corrected answered is a keyed response and the other options are distracters .
    The Test Question Test A. B. C.
  • 36. Types of questions
    • Knowledge
      • Recall or remembered information
    • Comprehension questions
      • Need to understand the information
    • Application Questions
      • Show, solve, use or manipulate information
    • Analysis
      • Interpret data, recognize commonalties, differences, interrelationships among presented ideas
  • 37. The Stem
    • Three forms of a stem in a question
      • Background statement
        • A young woman arrived to the hospital in early labor.
      • Stem in question form
        • Which of the following signs is the best indicator of early labor ?
      • Stem form in an incomplete statement
        • The best indicator that labor is progressing is...
  • 38. Answering the question...
    • Read the question before looking at the options.
    • Identify key words in the stem
      • All of the following behaviors are typical of a 3 year old except
        • The word except directs you to behaviors not typical
        • If you miss the word , you will select the wrong answer
    • Look for key words
      • First , primary, initial, early, ,most important, except
    • Haste makes waste and errors
  • 39. Test taking strategies
    • Prioritization
    • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
    • Biological
    • Safety
    • Belonging and love
    • Esteem needs
    • Self actualization
  • 40. Test taking strategies
    • If you have to guess think physiological needs first…
    • Think..
        • Airway
        • Breathing
        • Circulation
        • Disability
    • Safety second
    • Communication
    • Also do not forget the nursing process
  • 41. The options…
    • Attempt to answer the question without looking at the responses. Identify your response in the options.
    • Eliminate the obviously incorrect responses first; The select the best of the remaining options.
    • Do not change answers without good reason or sound rational.
  • 42. Next...
    • Identify the theme of the item and base it on the information given.
    • Don’t assume information that is not given.
    • A husband was admitted to the ER for Delirium tremors for the third time in 3 weeks, the wife asks you what can I do to to help my husband get over the problem?
    • a.Don’t feel guilty; I know this must be difficult for you
    • b.Let’s go in to the lounge; so we can talk about your concerns.
    • c.You need to convince him to seek professional help.
    • d. How long has you husband been drinking?
  • 43. Test taking strategies
    • The client has a red, raised skin rash. During the bath, the priority action of the nurse is to:
    • a. Assess for further inflammatory reactions
    • b. Discuss the body-image problems created by the presence of the rash
    • c. Wash the skin thoroughly with hot water and soap
    • d. Moisturize the skin to prevent drying.
  • 44. Test taking strategies
    • To promote respiratory function in the immobilized client, the nurse should:
    • Change the client’s position q4-8
    • Encourage deep breathing and coughing every hour
    • Use oxygen and nebulizer treatments regularly
    • Suction the client every hour
  • 45. Other tips…
    • Responses that use absolute words, such as “ always ” or “ never ” are less likely to be correct than “ usually ” or “ probable ”.
    • Funny responses are usually wrong.
    • “ All of the above ” is usually correct.
    • “ None of the above ” is usually incorrect.
    • Watch for double negatives .
    • Look for grammatical clues
      • If stem ends in an; the answer should start with a vowel
    • The longest response is often the correct one
    • Look for verb associations.
  • 46. Test taking strategies
    • To provide for the psychosocial needs of an immobilized client, an appropriate statement by the nurse is:
    • a. “The staff will limit your visitors so that you will not be bothered.”
    • b. “A roommate can be a real bother. You’d probably rather have a private room.”
    • c. “ Let’s discuss the routine to see if there are any changes we can make.”
    • d. “I think you should have your hair done and put on some make-up.”
  • 47. More tips…
    • If all else falls answer B or C.
    • Do not hesitate to ask for clarification during the exam.
    • Be sure that you have the appropriate bubbles filled correctly.
    • Take time to check your work before handing in the answer sheet.
  • 48. Other Objective Tests
    • True/ False Answers
    • Assesses recognition of material
    • If question only part true , than it’s false
    • Watch for key words
      • All, always, because
      • Generally, never
      • None, only, sometimes
      • usually
    • Short Answers
    • Break into 3 categories
      • Know w/o hesitation
      • Should be able to answer if you think about it
      • Have no idea
    • Answer the questions you know first than attack the rest
  • 49. Essay tests
    • Read directions first
    • Read all the questions even if you only have to answer two. Jot down ideas about each.
    • Mark the time you estimate to complete each question.
    • Outline you answer
    • Write the answer
    1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
  • 50. The Essay Question 5 Paragraph Format
    • 1 - Introduction, in which you briefly outline the direction your argument is taking
    • 2 - 1st point with at least 2 supporting facts
    • 3- 2nd point with 2 supporting facts
    • 4 - 3rd point with 2 supporting facts
    • Conclusion, which pulls together the 3 points into one final statement
  • 51. Reading Comprehension Tests
    • Read the instructions first
    • Read the questions next
    • Read the passage and answer the questions
    A. B. C.
  • 52. Open Book Tests
    • De-emphasize memorization and encourages critical thinking
    • Ideas for success
      • Use table of contents and index.
      • Don’t copy from the book.
      • Use as many sources as allowed.
      • Use you note summary sheet, put as much info as possible on it.
      • Check your answers.
  • 53. How can I avoid cramming?
    • It doesn’t work- the brain needs time to assimilate information
    • If you have to:
      • Outline the textbook
      • Read the objectives
        • Focus on chapter headings,summaries, highlighted words
        • First and last sentence of the paragraph
        • Read your notes, make flash card or summary sheet
        • Get at least 4 hour sleep
        • And review 1 hour before the test.
  • 54. How to overcome test anxiety
    • Be prepared.
    • Worry about what is real.
    • Arrive early and get organized.
    • Don’t talk about the test with your classmates.
    • Read over the test and plan your approach.
    • If a question is unclear, don.t hesitate to clarify.
    • Try to relax. Take slow deep breaths.
    • Pay attention to he test and not everyone else in the room.
    I can do this!!!
  • 55. Pulling it all together...
    • Learning process
    • Study strategies
    • Test taking strategies
    We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act but a habit . (Aristotle)