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Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
Genito Urinary System
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Genito Urinary System

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Genito Urinary System

Genito Urinary System

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  • Very nice presentation.If you can share the same thro mail will highly appreciate.
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  • It is a very nice PPT. I will be very happy if I can get a copy through my e-mail ashagremolla@yahoo.com
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  • 1. The Genito-Urinary System Medical Surgical Nursing Review
  • 2. Outline of review
    • Recall the anatomy and physiology of the Renal System
    • Renal Assessment
    • Renal Laboratory Procedure
    • Common Conditions:
      • UTI
      • Kidney Stones
      • ARF and CRF
  • 3. Outline of review
      • BPH
      • Prostatic cancer
  • 4. Kidney function HYPERKALEMIA Excretes excess POTASSIUM Metabolic ACIDOSIS Produces bicarbonate and secretes acids Calcium and Phosphate imbalances Metabolism of Vitamin D ANEMIA Secretes Erythropoietin to increase RBC Impaired urine production and azotemia The Nephron produces urine to eliminate waste
  • 5. Urological Assessment
    • Nursing History
      • Reason for seeking care
      • Current illness
      • Previous illness
      • Family History
      • Social History
      • Sexual history
  • 6. Urological Assessment
      • Key Signs and Symptoms of Urological Problems
      • EDEMA
        • associated with fluid retention
        • Renal dysfunctions usually produce ANASARCA
  • 7. Urological Assessment
      • Key Signs and Symptoms of Urological Problems
      • PAIN
        • Suprapubic pain= bladder
        • Colicky pain on the flank= kidney
  • 8. Urological Assessment
      • Key Signs and Symptoms of Urological Problems
      • HEMATURIA
        • Painless hematuria may indicate URINARY CANCER!
        • Early-stream hematuria= urethral lesion
        • Late-stream hematuria= bladder lesion
  • 9. Urological Assessment
      • Key Signs and Symptoms of Urological Problems
      • DYSURIA
        • Pain with urination= lower UTI
  • 10. Urological Assessment
      • Key Signs and Symptoms of Urological Problems
      • POLYURIA
        • More than 2 Liters urine per day
      • OLIGURIA
        • Less than 400 mL per day
      • ANURIA
        • Less than 50 mL per day
  • 11. Urological Assessment
      • Key Signs and Symptoms of Urological Problems
      • Urinary Urgency
      • Urinary retention
      • Urinary frequency
  • 12. Urological Assessment
      • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
      • Inspection
      • Auscultation
      • Percussion
      • Palpation
  • 13. Urological Assessment
      • Laboratory examination
      • Urinalysis
      • BUN and Creatinine levels of the serum
      • Serum electrolytes
  • 14. Urological Assessment
      • Laboratory examination
      • Radiographic
      • IVP
      • KUB x-ray
      • KUB ultrasound
      • CT and MRI
      • Cystography
  • 15. Implementation Steps for selected problems
    • Provide PAIN relief
    • Assess the level of pain
    • Administer medications usually narcotic ANALGESICS
  • 16. Implementation Steps for selected problems
    • Maintain Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
    • Encourage to consume at least 2 liters of fluid per day
    • In cases of ARF, limit fluid as directed
    • Weigh client daily to detect fluid retention
  • 17. Implementation Steps for selected problems
    • Ensure Adequate urinary elimination
    • Encourage to void at least every 2-3 hours
    • Promote measures to relieve urinary retention:
      • Alternating warm and cold compress
      • Bedpan
      • Open faucet
      • Provide privacy
      • Catheterization if indicated
  • 18. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • Bacterial invasion of the kidneys or bladder (CYSTITIS) usually caused by Escherichia coli
  • 19. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • Predisposing factors include
    • Poor hygiene
    • Irritation from bubble baths
    • Urinary reflux
    • Instrumentation
    • Residual urine, urinary stasis
  • 20. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • The invading organism ascends the urinary tract, irritating the mucosa and causing characteristic symptoms
      • Ureter= ureteritis
      • Bladder= cystitis
      • Urethra=Urethritis
      • Pelvis= Pyelonephritis
  • 21. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • Assessment findings
    • Low-grade fever
    • Abdominal pain
    • Enuresis
    • Pain/burning on urination
    • Urinary frequency
    • Hematuria
  • 22. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • Assessment findings: Upper UTI
    • Fever and CHIILS
    • Flank pain
    • Costovertebral angle tenderness
  • 23. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • Laboratory Examination
    • Urinalysis
    • Urine Culture
  • 24. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • Nursing interventions
    • Administer antibiotics as ordered
    • Provide warm baths and allow client to void in water to alleviate painful voiding.
    • Force fluids. Nurses may give 3 liters of fluid per day
    • Encourage measures to acidify urine (cranberry juice, acid-ash diet).
  • 25. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • Provide client teaching and discharge planning concerning
    • a. Avoidance of tub baths
    • b. Avoidance of bubble baths that might irritate urethra
    • c. Importance for girls to wipe perineum from front to back
    • d. Increase in foods/fluids that acidify urine.
  • 26. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
    • Pharmacology
    • 1. Sulfa drugs
      • Highly concentrated in the urine
      • Effective against E. coli!
    • 2. Quinolones
  • 27. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Presence of stones anywhere in the urinary tract
      • Calcium
      • oxalate
      • and uric acid
  • 28. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Pathophysiology
    • Predisposing factors
    • a. Diet: large amounts of calcium and oxalate
    • b. Increased uric acid levels
    • c. Sedentary life-style, immobility
    • d. Family history of gout or calculi
    • e. Hyperparathyroidism
  • 29. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Pathophysiology
    • Supersaturation of crystals due to stasis
    • Stone formation
    • May pass through the urinary tract
    • OBSTRUCTION, INFECTION and HYDRONEPHROSIS
  • 30. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Assessment findings
    • Abdominal or flank pain
    • Renal colic radiating to the groin
    • 3. Hematuria
    • 4. Cool, moist skin
    • 5. Nausea and vomiting
  • 31. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Diagnostic tests
    • 1. KUB Ultrasound and X-ray : pinpoints location, number, and size of stones
    • 2. IVP: identifies site of obstruction and presence of non-radiopaque stones
    • 3. Urinalysis : indicates presence of bacteria, increased protein, increased WBC and RBC (hematuria)
  • 32. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Medical management
    • 1. Surgery
    • a. Percutaneous nephrostomy: tube is inserted through skin and underlying tissues into renal pelvis to remove calculi.
    • b. Percutaneous nephrostolithotomy: delivers ultrasound waves through a probe placed on the calculus.
  • 33. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Medical management
    • 2. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy: delivers shock waves from outside the body to the stone, causing pulverization
    • Pain management : Morphine or Meperidine
    • Diet modification
  • 34. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Nursing interventions
    • 1. Strain all urine through gauze to detect stones and crush all clots.
    • 2. Force fluids (3000—4000 cc/day).
    • 3. Encourage ambulation to prevent stasis.
  • 35. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Nursing interventions
    • 4. Relieve pain by administration of analgesics as ordered and application of moist heat to flank area.
    • 5. Monitor intake and output
  • 36. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Nursing interventions
    • 6. Provide modified diet, depending upon stone consistency: Calcium, Oxalate and Uric acid stones
  • 37. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Nursing interventions
    • Calcium stones
    • limit milk/dairy products; provide acid-ash diet to acidify urine (cranberry or prune juice, meat, eggs, poultry, fish, grapes, and whole grains)
  • 38. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Nursing interventions
    • Oxalate stones
    • avoid excess intake of foods/ fluids high in oxalate (tea, chocolate, rhubarb, spinach); maintain alkaline-ash diet to alkalinize urine (milk; vegetables; fruits except prunes, cranberries, and plums)
  • 39. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Nursing interventions
    • Uric acid stones
    • reduce foods high in purine (liver, beans, kidneys, venison, shellfish, meat soups, gravies, legumes); maintain alkaline urine
  • 40. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • Nursing interventions
    • 7. Administer allopurinol (Zyloprim) as ordered, to decrease uric acid production
  • 41. Nephrolithiasis/Urolithiasis
    • 8. Provide client teaching and discharge planning concerning
    • Prevention of Urinary stasis by maintaining increased fluid intake especially in hot weather and during illness; mobility; voiding whenever the urge is felt and at least twice during the night
    • Adherence to prescribed diet
    • Need for routine urinalysis (at least every 3—4 months)
    • Need to recognize and report signs/ symptoms of recurrence (hematuria, flank pain).
  • 42. Acute renal failure
    • Sudden interruption of kidney function to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and remove toxic products from the body
  • 43. Acute renal failure
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • Pre-renal failure
    • Intra-renal failure
    • Post-renal failure
  • 44.  
  • 45. Acute renal failure
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • Prerenal CAUSE:
    • Factors interfering with perfusion and resulting in diminished blood flow and glomerular filtrate, ischemia, and oliguria; include CHF, cardiogenic shock, acute vasoconstriction, hemorrhage, burns, septicemia, hypotension, anaphylaxis
  • 46. Acute renal failure
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • Intrarenal CAUSE:
    • Conditions that cause damage to the nephrons; include acute tubular necrosis (ATN), endocarditis, diabetes mellitus, malignant hypertension, acute glomerulonephritis, tumors, blood transfusion reactions, hypercalcemia, nephrotoxins (certain antibiotics, x-ray dyes, pesticides, anesthetics)
  • 47. Acute renal failure
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • Postrenal CAUSE:
    • Mechanical obstruction anywhere from the tubules to the urethra; includes calculi, BPH, tumors, strictures, blood clots, trauma, and anatomic malformation
  • 48. Acute renal failure
    • Three phases of acute renal failure
    • Oliguric phase
    • Diuretic phase
    • Convalescence or recovery phase
  • 49. Acute renal failure
    • Four phases of acute renal failure (Brunner and Suddarth)
    • Initiation phase
    • Oliguric phase
    • Diuretic phase
    • Convalescence or recovery phase
  • 50. Acute renal failure
    • Assessment findings: The Three Phases of Acute Renal Failure
    • 1. Oliguric phase
    • Urine output less than 400 cc/24 hours
    • duration 1—2 weeks
    • Manifested by dilutional hyponatremia, hyperkalemia , hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia , hypermagnesemia, and metabolic acidosis
    • Diagnostic tests: BUN and creatinine elevated
  • 51. Acute renal failure
    • Assessment findings: The Three Phases of Acute Renal Failure
    • 2. Diuretic phase
    • Diuresis may occur (output 3—5 liters/day) due to partially regenerated tubule’s inability to concentrate urine
    • Duration: 2—3 weeks ; manifested by hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypovolemia
    • Diagnostic tests: BUN and creatinine slightly elevated
  • 52. Acute renal failure
    • Assessment findings: The Three Phases of Acute Renal Failure
    • 3. Recovery or convalescent phase:
    • Renal function stabilizes with gradual improvement over next 3—12 months
  • 53. Acute renal failure
    • Laboratory findings:
    • Urinalysis: Urine osmo and sodium
    • BUN and creatinine levels increased
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Anemia
    • ABG: metabolic acidosis
  • 54. Acute renal failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • Monitor fluid and Electrolyte Balance
    • Reduce metabolic rate
    • Promote pulmonary function
    • Prevent infection
    • Provide skin care
    • Provide emotional support
  • 55. Acute renal failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 1. Monitor and maintain fluid and electrolyte balance.
    • Measure l & O every hour. note excessive losses in diuretic phase
    • Administer IV fluids and electrolyte supplements as ordered.
    • Weigh daily and report gains.
    • Monitor lab values; assess/treat fluid and electrolyte and acid-base imbalances as needed
  • 56. Acute renal failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 2. Monitor alteration in fluid volume.
    • Monitor vital signs, PAP, PCWP, CVP as needed.
    • Weigh client daily.
    • Maintain strict I & O records.
  • 57. Acute renal failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 2. Assess every hour for hypervolemia
      • Maintain adequate ventilation.
      • Restrict FLUID intake
      • Administer diuretics and antihypertensives
  • 58. Acute renal failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 3. Promote optimal nutritional status.
    • Weigh daily.
    • Administer TPN as ordered.
    • With enteral feedings, check for residual and notify physician if residual volume increases.
    • Restrict protein intake to 1 g/kg/day
    • Restrict POTASSIUM intake
    • HIGH CARBOHYDRATE DIET, calcium supplements
  • 59. Acute renal failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 4. Prevent complications from impaired mobility (pulmonary embolism, skin breakdown, and atelectasis)
    • 5. Prevent fever/infection.
      • Assess for signs of infection.
      • Use strict aseptic technique for wound and catheter care.
  • 60. Acute renal failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 6. Support client/significant others and reduce/ relieve anxiety.
      • Explain pathophysiology and relationship to symptoms.
      • Explain all procedures and answer all questions in easy-to-understand terms
      • Refer to counseling services as needed
    • 7. Provide care for the client receiving dialysis
  • 61. Acute renal failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 8. Provide client teaching and discharge planning concerning
    • Adherence to prescribed dietary regimen
    • Signs and symptoms of recurrent renal disease
    • Importance of planned rest periods
    • Use of prescribed drugs only
    • Signs and symptoms of UTI or respiratory infection need to report to physician immediately
  • 62. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Gradual, Progressive irreversible destruction of the kidneys causing severe renal dysfunction.
    • The result is azotemia to UREMIA
  • 63. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Predisposing factors:
      • DM= worldwide leading cause
      • Recurrent infections
      • Exacerbations of nephritis
      • urinary tract obstruction
      • hypertension
  • 64. Chronic Renal Failure
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • As renal functions decline
    • Retention of end-products of metabolism
  • 65. Chronic Renal Failure
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • STAGE 1= reduced renal reserve, 40-75% loss of nephron function
    • STAGE 2= renal insufficiency, 75-90% loss of nephron function
    • STAGE 3= end-stage renal disease, more than 90% loss. DIALYSIS IS THE TREATMENT!
  • 66. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Assessment findings
    • 1. Nausea, vomiting; diarrhea or constipation; decreased urinary output
    • 2. Dyspnea
    • 3. Stomatitis
    • 4. Hypertension (later), lethargy, convulsions, memory impairment, pericardial friction rub
  • 67. Chronic Renal Failure loss of strength, foot drop, osteodystrophy Musculoskeletal Anemia Hema Uremic lungs Pulmo Acute MI, edema, hypertension, pericarditis CVS seizures, altered LOC, anorexia, fatigue CNS dry skin , pruritus, uremic frost Dermatologic
  • 68. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Diagnostic tests:
    • a. 24 hour creatinine clearance urinalysis
    • b. Protein, sodium, BUN, Crea and WBC elevated
    • c. Specific gravity, platelets, and calcium decreased
    • D. CBC= anemia
  • 69. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Medical management
    • 1. Diet restrictions
    • 2. Multivitamins
    • 3. Hematinics and erythropoietin
    • 4. Aluminum hydroxide gels
    • 5. Anti-hypertensive
    • 6. Anti-seizures
    • DIALYSIS
  • 70. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 1. Prevent neurological complications.
    • Assess every hour for signs of uremia (fatigue, loss of appetite, decreased urine output, apathy, confusion, elevated blood pressure, edema of face and feet, itchy skin, restlessness, seizures).
  • 71. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 1. Prevent neurological complications.
    • Assess for changes in mental functioning.
    • Orient confused client to time, place, date, and persons; institute safety measures to protect client from falling out of bed.
    • Monitor serum electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine as ordered
  • 72. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 2. Promote optimal GI function.
    • Assess/provide care for stomatitis
    • Monitor nausea, vomiting, anorexia
    • Administer antiemetics as ordered.
    • Assess for signs of Gl bleeding
  • 73. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 3. Monitor/prevent alteration in fluid and electrolyte balance
    • 4. Assess for hyperphosphatemia (paresthesias, muscle cramps, seizures, abnormal reflexes), and administer aluminum hydroxide gels (Amphojel) as ordered
  • 74. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 5. Promote maintenance of skin integrity.
    • Assess/provide care for pruritus.
    • Assess for uremic frost (urea crystallization on the skin) and bathe in plain water
  • 75. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 6. Monitor for bleeding complications, prevent injury to client.
    • Monitor Hgb, hct, platelets, RBC.
    • Hematest all secretions.
    • Administer hematinics as ordered.
    • Avoid lM injections
  • 76. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 7. Promote/maintain maximal cardiovascular function.
    • Monitor blood pressure and report significant changes.
    • Auscultate for pericardial friction rub.
    • Perform circulation checks routinely.
  • 77. Chronic Renal Failure
    • Nursing interventions
    • 7. Promote/maintain maximal cardiovascular function.
    • Administer diuretics as ordered and monitor output.
    • Modify drug doses
    • 8. Provide care for client receiving dialysis.
  • 78. DIALYSIS
    • a procedure that is used to remove fluid and uremic wastes from the body when the kidneys cannot function
  • 79. DIALYSIS
    • Two methods
    • 1. Hemodialysis
    • 2. Peritoneal dialysis
  • 80.  
  • 81.  
  • 82. DIALYSIS
    • Diffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Ultrafiltration
  • 83. DIALYSIS
    • Nursing management
    • Meet the patient's psychosocial needs
    • Remember to avoid any procedure on the arm with the fistula (HEMO)
      • Monitor WEIGHT, blood pressure and fistula site for bleeding
  • 84. DIALYSIS
    • Nursing management
    • 3. Monitor symptoms of uremia
    • 4. Detect complications like infection, bleeding (Hepatitis B/C and HIV infection in Hemodialysis)
    • 5. Warm the solution to increase diffusion of waste products (PERITONEAL)
    • 6. Manage discomfort and pain
  • 85. DIALYSIS
    • Nursing management
    • 7. To determine effectiveness, check serum creatinine, BUN and electrolytes
  • 86. Male reproductive disorders
    • BPH
    • Prostatic cancer
  • 87. Male reproductive disorders
    • DIGITAL RECTAL EXAMINATION- DRE
    • Recommended for men annually with age over 40 years
    • Screening test for cancer
    • Ask patient to BEAR DOWN
  • 88.  
  • 89. Male reproductive disorders
    • TESTICULAR EXAMINATION
    • Palpation of scrotum for nodules and masses or inflammation
    • BEGINS DURING ADOLESCENCE
  • 90. Male reproductive disorders
    • Prostate specific antigen (PSA)
    • Elevated in prostate cancer
    • Normal is 0.2 to 4 nanograms/mL
    • Cancer= over 4
  • 91. Male reproductive disorders
    • BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
    • Enlargement of the prostate that causes outflow obstruction
    • Common in men older than 50 years old
  • 92.  
  • 93. Male reproductive disorders
    • BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
    • Assessment findings
    • DRE: enlarged prostate gland that is rubbery, large and NON-tender
    • Increased frequency, urgency and hesitancy
    • Nocturia, DECREASE IN THE VOLUME AND FORCE OF URINE STREAM
  • 94. Male reproductive disorders
    • BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
    • Medical management
    • Immediate catheterization
    • Prostatectomy
    • TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION of the PROSTATE (TURP)
    • Pharmacology: alpha-blockers, alpha-reductase inhibitors. SAW palmetto
  • 95.  
  • 96.  
  • 97. BPH
    • NURSING INTERVENTION
    • Encourage fluids up to 2 liters per day
    • Insert catheter for urinary drainage
    • Administer medications – alpha adrenergic blockers and finasteride
    • Avoid anticholinergics
    • Prepare for surgery or TURP
    • Teach the patient perineal muscle exercises. Avoid valsalva until healing
  • 98. BPH
    • NURSING INTERVENTION: TURP
    • Maintain the three way bladder irrigation to prevent hemorrhage
    • Only initially the drainage is pink-tinged and never reddish
    • Administer anti-spasmodic to prevent bladder spasms
  • 99. Prostate Cancer
    • a slow growing malignancy of the prostate gland
    • Usually an adenocarcinoma
    • This usualy spread via blood stream to the vertebrae
  • 100.  
  • 101. Prostate Cancer
    • Predisposing factor
      • Age
  • 102. Prostate Cancer
    • Assessment Findings
    • DRE: hard, pea-sized nodules on the anterior rectum
    • Hematuria
    • Urinary obstruction
    • Pain on the perineum radiating to the leg
  • 103. Prostate Cancer
    • Diagnostic tests
    • Prostatic specific antigen (PSA)
    • Elevated SERUM ACID PHOSPHATASE indicates SPREAD or Metastasis
  • 104. Prostate Cancer
    • Medical and surgical management
    • Prostatectomy
    • TURP
    • Chemotherapy: hormonal therapy to slow the rate of tumor growth
    • Radiation therapy
  • 105. Prostate Cancer
    • Nursing Interventions
    • Prepare patient for chemotherapy
    • Prepare for surgery
  • 106. Prostate Cancer
    • Nursing Interventions: Post-prostatectomy
    • Maintain continuous bladder irrigation. Note that drainage is pink tinged w/in 24 hours
    • Monitor urine for the presence of blood clots and hemorrhage
    • Ambulate the patient as soon as urine begins to clear in color

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