1. Notes in Philippine Government and Constitution<br />ARTICLE IV<br />Citizenship is a term denoting membership of a citizen in a political society.<br />Citizen is person having the title of citizenship. He is a member of a democratic community who enjoys full civil and political rights.<br />Alien is a citizen of a country who is residing in or passing through another country.<br />General ways of acquiring citizenship<br />Voluntary method – naturalization, cessation, conquest or treaty.<br />Involuntary method – by birth, place of birth, or by blood relationship.<br />Citizenship by birth<br />Jus Soli or loci – citizenship is determined by the place of birth<br />Jus Sanguinis – citizenship is determined by blood relations<br /><ul><li>Naturalization - The act of formally adopting a foreigner into the political body of the state and giving him rights and privileges of citizenship.</li></ul>Kinds of citizen<br />Natural-born are those who do not need to perform any act to acquire his Philippine citizenship.<br />Naturalized are those who were origionally citizens of another country, but who, by an intervening act, have acquired new citizenship in a different country.<br />Expatriation refers to the voluntary loss or renunciation of citizenship.<br />Expatriate are those who voluntarily lost or renounced their citizenship.<br /><ul><li>Repatriation is the reacquisition of one's nationality by taking the necessary of oath of allegiance.
2. Dual allegiance refers the continued allegiance of naturalized nationals to their mother country even after acquiring Filipino citizenship.
3. Dual citizenship refers to the possession of two citizenships by an individual.
4. ARTICLE V
5. Suffrage refers to the right and obligation to vote of qualified citizens.
6. Scope of suffrage</li></ul>Election means by which people choose their officials for definite and fixed periods and to whom they entrust, for the time being as their representatives, the exercise of powers of government.<br />Plebiscite refers the vote of the people expressing their choice for or against a proposed law or enactment submitted to them. <br />Referendum pertains tothe submission of the a law or part thereof passed by the national or local legislative body to the voting citizens of a country for their ratification or approval.<br />Initiative is the process whereby the people directly propose and enact laws.<br /> Recall is method by which a public officer may be removed from office during his tenure or before the expiration of his term by a vote of the people after registration of a petition signed by a required percentage of voters <br />Qualifications of voters<br />A citizen of the Philippines;<br />Not otherwise disqualified by law;<br />At least 18 years of age; and<br />Have resided in the Philippines for at least 1 year and in the place wherein he proposes to vote for at least 6 months preceding the elections.<br /><ul><li>ARTICLE VI
7. Registered voter is one who has all the qualifications for a voter and none of the disqualifications provided by law and who has registered himself in the list of voters.
8. Residence refers to the place where one has his true permanent home and to which, whenever absent, he has the intention of returning.
9. Classification of the members of the House of Representative
10. 1. District Representative
11. 2. Party List Representative
12. 3. Sectoral Representative</li></ul>*Maximum seat that a Party List can occupy is 3<br />*For every 2% of the total Paty List votes 1 seat is entitled<br />Kind of election for members of Congress<br />Regular election – held on the second Monday of May<br />Special election – called in case a vacancy arises in the Senate or House of Representatives to fill such position vacancy in a manner prescribed by law<br />Sessions of the Congress<br />Regular Session refers to the Convening of Congress which starts on the fourth Monday of July.<br /><ul><li>Special Session takes place when the President calls Congress, during the time it is in recess, to session to consider such subject or legislation as he may designate.</li></ul>Quorum is such a number of membership of an assembly or collective body as is competent to transact its business.<br />Rules of procedure are the rules made by any legislative bofy to regulate the mode and manner of conducting its business.<br />Legislative journal is defined as the official record of what is done and passed in a legislative assembly.<br />Appropriation bill a proposal which primary and specific aim is to make appropriation of money from public treasury.<br />Appropriation is an authorization made by law or other legislative enactment, directing payment out of government funds under specified conditions and/or for specified purposes.<br />Budget is the financial program of the national government for a designated calendar year.<br />A bill is a draft of a law submitted to the consideration of a legislative body for its adoption.<br />Statute is the written will of the legislature as a n organized body expressed according to the form necessary to constitute it into a law of the state, and rendered authentic certain prescribed forms and solemnities.<br />Veto is the Latin term for “I forbid” or “deny.” It is the power vested in the President to disapprove acts passed by Congress.<br />Resolution is defined as a formal expression of opinion, will, or intent by an official body or assembled group.<br />