Wallachia folk costumes Bucharest eTwinning team
Formely crossed by commercial roads linking the Orient to the Westernworld and to the well known transhumance of the Transylvaniansheperds, who used to bring their flocks to the danube swamps in winter,Wallachia has always enjoyed a privileged status regarding inte-zonalcultural exchanges and access to the new material, sold in villages by”mărghidani” (travelling salesman). The gold and silver metal thread, thecolouredarici, silk., fluturi (spangles) and beads usedin the embroideryand the alesături of the costume pices have been contributing to theirupgrading and to the diversification of the colour scheme since the end ofthe 18th century. In the south of Wallachia- the Vlașca, Ilfov andTeleorman ethnographic areas - the traditional folk costume focuses onsame elements shwongeast-Balkan influence: the cut of the ”poturi”(men’s trousers with a very large seat),the use of black silk and coloured”găitane” to decorate the thick frieze, the use by women of the ”fes”, ofthe ”chemuleț” and the ”icușari” and ”mahmudele” gold coins for theceremonial adornment of the head.
The women’s folk costume of the northern Ilfov area havetaken over certain features from the Transylvanian costumes –ia with ciupag – due to the sheperds incursions into theDanubian moorland, as well as from the Wallachian costumeworn in the Arge; villages – the association of the ”fota creață”worn at the back, with ”zăvelcă” (skirt) with stripesand”alesături”. On the sleeves the blouse has a decoratiopatterned in straight rows of altiță.With the men’s costume, the basic pieces the ”mintean scurt”(short coat) made of a green woolen fabric which is”năvădită”, over which coloured ”găitane” (braids) and clothare applied to create an ample geometrical compositiondominated by spiral motifs.
The Vlașca’s women’ costume stands out in the Romaniantraditional attire both through its somptuous and preciousembroideries and through the ingenious coordination of itspars. The solemn character of the apparel is expressed bythe particular way of covering and adorning the head ofmarried women with the raw silk ”maramă” around it in asophisticated style. In Vlașca, teh marama has one corner-shaped end falling over the foreshead, while the other endhangs loosely over the bosom. On special occasionsyoung women of well-to-do families also used to covertheir forehead with a ”cordea cu icușari” or ”mahmudele”(ribbon with gold coins).
The particular feature of Teleorman costume is rendered by theuse of cotton fabric ”cu cinar” (stripped with thicker warpedthreads for the manufacturing of festive ”cămăși” (blouses)Their cut belongs to the Danube Plain costume type (gatheredaround the neck on a narrow collar impressive due to theirgenerous dimension and temperate decorations. Sometimes onlythe ”altiță” (stream of ornaments) is swen on the sleeves to allowfor a full view of the beautiful fabric ”cu cinar”. The ”boscele”(rectangualr aprons) worn in pairs are wowen in wool, with redstripped ”trup” (main part) and a richly decorated ”prag” (groupof horizontally place ornaments) adorned withvegetal, zoomorphic and anthropoporphous motifs. Throughtheir decorations, the ”boscele” personalize each woman, as eachof them creates another variant of decoration.
The hallmarks ofthe traditional women’s folk wear inthe Râmnicu Sărat area are, on the one hand, the lengthof the sleeve and its decorative design – narrow altiță,white încreț and râuri displayed satingly an, on theother hand, the use of an archaic embroidery point,called ”bătrânesc” (slinged) always made with cherry-coloured wool. The ”fota” stands out through the richdecoration of the ”căpătâi ”(front part) and of the ”batade pe poale” (the hem trimming) made with metalthread and polichrome wool.
The old costume of Argeș region is even today an apparel ofa remarkable beauty and decorative richness. The presenceof the silver or gilded metal thread, of spangles andbeadsalongsidethe polychrome woolen yarn and the whiteor cream-coloured silk thread, distinguished each piece ofclothing as an ornamental composition of its own. Thus, thefestive fota, decorated with a broad festoon all around, issometimes placed on the wall of the room, as an ornamentalpiece.The men s costume is simple, elegant, with similarities inthe costumes ofthe neighbouring sub-Carpathians areas.Worth=mentioning are theamplecut of the straightwide=sleeved shirts and the refinement of the embroiderymade in silk and golden threads with spangles.
Spectacular through th erichnes of its decorationand chromatics, the Prahova folk costume fits intothe folkwear worn in hilly regions, for womendefined by the fotă, and for men by the shirt withfustanella. Men s festive costumes worn by younglads of well-to-do families distinguishedthemselves by the gorgeous shirt, richly adornedwith floral embroideries, ennobled with spangles.
Typical of the Muscel married women s headwear is theassociation of a raw silk marama (headkerchief), of extremelenght, and adorned on its entire suface with a spectaculardecoration, wovenin white silk, red, yellow and blue cottonand silvery or golden thread, with a legătoare brodată(embroidery wide ribbon), placedon theforehead, to hide thehair and fasten the headkerkchief.Other elements distinguishedthe women s costumeofMuscelare:the vry long sleeves gathered around the cuff, thepredominant use of golden and silvery threads inembroideringthe blouses and skirts, as well as the accurategeormetry observed in the decorative motifs (rhombuses, X-es, spirals.