Innovation for Development-IEEE Webinar
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Innovation for Development-IEEE Webinar

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This presentation highlights the potential of innovation for development (Africa, India).

This presentation highlights the potential of innovation for development (Africa, India).

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  • 1. Innovation for Development Nicolas Chevrollier
  • 2. TNO • Knowledge for business • Independent of public and private interests • In depth knowledge on markets and TNO Quality TNO Defence, TNO Science technology of Life Security and and Industry TNO Built Environment TNO Informa- tion and Safety • 350Meuro turnover, 4300 and Geosciences Communicati on employees Technology • 5 core areas • TNO Quality of Life: Work and Employment, Chemistry, Prevention and Healthcare, Innovation Policy, Pharma, Food and Nutrition • TNO Defence, Security and Safety: Defence Industry, Aviation, Security and Safety, Maritime • TNO Science and Industry: Automotive, Sports, Care and Medical Systems, Process industry , Space and Science Instrumentation • TNO Built and Environment and Geosciences: Subsurface, Building and Construction, Environment, Oil and Gas, Traffic and Transport • and TNO ICT, One of the largest ICT knowledge centres in Europe (telecom, IT) 2
  • 3. Goals of the Webinar • Provide an helicopter view of innovation for development via an illustrative approach • Inspire you to innovate in emerging regions • Create an IEEE momentum on the topic 3
  • 4. Outline • Setting the scene • What is innovation? • Why is it relevant to emerging regions? • Guidelines • Innovation in products/services • Zoom-in: ICT sector • Innovation in market based approaches 4
  • 5. Outline • Setting the scene • What is innovation? • Why is it relevant to emerging regions? • Guidelines • Innovation in products/services • Zoom-in: ICT sector in Africa • Innovation in market based approached 5
  • 6. What is innovation? • The exploitation of new ideas • More than invention • Diffuse to the public/market and exploited in some way • Different types • product innovation • Process innovation • Marketing innovation • Organizational innovation • An innovation could be: • Incremental: adapted or modified • Radical/disruptive: completely new ideas 6
  • 7. Target group • Emerging regions • Base of the Pyramid Source: World Bank < $3000 source: http://www.wri.org 7
  • 8. Why innovation for development? (1) • «innovate or perish» • solutions to challenges of emerging regions • Innovation often comes from constraint Source: Ethan Zuckerman ,http://www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/ 8
  • 9. Challenges! 9
  • 10. Why innovation for development? (2) • Primary driver of business, financial and economic growth • Competitive advantage • Deliver high-quality jobs • Provide better products Social Impact Source: http://www.wri.org/publication/the-next-4-billion 10
  • 11. Solving health challenges • LifeStraw® • Portable water filter for prevention of common diarrhoeal disease • Can be carried around for easy access to safe and clean drinking water. 11
  • 12. Solving Energy challenges • Solar Cooker • Used in Nepal by refugees TNO developed a heat battery: conversion of thermal energy in electricity for lighting Source: http://www.dlightdesign.com/product_nova.html Source: http://www.envirofit.org/?q=our-products/clean-cookstoves 12
  • 13. Why innovation for development? (3) • Emerging regions are a fertile playing field for innovators/inventors • Top creativity http://makerfaireafrica.com/2009/08/27/video-maker-faire-africa- ghana-2009/ 13
  • 14. Holistic approach of innovation 14
  • 15. African Relational Western Rational Culture? Culture Culture Being Helped To Help Relatio Ratio Who What Community Individual Execute Execute Rights Responsibilities Character Credentials Member Actor History Future Relationships Goods Source: Gertjan van Stam, LinkNet, Zambia 15
  • 16. OLPC • Technical innovation is not enough • Pilots successful but no systematic evaluation. • The system/environment was not ready (non-technical) • teachers • No capacity of the partners to scale up the distribution • Fierce response from the PC industry Source: One Laptop Per Child: Vision vs. Reality, Kenneth L. Kraemer, Jason Dedrick, Prakul Sharma 16
  • 17. Co-creation • Active participation of all stakeholders (holistic approach) • Create awareness and ownership • Allow to understand the structure of the local community • Emulate peers learning 17
  • 18. Innovation for development: Guidelines • Don’t fight culture • Embrace market mechanisms • Innovate on existing platforms • Realize that problems aren’t obvious from afar • Understand that what you have is more important than what you lack • Build infrastructure on infrastructure Source: Ethan Zuckerman, http://www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/ • Be holistic • Co-create/ Co-design 18
  • 19. Outline • Setting the scene • What is innovation? • Why is it relevant to emerging regions? • Guidelines • Innovation in products/services • Zoom-in: ICT sector in Africa • Innovation in market based approached 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. ICT4D impact • e-health • Overcome the lack of medical expertise in rural areas • Help to register and access patient information • e-education • Give students in isolated areas access to education • Help teachers to improve and disseminate study materials • Improve learning methods • e-governance • Improve the information flow within and between governmental departments • Improve transparency towards civil society • Engage the civil society and give voice to these without • livelihoods/e-agriculture • Small entrepreneurs and farmers can get access to market price information and new markets, information on new production methods • Stimulate economic growth 21
  • 22. Challenges • Lack of reliable energy supply • Lack of wired infrastructures • Lack of well-trained service-personnel • Limitations to OPEX and CAPEX due to limited financial capabilities of target customers 22
  • 23. The literacy level of many people is very low or limits itself to the local language Rich Interfaces • other ways of communication than text • from text-based to sound and video based. 23 Adpated from Jenny de Boer, TNO
  • 24. Mobile only services Self-healing ICT • interfaces have to be Self-configurable ICT designed for small(er) screens • less information (text) The ICT literacy often doesn’t reach beyond the mobile phone 24 Adpated from Jenny de Boer, TNO
  • 25. Different culture(s) bring different meanings of identity, privacy, security and social structures that are used to deploy a product New Business Models • new ways of generating revenu based on the local social structure • share access /pre-paid Identity and Privacy • not everyone has his own mobile phone • identity detached from the physical device 25 Adpated from Jenny de Boer, TNO
  • 26. Power supply is not a given • how to charge a battery • server/network is down Online or Offline • not everyone is online always and everywhere • Intermittent services or systems supporting intermittence (store and forward mechanisms) 26 Adpated from Jenny de Boer, TNO
  • 27. Minimum effort, maximum effect Low-bandwidth • few degrees of freedom in designing the user interface Low-cost • Shift in using the latest technology Low-complexity available to making the most of proven technology Low-end phones and connectivity technologies are most common 27 Adpated from Jenny de Boer, TNO
  • 28. Ushahidi • Platform that crowdsources crisis information • Gather distributed data via SMS, email or web and visualize it on a map or timeline. • Free and open source project • http://www.ushahidi.com/ Source: http://www.ushahidi.com/ 28
  • 29. Source: http://www.ushahidi.com/ 29
  • 30. Source: http://www.ushahidi.com/ 30
  • 31. Microscopy and cell phones in Uganda 31
  • 32. Results – final design • Connects the phone to the microscope • Stabilizes the cell phone • Accurate positioning of the camera 32
  • 33. Outline • Setting the scene • What is innovation? • Why is it relevant to emerging regions? • Guidelines • Innovation in products/services • Zoom-in: ICT sector in Africa • Innovation in market based approaches 33
  • 34. National Innovation Government policy Regional Scaling up Enterprises Local business Community Innovations NGO’s + Proof of Concept Knowledge Inst. Level Partners Needs/ demands adapted from Mathilde Miedema, TNO 34
  • 35. Innovation in market based approaches • Profitable/Scalable • scale deep • scale wide • scale up • Example of Aravind Eye Care • Eliminate needless blindness • 2 million surgeries in 32 years • 2.7 million patiens screened per year • End-to-end, all inclusive business model 35
  • 36. 3As when serving the BoP • Affordability • Access • Availability Source: The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid by C.K. Prahalad 36
  • 37. Business models • The poor as customers • A pay-per-use approach • No frills service (e.g, telecommunication) • Paraskilling • Share channels • The poor as suppliers or producers • Contract production • Deep procurement • Demand-led training Source: http://www.mim.monitor.com/ 37
  • 38. Base of the Pyramid protocol • Business incubation process for multinational corporations (MNCs) • Based on a participatory philosophy to • Co-discover and co-create new business opportunities • Co-design and launch BoP businesses "The Base of the Pyramid Protocol:Toward Next Generation BoP Strategy”, Erik Simanis and Stuart Hart 38
  • 39. A structured approach to a non-structured challenge "The Base of the Pyramid Protocol:Toward Next Generation BoP Strategy”, Erik Simanis and Stuart Hart 39
  • 40. Take away! Solve major challenges Reach social and economic impact Empower people by innovating in emerging regions Be holistic Co-create Embrace market mechanisms 40
  • 41. Contact Nicolas Chevrollier TNO Information and Communication Technology Room BA 206 Brassersplein 2, 2612 CT Delft nicolas.chevrollier@tno.nl http://nl.linkedin.com/in/nchevrollier Twitter: nchevrollier 41