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zigbee technology

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  • 1. Semiconductors 1 A SEMINAR REPORT ON THE ZIGBEE TECHNOLOGY BY karthik nch
  • 2. Semiconductors 2 Why ZigBee? • Standard in a fragmented market – Many proprietary solutions, interoperability issues • Low Power consumption – Users expect battery to last months to years! • Low Cost • High density of nodes per network • Simple protocol, global implementation
  • 3. Semiconductors 3 Low Data Rate Radio Devices • TV • VCR • DVD • CD • Remote • Mouse • Keyboard • Joystick • Gamepad • Security • HVAC • Lighting • Closures • PETs • Gameboys • Educational • Monitors • Diagnostics • Sensors Industrial & Commercial Consumer Electronics Personal Healthcare • Monitors • Sensors • Automation • Control Toys & Games Home Automation PC Peripherals ZigBee -Target Markets
  • 4. Semiconductors 4 ZigBee - General Characteristics • Data rates of 250 kbps and 20 kbps • Star topology, peer to peer possible • 255 devices per network • CSMA-CA channel access • Optional Guaranteed Time Slot • Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability • Low power (battery life multi-month to years) • Dual PHY (2.4GHz and 868/915 MHz) • Range: 10m nominal (1-100m based on settings) • Location Aware:Yes, but optional
  • 5. Semiconductors 5 FREQUENCY BANDS AND DATA RATES
  • 6. Semiconductors 6 Silicon PHY Layer MAC Layer Network Layer ZigBee Stack Application Application Support (sub layer) Application Layer Customer ZigBeeAlliance IEEE ZigBee Alliance - IEEE - Customer Relationship
  • 7. Semiconductors 7 Virtual links Network Topology Network coordinator(FFD) Network node (FFD) Communications flow IEEE node (RFD)
  • 8. Semiconductors 8 Full function device Reduced function device Communications flow Master/slave PAN Coordinator IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Star Topology
  • 9. Semiconductors 9 Full function device Communications flow Point to point Cluster tree IEEE 802.15.4 MAC Overview Peer-Peer Topology
  • 10. Semiconductors 10 NETWORK MODEL
  • 11. Semiconductors 11 The Network Coordinator • Transmits network beacons • Sets up a network • Manages network nodes • Stores network node information • Routes messages between paired nodes • Receives constantly
  • 12. Semiconductors 12 The Network Node • Is generally battery powered • Searches for available networks • Transfers data from its application as necessary • Determines whether data is pending • Requests data from the network coordinator • Can sleep for extended periods
  • 13. Semiconductors 13 Supported Traffic Types • Periodic data – Application defined rate(e.g: sensors) • Intermittent – Basic communication(e.g: Light switch) • Repetitive low latency data – Allocation of guaranteed time slots (e.g: mouse)
  • 14. Semiconductors 14 FRAME STRUCTURE 4 to 20 bytes are used for address information, which can include both source and destination information. This leaves a maximum of 104 bytes of actual data.
  • 15. Semiconductors 15 SUPER FRAME STRUCTURE DIVIDED INTO 16 EQUAL SIZED SLOTS WITH BECON REQUESTS MAY ALLOCATE UPTO 7 SLOTS FOR GTS (Guaranteed time slots) APPLICATION Super frame structure allows GTS operation, its is initiated by coordinator
  • 16. Semiconductors 16 NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS
  • 17. Semiconductors 17 THE ZIGBEE ALLIANCE CompXs
  • 18. Semiconductors 18 ZigBee vs Bluetooth Competition or Complementary?
  • 19. Semiconductors 19 Bluetooth is Best For : • Ad-hoc networks between capable devices • Handsfree audio • Screen graphics, pictures… • File transfer But ZigBee is Better IF : • The Network is static • Lots of devices • Infrequently used • Small Data Packets
  • 20. Semiconductors 20 Air Interface: ZigBee DSSS 11 chips/ symbol 62.5 K symbols/s 4 Bits/ symbol Peak Information Rate ~128 Kbit/second Bluetooth FHSS 1 M Symbol / second Peak Information Rate ~720 Kbit/second
  • 21. Semiconductors 21 Silicon RF Baseband Link Controller Voice Link Manager Host Control Interface L2CAP Telephony Control Protocol Intercom Headset Cordless GroupCall RFCOMM (Serial Port) OBEX HOST MODULE Bluetooth Stack Applications vCard vCal vNote vMessage Dial-up Networking Fax Service Discovery Protocol User Interface Bluetooth Protocol Stack Size/Complexity
  • 22. Semiconductors 22 Bluetooth: • New slave enumeration = >3s • Sleeping slave changing to active = 3s typically • Active slave channel access time = 2ms typically ZigBee: • New slave enumeration = 30ms typically • Sleeping slave changing to active = 15ms typically • Active slave channel access time = 15ms typically Timing Considerations ZigBee protocol is optimized for timing critical applications
  • 23. Semiconductors 23 Power Considerations ZigBee • 2+ years from ‘normal’ batteries • Designed to optimize slave power requirements Bluetooth • Power model as a mobile phone (regular charging) • Designed to maximize ad- hoc functionality Application example of a light switch with respect to latency and power consumption …...
  • 24. Semiconductors 25 ZigBee - Bluetooth - PLC Comparison ZigBee Bluetooth PLC Cost (BOM) $5 $10 $15-$40 Power years hours N/A Data Rate 250Kbps 720Kbps 3/10 Mbps Complexity Low Medium High Density 255 + 7 20-250 Interop Yes Yes No Ease of Use Simple Moderate Restrictive Latency 15ms >3s <15ms Interference Low High High Security High High Low
  • 25. Semiconductors 26 Conclusion • ZigBee and Bluetooth are two solutions for two application areas
  • 26. Semiconductors 27