Chapter 5: Struggle for Rights and Freedom 1. Revolt of Lankandula and Sulayman (1574) Cause: Lavezaris’ reversal of Legazpi’s policy Lavezaris no longer exempted the native rulers and their descendants from paying tribute. Lakandula and Sulayman decided to rise in arms because of the new policy. Lavezaris asked Fr. Geronimo Marin to persuade them not to carry out their plans and offered pardon for those who took arms. Lavezaris did this gesture to ask help from Filipinos in driving away Lim-Ah-Hong from the country 2. First Pampanga Revolt (1585) Cause: Abuses of Encomienderos The Pampangueno’s planned to massacre the Spaniards but failed when a native woma who was married to a Spanish soldier warned the Spanish authorities about it. The leaders were arrested and executed without any fair trial. 3. The Tondo Conspiracy (1587-88) Cause: Regain lost freedom The desire to regain the freedom they enjoy during the pre-colonial years planned to overthrow the Spanish rulers in the country. The revolt failed when Magat Salamat innocently revealed the plan to Antonio Surabao who in turn recounted it to his Spanish master Pedro Sarmiento. The leaders were executed brutally, some of them were exiled. 4. Magalat’s Revolt, Cagayan (1596) Cause: Tribute Magalat, one of the two brothers who instigated the revolt was kept together with his men. Upon his release he continued the revolt but later on murdered in his own house by assassins hired by the the Spaniards. 5. Revolt of the Igorots (1601) Cause: Refusal to accept new religion Spaniards try to proselytize the native but they were only able to gain political and military control over them. 6. Revolt of the Irrayas, Northern Isabela in the Cagayan Valley (1621) Cause: Oppression of Spanish officials The revolt was led by Gabriel Dayag and Felix Catubay. The revolt ended without a fight when the rebels heed the advice of Fr. Santo Tomas to surrender to the government. 7. The Revolt of Tamblot, Bohol (1621-22) Cause: Return to native religion Tamblot, a native babaylan reported the appearance of a diwata who promised the people a life of abundance, without the burden of paying the tribute to the government or the dues to the church. Around 2,000 Boholano’s followed him. The revolt was gaining success in the beginning but was defeated in the end. 8. Bankaw’s Revolt, Leyte (1622) Cause: Return to native religion Bankaw who was previously converted to Christianity led the people to return to their old religion. They were defeated by Spanish-Filipino forces. He perished in battle and his head was place on a stake as a public warning.
9. The Revolt of Ladia (1643) Cause: Spanish Oppression Ladia who claims to be a descendant of Rajah Matanda instigated the revolt. He was later on captured and sent to Manila to be executed.10. The Revolt of Dabao (1650’s) Dabao, a Manobo chieftain allowed himself to be baptized to the Catholic faith so he can freely move among fellow Christians. His trickery resulted to the killing of Spanish soldiers and officials.11. Sumuroy’s Revolt, Samar (1649-50) Cause: Forced labor Sumuroy resented Governor Diego Fajardo’s order, which involved the sending of men to Cavite shipyards. Sumuroy’s men won some victories early on, but were defeated by the Spanish forces in the end.12. Maniago’s Revolt, Pampanga (1660) Cause: Frequent recruitment of men to cut timber in the mountains and Bandala Don Francisco Maniago, a chief from the village of Mexico was the leader of this revolt in Pampanga. The Spaniard concluded an agreement with Maniago, which brought about peace in Pampanga.13. Andres Malong’s Revolt, Pangasinan (1660-61) Cause: Spanish oppression and the desire to replace the Spaniards as personal rulers of the people. Spurred by the Pampagueno rebellion, the natives of Pangasinan also rose in arms against the Spanish government in Lingayen on December 15, 1660. A faulty strategy in deploying his men led to their defeat.14. The Revolt of Gumapos (1661) Cause: Continue Andres Malong’s revolt Pedro Gumapos continued the revolt started by Malong in Ilocos. He and his men were defeated by the Spanish forces in an encounter.15. The Revolt of Almazan (1660’s) Cause: Personal ambition Pedro Almazan proclaimed himself as King of Ilocos. The rebels were gaining some headway at the start but the Spaniard eventually suppressed them.16. Tapar’s Revolt, Panay (1663) Cause: Found a new religion under native supervision The misdemeanor of Spanish friars alienated countless natives from the Catholic faith. Tapar claimed to have spoken with a demon. Tapar and his men were killed in a bloody fight against the Spaniards, along with native volunteer soldiers. Their corpses were impaled in stake.17. Dagohoy’s Revolt, Bohol (1744-1829) Cause: Refusal to give his brother a Christian burial Father Gaspar Morales denied Francisco Dagohoy’s brother a Christian burial because the latter died in a duel. The body was left decomposing. This humiliation made Dagohoy mad and incited the people of Bohol to revolt. Many people followed him and his community grew in number. His revolt lasted for 85 years lasting 20 Spanish Governor General.18. Silang’s Revolt (1762-63) Causes: His imprisonment, abusive government officials, heavy taxation.
Started by Diego Silang and was continued by his wife Gabriela when the former died from an assassin’s bullet. The revolt spread all throughout Ilocos.19. Palaris’ Revolt (1762-65) Causes: Tribute, Spain’s loss of prestige due to the British Occupation of Manila. Irregularities in the collection of tributes by Joaquin Gamboa, the alcalde mayor led to this revolt in Pangasinan led by Juan de la Cruz Palaris. The revolt was suppressed by Don Mariano Arza together with 3,000 loyal Ilocano soldiers. Palaris was publicly hanged.20. Basi Revolt (1807) The locals were compelled to buy wine from the government and prohibited them to drink their local sugarcane wine basi. The alcalde mayor together with a strong force of regular troops attacked them at San Ildefonso and quelled the revolt.21. Revolt in the Defense of the Spanish Constitution (1815) The abolition of the 1812 Spanish Constitution caused an explosion of violence in the country against the principales took place. Under the leadership of Simon Tomas, Ilocanos rose in arms in defense of the Spanish Constitution. The Ilocanos plundered the houses of rich Spaniards and pro-Spanish natives. They also looted the churches and killed some friars and officials. The Spanish government rushed infantry and cavalry forces to the rebellious towns of Ilocandia. The revolt ended on March 6, with the surviving leaders of the rebellion severely punished.22. Revolt of the Bayot Brothers (1822) Cause: Feeling of distrust between Peninsulares and the Creoles. Jealousy to the peninsulares by the insulares and creoles became intense in the early decades of the 19th century. Brothers Manuel, Jose, and Joaquin plotted to overthrow the government. The conspiracy however was discovered and the leaders were imprisoned.23. Religious Revolt of Hermano Pule ( 1840-41) Cause : Religious freedom He was not accepted on the ground that he was an indio. Religious orders are closed to indios. Founded Cofradia de San Jose as a response. His religious brotherhood was not recognized. He was captured and executed on November 4, 1841, where his body was chopped and paraded from Tayabas to Lucban.24. Muslim Wars (1578-1898) Causes : (1) the Spanish invasion of Mindanao and Sulu, (2) preservation of Islam, (3) the love of adventure arising from the spoils of war.25. The Rise of Filipino Nationalism Nationalism was said to have rooted from a strong feeling among populace that they belong to the same race. This was not present in the Philippines prior to 19th century. By perpetuating poverty and injustice among the lower classes of the society, the Spanish government unknowingly planted seeds of nationalism. The following are regarded as factors that gave rise to Filipino nationalism: o Spread of Liberalism
o Sentiment against the principales o Racial prejudice o Cultural Changes o Secularization controversy o Cavite Mutiny of 187226. Propaganda Movement The emergence of more Filipino illustrados gave birth to a unified nationalist movement, which is known as the propaganda movement. The aim of the propaganda movement was peaceful assimilation. They wanted the recognition of the Philippines from a colony to a province of Spain. Reforms sought by Propagandists o Equality of Filipinos and Spaniards before the law o Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes o Secularization of Philippine parishes and the expulsion of the friars o Human rights for Filipinos such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, etc. Well known Propagandists and their works o Marcelo H. del Pilar – Dasalan at Tocsohan o Graciano Lopez Jaena – Fray Botod o Jose Rizal – Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo o Juan Luna – Spoliarium o Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo – Virgenes Cristianas Expuesta at Populacho o Other Propagandist are Pedro Paterno, Antonio Luna, Pedro Laktaw, and Isabelo de los Reyes. La Solidaridad was established in Barcelona on December 31, 1888. A newspaper named after the group was also founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena. Marcelo H. del PIlar later on succeeded Jaena as editor of the La Solidaridad. Rizal for his part founded La Liga Filipina (The Philippine League). La Liga was to be a sort of mutual aid and self-help society, dispensing scholarship funds and legal aid, loaning capital and setting up cooperatives. The objectives of the La Liga are the following: o Unification of the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogenous body. o Protection in cases of want and necessity. o Defense against violence and injustice. o Encouragement of instruction, agriculture, and commerce. o Study and implementation of reforms. Alarmed with the situation, the Spanish officials arrested Rizal and had him deported in Dapitan27. The Katipunan Tired of waiting for reforms to happen by peaceful means, Bonifacio and his friends met secretly and formed the Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan,on July 7, 1892. The movement aims for the assimilation to separation and then independence of the country. Katipunan was a government in itself. The structure of the Katipunan is as follows: o Kataas-taasang Sangunian (Supreme Council) – Central or National government o Sanguniang Bayan (Provincial Council) – Provincial government o Sanguniang Balangay (Popular Council) – administers the town o Sanguniang Hukuman (Judicial Council) – holds judicial power Grade Membership of Katipunan
o Katipun (associate) – wore a black mask and has the password Anak ng Bayan o Kawal (soldier) – wore a green mask and has the password GOM-BUR-ZA o Bayani (patriot) wore red mask and has the password Rizal Deodato Arellani became the first president, and later on he was deposed by Bonifacio as Supremo (president). Gregoria de Jesus, Bonifacio’s wife was known as the Lakambini of Katipunan Emilio Jacinto, known as the brains of Katipunan wrote the Kartilla which serves as a primer to the members of the Katipunan. Bonifcaio for his part, wrote Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Duties to be Observed by the Sons of the Country), this was a Decalogue of the 10 commandments. Rizal did not agree to the Katipunan’s plans of an armed uprising since the people were not ready for it.28. The Revolution of 1896 The discovery of Katipunan led to the Cry of Pugadlawin or Cry of Balintawak which proclaimed their defiance to the Spanish government by tearing their cedulas personales, the symbol of the Filipino vassalage to Spain. Series of attacks from the Katipunan followed after the Cry of Pugadlawin. Governor General Ramon Blanco declared a state of war against Manila and seven other provinces who waged war against Spain namely: Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Tarlac, Pampanga, and Nueva Ecija. On September 12, thirteen were put to death at Plaza de Armas, near the Fort San Felipe in Cavite and are now remembered as “Los Trece Martires.” Meanwhile, Rizal was convicted of sedition, rebellion, and illicit association was executed by firing squad at Bagumbayan Field (now Luneta) on December 30, 1896. Such incidents involving detention, deportation, and execution only made the Filipinos more unrelenting to the Spanish government. The more they became determined to continue the struggle.29. Rivalry in the Katipunan In Cavite, there were two Katipunan councils- Magdalo Council, headed by Baldomero Aguinaldo (Emilio Aguinaldo’s cousin) and Magdiwang Council with Mariano Alvarez (uncle of Gregoria de Jesus, Bonifacio’s wife). A convention in Tejeros was called to unite the two factions. The election of new officers was presided by Bonifacio, Aguinaldo was elected as president even though he was absent as he was defending the Magdalo towns at that time. Bonifacio felt insulted when his election as Director of Interior was rejected and so he declared the election null and void. The group of Aguinaldo went after Bonifacio and his men. In the process, Andres and his brother Procopio was captured, while his other brother Ciriaco, was killed together with two other soldiers. Tragically, the Bonifacio brothers were given the penalty of death the next day. The charges were treason, conspiracy to assassinate President Aguinaldo, and bribery. The brothers were executed in Mt. Nagpatong in Maragondon.30. The Biak-na-Bato Republic On November 1, 1897 the revolutionary leaders met and adopted a constitution titled the Provisional Constitution of the Philippine Republic. It declared that the aim of the revolution was the separation of the Philippines from Spanish monarchy and the formation of an independent state. The constitution was based on the Cuban Constitution. Biak-na-Bato Republic was also inaugurated on the same day.
To end the struggle, Aguinaldo entered in an agreement with the Spanish government. This agreement was known as the Pact of Biak-na-Bato which resulted to the voluntary exile of Aguinaldo and his men to Hongkong. The pact consisted of three documents namely: Program, Act of Agreement, and the third discussing the question of indemnity. After the peace pact, neither side fully complied with the terms of the agreement. Sporadic uprisings ensued.31. The Spanish American War Spanish American broke out on April 25, 1898 and ended on August 12 of the same year. Factors that contributed to the United States decision to open hostilities against Spain: o The Cuban struggle for independence o Efforts of the Americans to extend influence overseas, and o The sinking of the U.S. warship Maine Manifest Destiny refers to the belief that the U.S. has the divinely ordained duty to help troubled countries. The conclusion of the Spanish-American war, which resulted to the victory of the Americans, paved the way to the end of the Spanish colonial rule and the rise of the United States as a global power.32. Filipino-American Collaboration American offered to support the Philippines in fighting the Spaniards. Upon their defeat from the Americans and Filipinos, Spain rejected the terms for an honorable surrender of the latter. When Dewey demanded the surrender of Manila on August 7, the Spanish Governor General honorably conceded.