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Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)
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Notes in Philippine History (Chapter 3)

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  • 1. Chapter 3: Pre-Colonial Philippines<br />1. Cultural Evolution of the Early Filipinos<br />
    • Historians believed that during the Pleistocene epoch, the first settlers of the Philippines came from the present-day islands of the Malay Archipelago.
    • 2. Paleolithic hunters may have followed the herds of wild animal across these land bridges to the Philippine Islands.
    • 3. Austro-Melanesian people who are distinctively small with dark skin and curly brown hair were believed by some western historians as the aborigines of the Philippines.
    • 4. The Mainland Origin Hypothesis by Peter Bellwood and K.C. Chang maintains that the early inhabitants originated from South China and Taiwan.
    • 5. The Island Origin Hypothesis by Wilhelm Solheim II on the other hand believes that the prehistoric people originated and dispersed from an island in Southeast Asia.
    • 6. Culture may be associated with manufactured materials, for these are products of human behavior.
    • 7. The Old Stone Age or Paleolithic Period is the ear of crude stone tools and weapons.
    • 8. Man principal way of adaptation to the environment was by hunting.
    • 9. Kinilaw was believed to be the earliest method of preparing fish for consumption where vinegar and lime juice enhances the taste of the fish.
    • 10. The New Stone Age or Neolithic Period was characterized by new types of stone tools.
    • 11. It is otherwise known as Agricultural Revolution where root crops like taro (gabi), yam (ubi) were among the important crops.
    • 12. Rice farming was also developed.
    • 13. The discovery of fire made a great impact in the lifestyle of people.
    • 14. People were able to grill and boil food, practice slash-and-burn (kaingin), and pottery and jar making through the process of kilning.
    • 15. Jars are also used as burial coffins as evidenced by the Manunggul jar of Palawan.
    • 16. Other jar and potteries include palayok, banga, and tapayan.
    • 17. Metal Age refers to the time in the development of human culture where tools and weapons were made of metal, which gradually replaced stone tools.
    • 18. The use of jewelry as an ancient art began in this period.
    • 19. Industries like metal working, pottery making, glassmaking, and tie-and-dye weaving.
    • 20. The Age of Contact is the period of trading relations with neighboring islands, mostly by Asian traders.
    • 21. The common sharing of culture like religion and writing was facilitated by intensive internal trade, principally between riverine and coastal communities.
    • 22. Some Malayan influences
    • 23. The barangay system.
    • 24. In language, words such as: kalan, pinggan, biyaya, tunay, aral and pagsamba.
    • 25. Some Hindu influences
    • 26. In religion, the term Bathala referring to the chief god.
    • 27. The belief that the universe is filled with good and bad spirits.
    • 28. The use sipol, a pointed iron instrument used in writing.
    • 29. The Laguna Copperplate Inscription.
    • 30. Oral and written literature such as bugtong, salawikain, and awit.
    • 31. Bigaykaya (dowry) and placing of fresh flower garland around the neck of a visitor.
    • 32. Superstitious belief.
    • 33. Industries like boat building, weaving of cotton clothes, and metalwork.
    • 34. Borrowed words from the Sanskrit language such as sandata, maharlika, saksi, tala and others.
    • 35. Some Chinese influences
    • 36. In language, particularly Tagalog, reveals a good number of loaned words like ate, katay, hukbo, pansit, sangla, lumpiya, and kuya.
    • 37. Use of umbrella, porcelain, gongs, lead, fans, and bakya.
    • 38. Wearing of white dress when mourning and hiring of professional mourners.
    • 39. Manufacture of gunpowder and blasting of firecrackers on New Year’s Eve.
    • 40. Mining methods and Metallurgy.
    • 41. Parental-arrangement (in marriage).
    • 42. Haggling between the merchant and buyer.
    • 43. Some Arab influences
    • 44. The sultanate political system.
    • 45. The religion of Islam.
    • 46. Five Pillars of Islam
    • 47. Shahada – the profession of faith
    • 48. Salat – the ritual prayer
    • 49. Zakat – the practice of giving alms
    • 50. Hajj – the pilgrimage to Mecca
    • 51. Sawm - fasting
    • 52. Arabic alphabet, Islamic holiday, and Arabic arts like singkil.
    • 53. Sarimanok, an indigenous bird motif.
    2. Traditional Filipino Communities<br />
    • Barangay is the unit of social organization with the broader political, economic, and religious features than the family.
    • 54. Sandugu or blood compact is a ritual which symbolizes unity and oneness among the people.
    • 55. Social Classes during the early Filipino communities:
    • 56. Datu – the ruler of the barangay
    • 57. Maharlika – the aristocracy
    • 58. Timawa – the common class
    • 59. Alipin – the dependent class classified into namamahay and sagigilid.
    • 60. The datu holds executive, judicial, legislative, administrative, and military power.
    • 61. One becomes a datu war exploits, possession of great wisdom, influence, and wealth.
    • 62. Tattooes are regarded as
    • 63. The ancient Filipinos practiced a form of spirit and nature worship. This is known as animism.
    • 64. Early Filipinos believed in other spirits called anitos or diwata who were either benevolent or malevolent.
    • 65. The people appeased them so that they would bring good fortune and heal the sick members of the society.
    • 66. This spirits are offered sacrifices in the form food, wine, pigs, and gold. 
    • 67. Native dwellers lived in houses made of wood and bamboo, roofed by nipa palm leaves are called bahay kubo.
    • 68. Pets like cat, dog and monkeys were kept for their beneficial effects.